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‣ Epidemiology of Leisure, Transportation, Occupational, and Household Physical Activity: Prevalence and Associated Factors

FLORINDO, Alex Antonio; GUIMARAES, Vanessa Valente; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC Publicador: HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.67926%
Background: To estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with physical activity in leisure, transportation, occupational, and household settings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study aimed at investigating living and health conditions among the population of So Paulo, Brazil. Data on 1318 adults aged 18 to 65 years were used. To assess physical activity, the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied. Multivariate analysis was conducted using a hierarchical model. Results: The greatest prevalence of insufficient activity related to transportation (91.7%), followed by leisure (77.5%), occupational (68.9%), and household settings (56.7%). The variables associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in leisure were female sex, older age, low education level, nonwhite skin color, smoking, and self-reported poor health; in occupational settings were female sex, white skin color, high education level, self-reported poor health, nonsmoking, and obesity; in transportation settings were female sex; and in household settings, with male sex, separated, or widowed status and high education level. Conclusion: Physical activity in transportation and leisure settings should be encouraged. This study will serve as a reference point in monitoring different types of physical activities and implementing public physical activity policies in developing countries.

‣ Identification of nurses` competencies in primary health care through a Delphi study in southern Brazil

WITT, Regina Rigatto; ALMEIDA, Maria Cecilia Puntel de
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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78.29324%
Objective: This investigation aimed to identify and analyze the general and specific competencies of nurses in the primary health care practice of Brazil. Design: The Delphi Technique was used as the method of study. Sample: 2 groups of participants were selected: One contained primary health care nurses (n=52) and the other specialists (n=57), including public health nurses and public or community health faculty. Measurements: 3 questionnaires were developed for the study. The first asked participants to indicate general and specific competencies, which were compiled into a list for each group. A Likert scale of 1-5 was added to these 2 lists in the second and third questionnaires. A consensus criterion of 75% for score 4 or 5 was adopted. Results: In the nurses` group, 17 general and 8 specific competencies reached the consensus criterion; 19 general and 9 specific competencies reached the criterion in the specialists` group. These competencies were classified into 10 domains: professional values, communication, teamwork, management, community-oriented, health promotion, problem solving, health care, and education and basic public health sciences. Conclusions: These competencies reflect Brazilian health policy and constitute a reference for health professional practice and education.

‣ Friere`s Dialogic Concept Enables Family Health Program Teams to Incorporate Health Promotion

HEIDEMANN, Ivonete T. S. B.; ALMEIDA, Maria C. P.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective The study analyzes the possibility of incorporating health promotion measures into the work processes of Family Health Program teams at a primary health care clinic in Brazil. Design and Sample We used the participatory research concept developed in 1968 by Freire. The study sample comprised the end-users of the health care system, together with 3 multidisciplinary teams. A total of 77 health care users and 55 health professionals participated in the study. Measures Culture circles composed of health care professionals, and users from different areas investigated generative topics, encoded/decoded topics, and engaged in critical probing for clarification. Topics affecting quality of life and health were heuristically evaluated. Results Although most topics were related to changing the focus of health care facilities, some were related to subsidizing community-based interventions, improving environmental strategies, individual skills, and public policies. Incorporating the novel health promotion measures and creating an expanded full-treatment clinic are important steps toward that goal. Conclusions Topics that can stimulate dialogue among the members of the culture circles include creating an environment of closer cultural contact...

‣ Exposure to contaminated water: perceptions and practices in a neighborhood in the city of Manaus, Brazil

GIATTI, Leandro Luiz; NEVES, Natasha Lima da Silva; SARAIVA, Giselle Nayara de Moraes; TOLEDO, Renata Ferraz de
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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68.419375%
Objective. To investigate the modes of water supply and the perception concerning the problems caused by this water among residents of a neighborhood without public supply of water, settled in an area previously used as a garbage dump in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Methods. One hundred and sixty-two semi-structured household interviews were conducted. In addition, a focal group with teachers from a local public school and a meeting with residents were held. The instruments employed focused on the perception and modes of water use and on the process of exposure to chemical contaminants through water. Results. Untreated well water was used by most families. This water was considered to be ""good"" by 64.8% of the individuals interviewed. Most residents (88.3%) declared knowledge about the garbage dump. Of these, 77.6% stated that the garbage dump caused health and environmental problems. However, qualitative analysis of the responses revealed that the residents were not aware of contamination by chemical elements or of the consequences of such contamination. The activities carried out with teachers revealed that they were partially aware of the problem, but did not design interventions to address the issue. In a meeting with neighborhood residents...

‣ Concepts and determination of reference values for human biomonitoring of environmental contaminants

KUNO, Rubia; ROQUETTI, Maria Helena; GOUVEIA, Nelson
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.240156%
Human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental contaminants plays an important role in estimating exposure and evaluating risk, and thus it has been increasingly applied in the environmental field. The results of HBM must be compared with reference values ( RV). The term ""reference values"" has always been related to the interpretation of clinical laboratory tests. For physicians, RV indicate ""normal values"" or ""limits of normal""; in turn, toxicologists prefer the terms ""background values"" or ""baseline values"" to refer to the presence of contaminants in biological fluids. This discrepancy leads to the discussion concerning which should be the population selected to determine RV. Whereas clinical chemistry employs an altered health state as the main exclusion criterion to select a reference population ( that is, a ""healthy"" population would be selected), in environmental toxicology the exclusion criterion is the abnormal exposure to xenobiotics. Therefore, the choice of population to determine RV is based on the very purpose of the RV to be determined. The present paper discusses the concepts and methodology used to determine RV for biomarkers of chemical environmental contaminants.

‣ Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health among women in an ancient mining area in Brazil

MIRANDA, Angelica Espinosa; MERCON-DE-VARGAS, Paulo Roberto; CORBETT, Carlos E. P.; CORBETT, Julieta Franca; DIETZE, Reynaldo
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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77.85703%
The purpose of this study was to describe the reproductive profile and frequency of genital infections among women living in the Serra Pelada, a former mining village in the Para state, Brazil. A descriptive study of women living in the mining area of Serra Pelada was performed in 2004 through interviews that gathered demographics and clinical data, and assessed risk behaviors of 209 randomly-selected women. Blood samples were collected for rapid assay for HIV; specimens were taken for Pap smears and Gram stains. Standard descriptive statistical analyses were performed and prevalence was calculated to reflect the relative frequency of each disease. Of the 209 participants, the median age was 38 years, with almost 70% having less than four years of education and 77% having no income or under 1.9 times the minimum wage of Brazil. About 30% did not have access to health care services during the preceding year. Risk behaviors included: alcohol abuse, 24.4%; illicit drug abuse, 4.3%; being a sex worker, 15.8%; and domestic violence, 17.7%. Abnormal Pap smear was found in 8.6%. Prevalence rates of infection were: HIV, 1.9%; trichomoniasis, 2.9%; bacterial vaginosis, 18.7%; candidiasis, 5.7%; Chlamydial-related cytological changes, 3.3%; and HPV-related cytological changes...

‣ Analyses of cataract surgery performed by the Unified Health System in Brazil, 2006-2007

CALIGARIS, Ligia Santos Abreu; MEDINA, Norma Helen; LANSINGH, Van C.; WALDMAN, Eliseu Alves; YAACOV-PENA, Fernando
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.040107%
Objective. Estimate cataract surgical rates (CSR) for Brazil and each federal unit in 2006 and 2007 based on the number of surgeries performed by the Unified Health System to help plan a comprehensive ophthalmology network in order to eliminate cataract blindness in compliance with the target set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 3 000 cataract surgeries per million inhabitants per year. Methods. This descriptive study calculates CSR by using the number of cataract surgeries carried out by the Brazilian Unified Health System for each federal unit and estimates the need for cataract surgery in Brazil for 2006-2007, with official population data provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The number of cataract surgeries was compared with the WHO target. Results. To reach the WHO goal for eliminating age-related cataract blindness in Brazil, 560 312 cataract surgeries in 2006 and 568 006 surgeries in 2007 needed to be done. In 2006, 179 121 cataract surgeries were done by the Unified Health System, corresponding to a CSR of 959 per million population; in 2007, 223 317 were performed, with a CSR of 1 179. With the Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology estimation of 165 000 surgeries each year by the non-public services...

‣ Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area

CARVALHO, Wladithe Organ de; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; CARANDINA, Luana; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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78.08079%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes. Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions. Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of Sao Paulo (in 1990...

‣ Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

BARROS, Fernando C.; MATIJASEVICH, Alicia; REQUEJO, Jennifer Harris; GIUGLIANI, Elsa; MARANHAO, Ana Goretti; MONTEIRO, Carlos A.; BARROS, Aluisio J. D.; BUSTREO, Flavia; MERIALDI, Mario; VICTORA, Cesar G.
Fonte: AMER PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOC INC Publicador: AMER PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOC INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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78.11552%
We analyzed Brazil`s efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that pro-active measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil`s successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. (Am J Public Health. 2010;100:1877-1889. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.196816)

‣ Barriers to interventions aimed at promoting the health of health care workers in Brazil

REINHARDT, Erica Lui; FISCHER, Frida Marina
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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88.54607%
Objective. To search the literature for circumstances that impede injury and disease prevention and other activities intended to improve the health of the health care worker. Methods. The SciELO database was searched for articles published in 1967-2008. This was supplemented by a PubMed search for the period 1950-2008. The following key words were used to identify articles in English, Portuguese, and Spanish: work, health personnel, occupational, risks, diseases, ergonomics, work ability, quality of life, organization, accidents, work conditions, intervention, and administration. Articles on injury and disease prevention and occupational health in a health care setting in Latin America were selected, along with articles focused on health promotion in the health sector. Results. The following shortcomings were identified: activities lacked a sound theoretical foundation and were not integrated with the health services management; a failure to evaluate the effectiveness of the activity; health surveillance focused solely on a specific disease or injury; management not committed to the proposed activity; miscommunication; inability of workers to participate, or control the work environment; and, programs or efforts that were limited to changing the workers` behaviors. Conclusions. The literature shows that all the barriers identified by this study affect both the health care workers` health as well as their productivity.

‣ Scientific output trends in oral health in Brazil

DIAS, Aldo Angelim; NARVAI, Paulo Capel; REGO, Delane Maria
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective. To describe dental research trends in Brazil (especially population-based oral health) in the early Twenty-first Century. Methods. The abstracts of studies presented at meetings of the Brazilian Society for Dental Medicine Research (Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontologica) from 2001-2006 were assessed in terms of methodological design (aggregate or population-based and individual-based studies, observational and intervention studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies); general type (literature review, studies with human subjects, and laboratory studies); and classification into one of the 19 specialty categories recognized by the Brazilian Federal Dentistry Council. Of the 10 406 abstracts presented in this period, 5 203 (50%) were reviewed. Results. Concerning methodological design, 87.5% of the abstracts referred to individual-based studies, whereas 12.5% were of aggregate studies. Concerning the general category, 41.7% referred to studies with human subjects. The remaining abstracts (58.3%) described in vitro (31.1%) or in vivo (23.6%) laboratory research and literature reviews (3.6%). Concerning the Council`s specialty categories, only five had a frequency higher than 10.0%: esthetic dentistry, periodontics...

‣ Electrophysiological evidence for impairment of contrast sensitivity in mercury vapor occupational intoxication

COSTA, Marcelo Fernandes; TOMAZ, Sandra; SOUZA, John Manuel de; SILVEIRA, Luiz Carlos de Lima; VENTURA, Dora Fix
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Contrast sensitivity (CS) was evaluated in 41 former workers from a lamp manufacturing plant who were on disability retirement due to exposure to mercury and 14 age-matched controls. The CS was measured monocularly using the sweep visual evoked potential (sVEP) paradigm at 6 spatial frequencies (0.2, 0.8, 2.0, 4.0, 15.0, and 30 cpd). Statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found between the controls and the patient right and left eyes for 2.0 and 4.0 cpd. According the results in those spatial frequencies the eyes were classified in best and worst. Statistical differences were found between the controls and the best eyes for 2.0 and 4.0 cpd and for 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0 cpd for their worst eyes. No correlation was found between CS results and the time of exposure (mean 8.9 yr +/- 4.1), time away from the mercury source (mean = 6.0 yr +/- 3.9), urinary mercury level at the time of work (mean = 40.6 mu g/g +/-36.3) or with the mercury level at the CS measurement time (mean = 1.6 mu g/g +/-1.1). We show the first evidence of a permanent impairment in CS measured objectively with the sVEP. Our data complement the previous psychophysical works reporting a diffuse impairment in the CS function showing a CS reduction in the low to middle spatial frequencies. In conclusion...

‣ The Brazilian National Health Agency and the Mental Health Policy in the Context of the Private Health System: developments and challenges

Salvatori, Rachel Torres; Arena Ventura, Carla A.
Fonte: UNIV SAO PAULO, FAC SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO Publicador: UNIV SAO PAULO, FAC SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.420464%
This work analyses the mental health policy-making activity of the Brazilian National Health Agency (ANS), responsible for controlling health insurance companies. Three points are discussed: a) the framework of an economic and private health assistance regulatory activity, b) the ANS and its regulation activity and c) the rules produced by ANS in the mental health care field. It was concluded that, despite advances like the legal obligation to ensure medical treatment to all the diseases listed in ICD-10, the inclusion of suicidal patient damage and self-inflicted damage care, care provided by a multiprofessional team, the increase in the number of sessions with a psychologist, with an occupational therapist and of psychotherapy sessions, and mental health day hospitals included as part of the services offered, the authors identified specific regulatory gaps in this area. Some issues that ANS has to solve so that it can really play its institutional role of defending the public interest in the private health system are: the regulation of co-participation and franchise mechanisms, the increasing co-participation as a limitation of psychiatric hospitalization, and the limited number of crisis intervention psychotherapy sessions.

‣ Study of postures in sugarcane cutters in the Pontal of Paranapanema-SP, Brazil

Messias, Iracimara de Anchieta; Okuno, Emico
Fonte: IOS PRESS; AMSTERDAM Publicador: IOS PRESS; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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68.31142%
The expansion of sugarcane monoculture in Brazil in the last decades has pointed out to the necessity of considering the question of sugarcane cutters occupational health. In this work we present a cross-sectional study aiming to examine the occupational posture of a group of sugarcane cutters, which work in a cane field located in the region of Pontal do Paranapanema-SP, Brazil. The study was made using the Ergonomic Analysis of Work - EAW methodology and the postural analysis method by Win-OWAS. Through the obtained records of postures, it was observed that during a workday the sugarcane cutters remain standing erect on two legs or in one leg 66% of the time and that their trunk remain tilted and in rotation, according to 63% of the positions categorized. It was also observed that the sugarcane cutter trunk performs repetitive and boundless movements during his routine of work, which can expose this individual to additional wear of their musculoskeletal functions. The activities in which the individual engages have favorable or adverse influence on his posture. The repetitive movements involved in specialized occupations are equivalent to repeated exercises, thus may be responsible for the excessive development of certain muscle groups. The study suggests that the postures adopted by sugarcane cutters can overload their musculoskeletal system and predispose the cutters to work-related musculoskeletal diseases.

‣ Occupational Health, Mercury Exposure, and Environmental Justice: Learning From Experiences in Tanzania

Spiegel, Samuel J.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 Português
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Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues.

‣ Environmental Occupational Health Protection Laws

Ashford, Nicholas; Caldart, Charles
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.087812%
The manufacturing, processing, and use of chemicals and materials in industrial, workplaces are often accompanied by environmental, health, and safety hazards and risks. Occupational and environmental factors cause or exacerbate major diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, and nervous system and cause systemic poisoning and some cancers and birth defects. Occupational and environmental disease and injury place heavy economic and social burdens on workers, employers, citizens, and taxpayers. Government intervention to address those issues largely takes the form of regulatory standards promulgated under the authority of federal legislation. This chapter addresses the major regulatory systems (or “regimes”) designed to protect public and worker health from chemicals discharged from sources that pollute the air, water, ground, and/or workplace in the United States. The European Union and other developed countries use similar approaches.

‣ Stress at Work among Electric Utility Workers

MARTINEZ, Maria Carmen; FISCHER, Frida Marina
Fonte: NATL INST OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH, JAPAN Publicador: NATL INST OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH, JAPAN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.604663%
In the last decades there was an increase in stress at work and its effects on workers' health. These issues are still little studied in the electric utility sector. This study aims to evaluate factors associated with stress at work and to verify its associations with health status among workers of an electric company in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 474 subjects (87.5% of the eligible workers). Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. A descriptive analysis, a multiple linear hierarchical regression analysis and a correlation analysis were performed. The majority of participants were males (91.1%) and the mean age was 37.5 yr. The mean score of stress level was 2.3 points (scale ranging from 1.0 to 5.0). Hierarchical multiple analyses showed that: regular practice of physical activities (p=0.025) and individual monthly income (p=0.002) were inversely associated with stress level; BMI was marginally associated with the stress level (p=0.074). The demographic characteristics were not associated with stress. Stress at work was significantly associated with physical and mental health status (p<0.001). To improve health of electric utility workers, actions are suggested to decrease stress by remuneration and an appropriate practice of physical activity aiming reduction of BMI.; CNPq[307919/2006-4]

‣ The Environmental Theme in Representations and Practices of Family Health Professionals in the Municipality of Manaus - State of Amazonas/Brazil

Mendonca, Raimunda das Chagas; Giatti, Leandro Luiz; de Toledo, Renata Ferraz
Fonte: UNIV SAO PAULO, FAC SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO Publicador: UNIV SAO PAULO, FAC SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.621313%
There are abundant scientific evidences showing that the increased risk of exposure to diseases is a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes. In the Family Health Strategy, tasks with a clear environmental focus are prescribed, indicating to the professional teams that they should consider these aspects in their health practices. The objective of this research was to study representations and practices of Family Health Professionals of Manaus - State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil - about environmental issues and their interface with public health. Data were collected by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, and the qualitative analysis was carried out through Content Analysis and Methodological Triangulation. The results showed that most professionals do not understand the environment in a systemic way, even though they recognize the great impact that environmental factors have on human health; as interventions, the educational practices follow traditional methodologies and focus on blaming the individual and on the simple transmission of knowledge; the professionals' relationship with the community is limited to personal and/or collective care. It is concluded that in order to the Family Health Strategy to contribute to restructure the system...

‣ Work of gravediggers and health

Pinheiro, Fernando; Fischer, Frida Marina; Cobianchi, Claudio Jose
Fonte: IOS PRESS; AMSTERDAM Publicador: IOS PRESS; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.38372%
Gravediggers have death as object of their work. Their activities are painful, physically and mental demanding, as well as unhealthy. Literature is scarce about this theme. The aim of this study is to evaluate gravediggers' work activities and health consequences. The methodological frame which guided this study was Dejours' psychic suffering and its association with the psychodynamic aspects of work. Data collection took place in April-May 2011 in one public and one private cemetery of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Four male workers, aged between 45 to 60 years old were interviewed. Their work activities were observed during a workday. Participants reported their life dreams, defense mechanisms and frustration. The discourse of gravediggers showed serious problems associated to physical and mental demands, public invisibility and/or social devaluation of work. The most important physical symptom was body pain. In spite this is a preliminary study, it was possible to raise a number of work stressors and health outcomes of gravediggers, an " invisible" worker of our society.

‣ Globalization and occupational health: a perspective from southern Africa

Loewenson,Rene
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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Increased world trade has generally benefited industrialized or strong economies and marginalized those that are weak. This paper examines the impact of globalization on employment trends and occupational health, drawing on examples from southern Africa. While the share of world trade to the world's poorest countries has decreased, workers in these countries increasingly find themselves in insecure, poor-quality jobs, sometimes involving technologies which are obsolete or banned in industrialized countries. The occupational illness which results is generally less visible and not adequately recognized as a problem in low-income countries. Those outside the workplace can also be affected through, for example, work-related environmental pollution and poor living conditions. In order to reduce the adverse effects of global trade reforms on occupational health, stronger social protection measures must be built into production and trade activities, including improved recognition, prevention, and management of work-related ill-health. Furthermore, the success of production and trade systems should be judged on how well they satisfy both economic growth and population health.