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‣ An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2015 Português
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47.53657%
The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

‣ A Health Impact Assessment of Proposed Public Transit Service Cuts and Fare Increases in Boston, Massachusetts

James, Peter; Ito, Katherine; Buonocore, Jonathan James; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Arcaya, Mariana C
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.419497%
Transportation decisions have health consequences that are often not incorporated into policy-making processes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a process that can be used to evaluate health effects of transportation policy. We present a rapid HIA evaluating health and economic effects of proposed fare increases and service cuts to Boston, Massachusetts’ public transit system. We used transportation modeling in concert with tools allowing for quantification and monetization of multiple pathways. We estimated health and economic costs of proposed transit system changes to be hundreds of millions of dollars per year, exceeding the budget gap the transit authority was required to close. Significant health pathways included crashes, air pollution, and physical activity. The HIA enabled stakeholders to advocate for more modest fare increases and service cuts, which were eventually adopted. This HIA was among the first to quantify and monetize multiple pathways linking transportation decisions with health and economic outcomes, using approaches that could be applied in different settings. Including health costs in transportation decisions can lead to policy choices with both economic and public health benefits.

‣ Analyzing the Impacts of Transit Investments, Examining Change in Two Toronto Transit Neighbourhoods

Graham, Kaitlyn
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Português
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47.4917%
Major investments in public transit infrastructure have the potential to significantly impact development in the areas surrounding transit stations. In theory, these impacts include higher land values for properties located in close proximity to transit stations as a reflection of the high value placed on access to public transit by both people and firms. The empirical evidence, in this regard, tends to be inconclusive. This report addresses the following research question: How does the opening of a new transit node affect development in its neighbourhood?

‣ Impacts of Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion and Emissions from Urban Transportation : The Case of São Paulo, Brazil

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This study examines impacts on net social benefits or economic welfare of alternative policy instruments for reducing traffic congestion and atmospheric emissions in São Paulo, Brazil. The study shows that expanding road networks, subsidizing public transit, and improving automobile fuel economy may not be as effective as suggested by economic theories because these policies could cause significant rebound effects. Although pricing instruments such as congestion tolls and fuel taxes would certainly reduce congestion and emissions, the optimal level of these instruments would steeply increase the monetary cost of travel per trip and are therefore politically difficult to implement. However, a noticeable finding is that even smaller tolls, which are more likely to be politically acceptable, have substantial benefits in terms of reducing congestion and emissions. Among the various policy instruments examined in the study, the most socially preferable policy option for São Paulo would be to introduce a mix of congestion toll and fuel taxes on automobiles and use the revenues to improve public transit systems.

‣ Public Transport Subsidies and Affordability in Mumbai, India

Cropper, Maureen; Bhattacharya, Soma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper describes the role of public transport and the nature and incidence of transport subsidies in Mumbai, India. Mumbai has an extensive rail and bus network, and public transport is used for over 75 percent of all motorized trips in Greater Mumbai. Both rail and bus fares in Mumbai are subsidized: BEST, which operates public buses in Mumbai, is also an electric utility, and subsidizes bus fares from electricity revenues. We analyze the incidence of these subsidies, and their effect on mode choice, using data from a survey of households in Greater Mumbai. In Mumbai, as in many cities, the middle class is more likely to use public transport for travel than the poor. The poor, however, also use public transit, and their expenditure on public transit constitutes, on average, a larger share of their income than it does for the middle class. It is, therefore, the case that the poor benefit from transit subsidies in Mumbai, as well as the middle and upper-middle classes; however, the poorest 27 percent of the population receives only 19 percent of bus subsidies and 15.5 percent of rail subsidies. Indeed...

‣ Demand Side Instruments to Reduce Road Transportation Externalities in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area

Parry, Ian W.H.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. A $2.20 per gallon gasoline tax (2006 US$) would be economically efficient, compared with the current subsidy of $1.20 per gallon. Removal of the existing subsidy alone would achieve about three-quarters of the net benefits from subsidy elimination and the tax. Per-mile tolls could target congestion and accident externalities more efficiently than fuel taxes, although they are not practical at present. A combination of $0.80 per gallon gasoline tax to address pollution (versus $2.20 without tolls), and $0.12 and $0.19 tolls per vehicle mile on automobiles and microbuses, respectively, to address traffic congestion and accident externalities (versus $0.22 without fuel taxes) would be most efficient. Current public bus and rail subsidies are relatively close to efficient levels in the absence of such policies; however, if automobile and microbus externalities were fully addressed through more efficient pricing, optimal subsides to public transit would be smaller than current levels.

‣ Bus Rapid Transit Accessibility Guidelines

Rickert, Tom
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In recent years helpful guides have appeared in both English and Spanish to assist planners and officials to construct accessible buildings and pedestrian infrastructure which are usable by seniors, persons with disabilities, and all others who especially benefit from universal design. Less has been written about access to public transport systems. Very little guidance is available concerning specific issues which confront those planning Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, mass transit systems which incorporate a spectrum of design and operational features on integrated trunk and feeder routes and which were initiated in Latin America and are now spreading throughout the region and beyond. The guidelines focus on the BRT environment and assume that interested parties can take advantage of existing guidelines to clarify general issues of access to public space, buildings, and pedestrian infrastructure. The guidelines generally follow the travel path of a passenger using a full-featured Bus Rapid Transit system. The accessible travel chain begins with sidewalks and pedestrian crossings and continues into a typical mid-island station served by buses with left-side doors (in countries where traffic drives on the right side). Buses pull up to an enclosed station with a ramped platform the height of the bus floor. The guidelines then focus on station features...

‣ The Impact of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States

Bento, Antonio M.; Cropper, Maureen L.; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Vinha, Katja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors combine measures of urban form and public transit supply for 114 urbanized areas with the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey to address two questions: (1) How do measures of urban form, including city shape, road density, the spatial distribution of population, and jobs-housing balance affect the annual miles driven and commute mode choices of U.S. households? (2) How does the supply of public transportation (annual route miles supplied and availability of transit stops) affect miles driven and commute mode choice? The authors find that jobs-housing balance, population centrality, and rail miles supplied significantly reduce the probability of driving to work in cities with some rail transit. Population centrality and jobs-housing balance have a significant impact on annual household vehicle miles traveled (VMT), as do city shape, road density, and (in rail cities) annual rail route miles supplied. The elasticity of VMT with respect to each variable is small, on the order of 0.10-0.20 in absolute value. However...

‣ Mapping Manila Transit

Krambeck, Holly
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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Whether they attempt to build jeepney stops, expand transit access, or improve bus routes, transit projects across much of the developing world are often hampered by (1) the lack of accurate transit maps and data and (2) the weak capacity of transit agencies to acquire and use such data. To address the twin aspects of this long-standing challenge, the World Bank, in collaboration with the Philippines and Australian Aid, developed both a methodology and a suite of open-source software applications based on free, internationally supported open data standards. The solutions have allowed the quick, low-cost production of transit maps; and they have empowered the agencies, and potentially businesses and the rest of government, for the first time to make ambitious planning and investment decisions based on accurate, comprehensive transit data. The global applicability of this approach has been demonstrated by its adoption in six other developing countries to date.

‣ Transforming Cities with Transit : Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development

Suzuki, Hiroaki; Cervero, Robert; Iuchi, Kanako
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This study explores the complex process of transit and land-use integration in rapidly growing cities in developing countries. It first identifies barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transit infrastructure and urban development. It then recommends a set of policies and implementation measures for overcoming these barriers and exploiting these opportunities. Well-integrated transit and land development create urban forms and spaces that reduce the need for travel by private motorized vehicles. Areas with good access to public transit and well-designed urban spaces that are walkable and bikeable become highly attractive places for people to live, work, learn, play, and interact. Such environments enhance a city's economic competitiveness, reduce local pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions, and promote inclusive development. These goals are at the heart of transit-oriented development (TOD), an urban form that is increasingly important to sustainable urban futures. This book uses a case study approach. It draws lessons from global best-case examples of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and elsewhere that are currently investing in bus rapid transit (BRT) and other high-capacity transit systems. It also reports the results of two original in-depth case studies of rapidly growing and motorizing cities that introduced extended BRT systems: Ahmedabad...

‣ Sustainable and Smart Cities

Kahn, Matthew E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper explores the challenges and opportunities that government officials face in designing coherent 'rules of the game' for achieving urban sustainability during times of growth. Sustainability is judged by three criteria. The first involves elements of day-to-day quality of life, such as having clean air and water and green space. The provision of these public goods has direct effects on the urban public's health and productivity. The second focuses on the city's greenhouse gas emissions. Developing cities are investing in new infrastructure, from highways and public transit systems to electricity generation and transmission. They are building water treatment, water delivery, and sewage disposal systems. Residents of these cities are simultaneously making key decisions about where they live and work and whether to buy such energy-consuming durables as private vehicles and home air-conditioning units. Given the long-lived durability of the capital stock, short-term decisions will have long-term effects on the city's carbon footprint. The third criterion is a city's resilience to natural disasters and extreme weather events. This subsection focuses on how the urban poor can be better equipped to adapt to the anticipated challenges of climate change.

‣ Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

‣ Transit Bus Operational and Maintenance Practices to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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47.7393%
Buses are the most common form of urban transit but, in the developing world, are often seen as inefficient and polluting. It is well known that buses that are properly tuned and adjusted tend to be cleaner, safer and consume less fuel than poorly maintained buses. Fuel cost is a relatively large fraction of total cost especially when labor and bus costs are low, as in many developing countries. Hence, reducing fuel use through targeted maintenance of fuel inefficient buses can reduce significant expenditures especially in developing countries, freeing up resources for other improved city services. In addition, if city buses do not receive periodic maintenance that is adequate in quality and quantity, their emissions, both local and global, will suffer. In an effort to catalyze solutions for urban transport, the World Bank Group focused on development of a global Knowledge Product in the form of a 'Guidance Note' (GN) on bus maintenance procedures. The GN is directed towards city transit managers and their technical staff in developing countries to enhance the energy efficiency of city transit. The objective of this work effort is to prepare a Guidance Note (GN) on maintenance best practices that is a practical and useful tool to guide the implementation of a program that will enhance the fuel efficiency of buses. To address this objective...

‣ Sustainable and Smart Cities

Kahn, Matthew E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.669907%
This paper explores the challenges and opportunities that government officials face in designing coherent 'rules of the game' for achieving urban sustainability during times of growth. Sustainability is judged by three criteria. The first involves elements of day-to-day quality of life, such as having clean air and water and green space. The provision of these public goods has direct effects on the urban public's health and productivity. The second focuses on the city's greenhouse gas emissions. Developing cities are investing in new infrastructure, from highways and public transit systems to electricity generation and transmission. They are building water treatment, water delivery, and sewage disposal systems. Residents of these cities are simultaneously making key decisions about where they live and work and whether to buy such energy-consuming durables as private vehicles and home air-conditioning units. Given the long-lived durability of the capital stock, short-term decisions will have long-term effects on the city's carbon footprint. The third criterion is a city's resilience to natural disasters and extreme weather events. This subsection focuses on how the urban poor can be better equipped to adapt to the anticipated challenges of climate change.

‣ Transit ITS Implementation Guidance : Part 2. Transit ITS Projects in China--Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Beijing Publicador: Beijing
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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There has been increased interest throughout the world in improving transit services through the introduction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). ITS can be defined as a set of technologies intended to improve the quality or efficiency of transit services primarily by providing the appropriate information at the appropriate time in an appropriate form to transit staff and transit customers. The World Bank has participated in the financing of several ITS systems in China. Given the complexity of these projects and their potential for dramatic transformation of transit operating agencies, it is worthwhile to provide some guidance to senior staff from transit systems contemplating ITS projects as well as decision-makers external to the transit operating organizations The World Bank commissioned a series of three papers to assist in this effort. This first paper is a description of the key ITS applications for transit operations and where they are most beneficial. This second paper reviews a number of previous installations and reports on lessons learned...

‣ Personal soundtracks on public transit : personal listening devices and socio-spatial negotiations of students' bus journeys

Hemsworth, Katie
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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One way of exploring the power of sound in the experience and constitution of space is through the phenomenon of personal listening devices (PLDs) in public environments. In this thesis, I draw from in-depth interviews with eleven Brock University students in S1. Catharines, Ontario, to show how PLDs (such as MP3 players like the iPod) are used to create personalized soundscapes and mediate their public transit journeys. I discuss how my interview participants experience the space-time of public transit, and show how PLDs are used to mediate these experiences in acoustic and non-acoustic ways. PLD use demonstrates that acoustic and environmental experiences are co-constitutive, which highlights a kinaesthetic quality of the transit-space. My empirical findings show that PLDs transform space, particularly by overlapping public and private appropriations of the bus. I use these empirical findings to discuss the PLD phenomenon in the theoretical context of spatiality, and more specifically, acoustic space. J develop the ontological notion of acoustic space, stating that space shares many of the properties of sound, and argue that sound is a rich epistemological tool for understanding and explaining our everyday experiences.

‣ Exploring Bus Rapid Transit: A Comparison of York Region and Ottawa's BRT Systems

Moebs, Laura
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
Português
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47.502646%
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is an alternative mode of public transportation that is often considered superior to the conventional bus system. This report offers a comparison of two BRT systems between a newly established one in York Region (York Region Transit’s VIVA) and a well-established one in Ottawa (OC Transpo’s Transitway). The purpose of this report is to examine the strengths of BRT, establish how BRT systems can learn from one another, and determine ways to improve various BRT systems in order to make them more attractive to potential riders. The two BRT systems were compared based on seven common criteria of BRT. It was found that both BRT systems have strengths and weaknesses and can each learn from one another. The most significant difference between the two is the fact that OC Transpo has over 30 km of its own running way, whereas VIVA currently has none; however, York Region Transit is in the process of constructing five running ways. Fortunately, despite its current lack of running ways, VIVA has managed to provide a superior bus service compared to York Region Transit’s conventional bus system. Ultimately, it has been found that BRT is an effective mode of transit that can provide efficient and sustainable transportation and has helped to increase public transit ridership.; A report submitted to the School of Urban and Regional Planning in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Urban and Regional Planning

‣ Does the Quality of Public Transit Affect Commuters’ Response to Gasoline Price Changes?

Smith, Allison
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Formato: 220900 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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47.64135%
The effect of public transportation on commuters’ sensitivity to gas prices is examined using a proxy for the quality of public transportation. This proxy is measured as the difference in the individual’s predicted commute times by private transit and public transit, estimated using the individual’s observable characteristics. The interaction of gasoline price with this measure is found to have a significant effect on annual vehicle miles traveled. Further, there is a strong correlation between the quality of public transit and elasticity of demand. This indicates that public transit could play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of gasoline taxes. This has timely policy implications with the federal allocations for public transit infrastructure in the 2009 stimulus bill.; Honors thesis, Department of Mathematics

‣ Optimizing Accessible Taxi Service to Augment Traditional Public Transit Services in Delaware

Tuttle, Douglas; Eaton, Kristen
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Outros
Português
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published and funded by the Delaware Center for Transportation; As one of the most rapidly “graying” states in the nation, Delaware soon will be faced with significant growth in the demand for public transportation services that meet the needs of an increasingly older population. This population, moreover, is more likely to require assistance due to one or more disabilities that may affect individuals’ ability to go outside their homes. Coupled with an ongoing shift of the state’s population from the more urban north to the more rural south and a growing desire among older adults to “age in place” if at all possible, the impact this “graying” phenomenon on the state’s already burdened paratransit bus system will become unmanageable unless programmatic changes are implemented. The purpose of this report is to explore the efficacy of raising Delaware’s taxi industry from its current balkanized status to a level of accessibility and performance that will permit it to augment the state’s traditional public transit services. The report’s title employs the phrase “optimizing accessible taxi service” but, as quickly became clear in the process of inventorying the nature and extent of existing services, the term truly understates the magnitude of the change that is required. In Delaware...

‣ Transit-oriented development policy analysis in Washington D.C., Metropolitan Area based on case study at three transit nodes

Nian, Qinghua
Fonte: University of Delaware, School of Public Policy and Administration Publicador: University of Delaware, School of Public Policy and Administration
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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57.74124%
Warren, Robert; Transit-oriented development (TOD) concept has been a popular planning strategy to reduce car-dependency because it encourages public transit, walking, and bicycling in mixed-use activity nodes around transit stations. There is research that indicates TOD implementation can bring important benefits to specific transit nodes, regions with public transit connection and persons living or working in the region. Through exploring TOD institutional environment and three case studied nodes in Washington D.C., metropolitan area, this study provides detailed evidence and analysis on TOD of dynamics which has received limited attention in the previous research. This study shows that TOD strategy can be implemented in areas having different socio-economic and cultural characteristics. The work contributes to general understanding of TOD in relation to how TOD planning can vary in different transit station areas due to deliberate design by the local governments involved. The institutional environment within which TOD policies and strategies can be adopted and carried out in major metropolitan areas is normally quite complex. Local governments and transit agency work together with other government agencies, private sector firms...