Página 1 dos resultados de 62 itens digitais encontrados em 0.158 segundos

‣ Proposal of a High-Level Language for Writing Self Modifying Programs

SILVA, S. R. B. da; JOSÉ NETO, J.
Fonte: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC Publicador: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper proposes a simple high-level programming language, endowed with resources that help encoding self-modifying programs. With this purpose, a conventional imperative language syntax (not explicitly stated in this paper) is incremented with special commands and statements forming an adaptive layer specially designed with focus on the dynamical changes to be applied to the code at run-time. The resulting language allows programmers to easily specify dynamic changes to their own program`s code. Such a language succeeds to allow programmers to effortless describe the dynamic logic of their adaptive applications. In this paper, we describe the most important aspects of the design and implementation of such a language. A small example is finally presented for illustration purposes.

‣ O computador nas aulas de língua estrangeira: o recurso F.A.R.E. em atividades de correção automática; The computer in foreign language classes: F.A.R.E. feature in autocorrect activities

Pitarello, Adriana de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/10/2014 Português
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Esta tese destaca a importância do feedback corretivo imediato nos softwares didáticos de ensino linguístico em âmbito acadêmico. Procuramos demonstrar que, mais do que simplesmente informar sobre o desempenho do aprendiz de LE, esse feedback pode atuar como um mediador da atividade cognitiva e metacognitiva discente. No plano teórico, situamos o ambiente de ensino-aprendizagem em que essa tecnologia deve operar e destacamos as condições metodológicas, didáticas e informáticas mais favoráveis para o sucesso da sua concretização. Apoiados na perspectiva do Ensino-Aprendizagem das Línguas Estrangeiras, apresentamos a evolução dos métodos aliados às tecnologias educativas e, no CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), do uso do computador no ensino-aprendizagem, focalizando os modos de correção automática das atividades linguísticas. A partir daí, concebemos o modo de correção cognitivista que trata o erro do aprendiz por meio da previsão de suas eventuais respostas, cadastráveis no sistema informático, e da criação de mensagens específicas do erro e da questão que possam auxiliar na resolução das atividades propostas. Tais previsões, assim como as relativas mensagens, encontram respaldo na disciplina Análise de Erros...

‣ Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology

Maia,Bruno; Cunha,Joao P.A.R.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1st, 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

‣ Finding the findings: identification of findings in medical literature using restricted natural language processing.

Sneiderman, C. A.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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The ability to search the biomedical literature based on findings would provide enhanced access to information. We describe a computer program called FINDX which relies on the UMLS Metathesuaurus and restricted natural language processing to identify findings in free text. Such identification can serve as a filtering mechanism while selecting relevant papers. After discussing the salient characteristics of findings on which FINDX depends, we report on the results of an experiment in which we tested the program on a set of MEDLINE abstracts pertaining to the diagnosis of Parkinson Disease.

‣ Feasibility of GNU/Linux as the OS for a PC-based medical product; Feasibility of GNU/ Linux as the operating system for a personal computer -based medical product

Lustbader, Steven B. (Steven Benjamin), 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 21 leaves; 144286 bytes; 139806 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Steven B. Lustbader.; Thesis (M.Eng. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, June 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 20-21).; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.

‣ The impact of a neurofeedback program on primary grade reading scores of children with lead poisoning

Spezio, Ralph Neil ; Uebbing, Stephen ; Campbell, James R.
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Illustrations:ill. (some col.); Number of Pages:160 leaves
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Thesis (Ed. D.)--University of Rochester. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2012.; Children with dyslexia and/or central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) respond positively to neurofeedback computer-based training (NFB-CBT) that is designed to stimulate brain plasticity. The deficits which occur in children due to CAPD and dyslexia are similar to the deficits that occur in children who are lead poisoned. However, no studies have been done on the efficacy of NFB-CBT on children with reading difficulty and a history of elevated blood-lead levels. This study analyzes the effect of a NFB-CBT program on the reading growth, as measured by New York State English/Language Arts assessment (NYS-ELA). I utilized a retrospective cohort design and joined databases from an urban school district (Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) and English Language Arts (ELA) reading test scores) and a county health department (blood-lead levels). I selected children who had blood-lead levels above 10 µg/dL at ages 1-3 years. The children were dichotomized into two groups on whether they received Fast ForWord, a NFB-CBT intervention. Children were matched on grade, age, blood-lead levels, and baseline DRA score. Key covariates were introduced into ANCOVA to determine the independent association between Fast ForWord dispensation and ELA score. I found that the Fast ForWord children had lower or comparable levels of reading growth than the comparison group as measured by New York State ELA examinations. The findings of this research are inconclusive and indicate that it may be either a true null or a false null study. These findings may indicate a true null study in that it is possible that the NFB-CBT intervention was administered at an age past some therapeutic window for a lead damaged brain...

‣ Design, development and assessment of the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

Sykes, Edward R.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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The "Java Intelligent Tutoring System" (JITS) research project focused on designing, constructing, and determining the effectiveness of an Intelligent Tutoring System for beginner Java programming students at the postsecondary level. The participants in this research were students in the School of Applied Computing and Engineering Sciences at Sheridan College. This research involved consistently gathering input from students and instructors using JITS as it developed. The cyclic process involving designing, developing, testing, and refinement was used for the construction of JITS to ensure that it adequately meets the needs of students and instructors. The second objective in this dissertation determined the effectiveness of learning within this environment. The main findings indicate that JITS is a richly interactive ITS that engages students on Java programming problems. JITS is equipped with a sophisticated personalized feedback mechanism that models and supports each student in his/her learning style. The assessment component involved 2 main quantitative experiments to determine the effectiveness of JITS in terms of student performance. In both experiments it was determined that a statistically significant difference was achieved between the control group and the experimental group (i.e....

‣ Exploiting capability constraints to solve global, two dimensional path planning problems

Richbourg, R. F.; Zyda, Michael J.; Rowe, Neil Charles
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
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Mobile autonomous vehicles require the capability of planning routes over ranges that are too great to be characterized by local sensor systems. Completion of this task requires some form of map data. Much work has been done concerning planning paths through local areas, those which can be scanned by on-board sensor systems. However, planning paths based on long range map data is a very different problem. Extant solution techniques require the search of discrete, node and link representations which characterize continuous, two dimensional problem environments. The authors assume the availability of topographic data organized into regions of homogenous traversal cost. Given this, they present a solution technique for the long range planning problem which relies on a Snell's Law heuristic to limit a graph search for the optimal solution; Supported in part by the Foundation Research Program of the Naval Postgraduate School with funds provided by the Chief of Naval Research; http://archive.org/details/exploitingcapabi00rich; N0001485WR41005; NA

‣ Automatic text categorization applied to E-mail

Hall, Scott R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiii, 45 p. : ill. (some col.)
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; d investigated its application upon categorizing emails. The categorization approach is derived from an instanced-based learning method that explores conditional probabilities of particular words. The effectiveness of the author's categorization approach using collections from a set of emails is then evaluated and assigned a numerical score based upon precision and recall. Precision was 65% while recall was 17%. The author's experiments indicated automatic categorization of incoming emails at the client level can categorize email, but is difficult when not using a standardized corpus. Word frequency is valuable, but should be used in combination with other methods such as phrase extraction for a higher level of performance.; Major, United States Marine Corps

‣ A spares optimization model for deployable U.S. Marine Corps units

Yorio, Paul R.
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The U.S. Marine Corps deploys Marine Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs) by airlift or sealift to participate in numerous short-term exercises. These exercises are of such duration that resupply of the MAGTF by strategic airlift or sealift is not practical. Thus, only stocked spare parts are available for repairs during the exercise. A model is developed which provides the operational commander with a stockage policy for spare secondary reparables (e.g., tank engines, amtrack transmissions, etc.) that optimizes the probability of successful mission completion subject to weight or volume constraints imposed by the MAGTF's mode of deployment. Optimization of this stockage policy is stochastically modeled using data from the Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System data base and then solved as an integer computer program. The integer program is coded using the Generalized Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) language and solved using the Zero/One Optimization Methods mixed integer program solver. Operational data for a Marine Amphibious Unit yields an integer program with 190 binary variables and 26 constraints. A solution within 0.07% of optimality is obtained on an IBM 3033AP computer in 3.9 seconds and on a Zenith Z-248 personal computer in 176 seconds; http://archive.org/details/sparesoptimizati00yori; U.S. Marine Corps (U.S.M.C.) author.

‣ Algebraic Functions, Computer Programming, and the Challenge of Transfer

Schanzer, Emmanuel Tanenbaum
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Students' struggles with algebra are well documented. Prior to the introduction of functions, mathematics is typically focused on applying a set of arithmetic operations to compute an answer. The introduction of functions, however, marks the point at which mathematics begins to focus on building up abstractions as a way to solve complex problems. A common refrain about word problems is that “the equations are easy to solve - the hard part is setting them up!” A student of algebra is asked to identify functional relationships in the world around them - to set up the equations that describe a system- and to reason about these relationships. Functions, in essence, mark the shift from computing answers to solving problems. Researchers have called for this shift to accompany a change in pedagogy, and have looked to computer programming and game design as a means to combine mathematical rigor with creative inquiry. Many studies have explored the impact of teaching students to program, with the goal of having them transfer what they have learned back into traditional mathematics. While some of these studies have shown positive outcomes for concepts like geometry and fractions, transfer between programming and algebra has remained elusive. The literature identifies a number of conditions that must be met to facilitate transfer...

‣ Reversible Language Extensions and their Application in Debugging

Drey, Zoé; Morales, José F.; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2013 Português
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A range of methodologies and techniques are available to guide the design and implementation of language extensions and domain-specific languages. A simple yet powerful technique is based on source-to-source transformations interleaved across the compilation passes of a base language. Despite being a successful approach, it has the main drawback that the input source code is lost in the process. When considering the whole workflow of program development (warning and error reporting, debugging, or even program analysis), program translations are no more powerful than a glorified macro language. In this paper, we propose an augmented approach to language extensions for Prolog, where symbolic annotations are included in the target program. These annotations allow selectively reversing the translated code. We illustrate the approach by showing that coupling it with minimal extensions to a generic Prolog debugger allows us to provide users with a familiar, source-level view during the debugging of programs which use a variety of language extensions, such as functional notation, DCGs, or CLP{Q,R}.; Comment: Appeared in CICLOPS 2012. 15 Pages, 7 Figures

‣ First-order Logic as a Constraint Programming Language

Apt, K. R.; Vermeulen, C. F. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We provide a denotational semantics for first-order logic that captures the two-level view of the computation process typical for constraint programming. At one level we have the usual program execution. At the other level an automatic maintenance of the constraint store takes place. We prove that the resulting semantics is sound with respect to the truth definition. By instantiating it by specific forms of constraint management policies we obtain several sound evaluation policies of first-order formulas. This semantics can also be used a basis for sound implementation of constraint maintenance in presence of block declarations and conditionals.; Comment: 17 pages. v2: improved version corrected reference to Turing (instead of Tarski)

‣ Object-Oriented Programming, Functional Programming and R

Chambers, John M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2014 Português
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This paper reviews some programming techniques in R that have proved useful, particularly for substantial projects. These include several versions of object-oriented programming, used in a large number of R packages. The review tries to clarify the origins and ideas behind the various versions, each of which is valuable in the appropriate context. R has also been strongly influenced by the ideas of functional programming and, in particular, by the desire to combine functional with object oriented programming. To clarify how this particular mix of ideas has turned out in the current R language and supporting software, the paper will first review the basic ideas behind object-oriented and functional programming, and then examine the evolution of R with these ideas providing context. Functional programming supports well-defined, defensible software giving reproducible results. Object-oriented programming is the mechanism par excellence for managing complexity while keeping things simple for the user. The two paradigms have been valuable in supporting major software for fitting models to data and numerous other statistical applications. The paradigms have been adopted, and adapted, distinctively in R. Functional programming motivates much of R but R does not enforce the paradigm. Object-oriented programming from a functional perspective differs from that used in non-functional languages...

‣ Program Synthesis using Natural Language

Desai, Aditya; Gulwani, Sumit; Hingorani, Vineet; Jain, Nidhi; Karkare, Amey; Marron, Mark; R, Sailesh; Roy, Subhajit
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2015 Português
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Interacting with computers is a ubiquitous activity for millions of people. Repetitive or specialized tasks often require creation of small, often one-off, programs. End-users struggle with learning and using the myriad of domain-specific languages (DSLs) to effectively accomplish these tasks. We present a general framework for constructing program synthesizers that take natural language (NL) inputs and produce expressions in a target DSL. The framework takes as input a DSL definition and training data consisting of NL/DSL pairs. From these it constructs a synthesizer by learning optimal weights and classifiers (using NLP features) that rank the outputs of a keyword-programming based translation. We applied our framework to three domains: repetitive text editing, an intelligent tutoring system, and flight information queries. On 1200+ English descriptions, the respective synthesizers rank the desired program as the top-1 and top-3 for 80% and 90% descriptions respectively.

‣ The Alma Project, or How First-Order Logic Can Help Us in Imperative Programming

Apt, Krzysztof R.; Schaerf, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/07/1999 Português
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The aim of the Alma project is the design of a strongly typed constraint programming language that combines the advantages of logic and imperative programming. The first stage of the project was the design and implementation of Alma-0, a small programming language that provides a support for declarative programming within the imperative programming framework. It is obtained by extending a subset of Modula-2 by a small number of features inspired by the logic programming paradigm. In this paper we discuss the rationale for the design of Alma-0, the benefits of the resulting hybrid programming framework, and the current work on adding constraint processing capabilities to the language. In particular, we discuss the role of the logical and customary variables, the interaction between the constraint store and the program, and the need for lists.; Comment: 25 pages

‣ Using Mathematica & Matlab for CAGD/CAD research and education

Gobithaasan, R. U.; Jamaludin, M. A
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In CAGD/CAD research and education, users are involved with development of mathematical algorithms and followed by the analysis of the resultant algorithm. This process involves geometric display which can only be carried out with high end graphics display. There are many approaches practiced and one of the so-called easiest approaches is by using C/C++ programming language and OpenGL application program interface, API. There are practitioners uses C/C++ programming language to develop the algorithms and finally utilize AutoCAD for graphics display. On the other hand, high end CAD users manage to use Auto Lisp as their programming language in AutoCAD. Nevertheless, these traditional ways are definitely time consuming. This paper introduces an alternative method whereby the practitioners may maximize scientific computation programs, SCPs: Mathematica and MATLAB in the context of CAGD/CAD for research and education.; Comment: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Research and Education in Mathematics (ICREM 2), May 25th- 26th 2005, Serdang, Malaysia, Pg. 518-525

‣ High Performance Computing Evaluation A methodology based on Scientific Application Requirements

Ferro, Mariza; Mury, Antonio R.; Manfroi, Laion F.; Schlze, Bruno
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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High Performance Distributed Computing is essential to boost scientific progress in many areas of science and to efficiently deploy a number of complex scientific applications. These applications have different characteristics that require distinct computational resources too. In this work we propose a systematic performance evaluation methodology. The focus of our methodology begins on scientific application characteristics, and then considers how these characteristics interact with the problem size, with the programming language and finally with a specific computational architecture. The computational experiments developed highlight this model of evaluation and indicate that optimal performance is found when we evaluate a combination of application class, program language, problem size and architecture model.; Comment: 29 pages, 2 tables and 8 figures

‣ Ada and the graphical kernel system

Wessman, Richard R.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Since the introduction of the standard language in 1983, Ada has been the subject of controversy about its capabilities and its desirability. Proponents have claimed that Ada may be the ultimate computer language because it is a high-level, structured language that may be used in applications ranging from controlling jet fighters to business. Detractors have argued that Ada's very versatility may be its undoing because it can do many things but not as well as more specialized languages. This thesis attempts to evaluate the capabilities and suitability of Ada for large projects by using it to implement the Graphical Kernel System.

‣ Simulation methodology and tools for the development of novel program execution models and architectures

Pavel, Robert
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Gao, Guang R.; The exascale era of high performance computing will be defined by novel architectures with a focus on power efficiency and resiliency as well as program execution models with a focus on usability and scalability. To develop and evaluate these architectures and program execution models, simulation and modelling tools must be used. However, existing simulation and modelling tools are very complex and tend to emphasize high performance simulations. And to achieve these speeds, two general methods are used. Many simulators simply eschew accuracy in the name of performance. Others still are the product of large amounts of time and effort to optimize the simulation of a specific class of architecture or system, which is perfect for studying existing systems and evolutionary designs but not for studying revolutionary designs. To this end, I have developed PICASim as a model and framework for the development and study of novel architectures and program execution models. The PICASim model's compromise between accuracy and performance can be adjusted during the early development of exascale systems to obtain highly accurate simulations of smaller, but representative systems to aid in the study of the impact that new architectural features and runtime capabilities will have on the performance of a full exascale system. Additionally...