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‣ Ensaios sobre o seguro desemprego no Brasil : teorias e evidências

Teixeira, Gibran da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
50.17292%
A presente tese de doutorado estuda duas questões referentes ao programa brasileiro de Seguro Desemprego: o impacto do benefício sobre o salário de reinserção dos trabalhadores beneficiados, bem como sobre o tempo de procura por emprego. No primeiro ensaio são apresentados alguns fatos estilizados referente ao problema de pesquisa, entre os quais destacam-se: i) Descrição Jurídica e os principais objetivos do Programa brasileiro de Seguro Desemprego; ii) O Status Quo do Programa Seguro Desemprego; iii) O Perfil do Trabalhador Beneficiado pelo Programa; iv) Salário de reinserção de trabalhadores contemplados e não contemplados pelo programa (2006-2009) com tempo de permanência no trabalho anterior entre um mês e onze meses; e v) Procura por emprego de trabalhadores contemplados e não contemplados pelo programa (2006-2010) com tempo de permanência no trabalho anterior entre um mês e onze meses. No segundo ensaio, avalia-se o impacto do benefício Seguro Desemprego sobre o salário de reinserção de seu público alvo, utilizando-se as Teorias de Job Search e do Capital Humano. Na estratégia empírica, utilizaram-se informações da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio - PNAD no período de 2006 a 2009, bem como o método de regressão com descontinuidade. Os resultados indicaram que para o período avaliado...

‣ Essays on Unemployment and Labor Supply

Nekoei, Arash
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.13465%
Contrary to the predictions of standard reservation-wage search models, empirical studies consistently find that an extension of UI increases unemployment duration extit{without} improving subsequent wages. Chapter 1 addresses this puzzle in two steps. First, using administrative data from Austria and an age-based regression discontinuity design, we show that an extension of UI eligibility by nine weeks increases the average reemployment wage by a statistically significant 0.5\%. We find that the UI effect on both unemployment durations and reemployment wages is larger for individuals with a high ex-ante likelihood of benefit exhaustion and for those laid off during local industry-specific downturns. Second, we show both theoretically and empirically that the UI effect on expected wage is determined by two offsetting forces: (i) agents on UI increase their reservation wages, which raises subsequent wages, but (ii) they also stay unemployed longer and thus experience a greater decrease in job opportunities, which reduces subsequent wages. Together, these results show that UI does have an economically significant impact on job quality consistent with theoretical predictions.; Economics

‣ The Limited Job Prospects of Displaced Workers: Evidence from Two Cities in China

Betcherman, Gordon; Blunch, Niels-Hugo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.85575%
The economic restructuring in China over the past decade has resulted in displacement of millions of workers who had been employed in the state sector. This has posed tremendous challenges economically, socially, politically, and culturally. For several years, Chinese policies attempted to cushion the shock by requiring state-owned enterprises to provide living allowances and reemployment services to workers who had been displaced. There have been few empirical studies that have tracked the experiences of these displaced or xiagang workers. This study uses survey data from two large industrial cities covering the period 1998-2000 to analyze the labor market situation of over 2,000 workers 2 years after they had been observed as displaced and unemployed. The findings point to the high rates of labor force withdrawal and a low proportion who find another wage job in the formal sector. It also documents the large number of workers who find work in the informal sector which seems to act as an important safety net. Not surprisingly, education is an important determinant of post-layoff labor market outcomes. Active labor market interventions do not seem to make a substantial difference although there is some evidence from the duration analysis that training does help workers find employment more quickly than they would have otherwise.

‣ Improving Access to Jobs and Earnings Opportunities : The Role of Activation and Graduation Policies in Developing Countries

Almeida, Rita; Arbelaez, Juliana; Honorati, Maddalena; Kuddo, Arvo; Lohmann, Tanja; Ovadiya, Mirey; Pop, Lucian; Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.785498%
Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.

‣ Active Labor Market Programs : How, Why, When, and To What Extent are they Effective?

Brown, Alessio J.G.; Koettl, Johannes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.85575%
Active labor market programs (ALMPs) aim to keep workers employed, bring them into employment, increase their productivity and earnings, and improve the functioning of labor markets. ALMPs to retain employment, for example, work-sharing schemes, should be used only for short periods during severe recessions. More cost-effective and useful during recoveries are ALMPs to create employment, which strengthen outsiders labor market attachment and support the outflow out of unemployment. Training programs are especially effective over the long term, particularly the more they target disadvantaged outsiders. ALMPs that improve labor market matching are highly beneficial, but effective only in the short run. ALMPs in general might be more cost effective over the long term (3-10 years) and some may even be self-financing, suggesting that long-term evaluations are needed to better ascertain the impact of individual policies.

‣ Designing and Implementing Unemployment Benefit Systems in Middle and Low Income Countries : Key Choices between Insurance and Savings Accounts

Robalino, David A.; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.85575%
Several middle income countries are considering reforms of severance pay regulations to both increase flexibility for firms and better protect workers. Policy discussions then often revolve around whether to adopt an unemployment insurance (UI) scheme or unemployment individual savings accounts (UISAs). Proponents of the first emphasize its ability to pool risks and introduce an element of solidarity. Critics point to its potentially negative effects on labor supply as individuals can have fewer incentives to seek, take or keep jobs. In this paper, the authors show that UI and UISAs are, in fact, particular cases of a more general design and that the crucial policy choice is in terms of how redistribution - to cover benefits for those who cannot save enough is financed. The authors outline key features of this general design and discuss trade-offs and possible solutions. The authors discusses issues related to implementation and show how recent technological developments around biometric identification can facilitate the monitoring of conditionalities related to participation in job-search and training activities.

‣ Effectiveness of Interventions Aimed atImproving Women’s Employability and Quality of Work : A Critical Review

Todd, Petra E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
20.09633%
This paper examines the effectiveness of a variety of policy interventions that have been tried in developing and transition economies with the goal of improving women's employability and quality of work. The programs include active labor market programs, education and training programs, programs that facilitate work (such as childcare subsidies, parental leave programs and land titling programs), microfinance programs, entrepreneurship and leadership programs, and conditional cash transfer programs. Some of these policy interventions were undertaken to increase employment, some to increase female employment, and some for other reasons. All of these programs have been subjected to impact evaluations of different kinds and some also to rigorous cost-benefit analyses. Many were found to be effective in increasing women's quantity of work as measured by increased rates of labor market participation and number of hours worked. In some cases, the programs also increased women's quality of work, for example, by increasing the capacity for women to work in the formal rather than the informal sector where wages are higher and where women are more likely to have access to health...

‣ The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective

Giles, John; Wang, Dewen; Cai, Wei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.25283%
This paper highlights the employment patterns of China's over-45 population and, for perspective, places them in the context of work and retirement patterns in Indonesia, Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. As is common in many developing countries, China can be characterized as having two retirement systems: a formal system, under which urban employees receive generous pensions and face mandatory retirement by age 60, and an informal system, under which rural residents and individuals in the informal sector rely on family support in old age and have much longer working lives. Gender differences in age of exit from work are shown to be much greater in urban China than in rural areas, and also greater than observed in Korea and Indonesia. Descriptive evidence is presented suggesting that pension eligible workers are far more likely to cease productive activity at a relatively young age. A strong relationship between health status and labor supply in rural areas is observed, indicating the potential role that improvements in access to health care may play in extending working lives and also providing some basis for a common perception that older rural residents tend to work as long as they are physically capable. The paper concludes with a discussion of measures that may facilitate longer working lives as China's population ages.

‣ Public Employment Services, and Activation Policies

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.73815%
One of the responses to new challenges in the labor market has been the development and expansion of employment services and active labor market policies based on activation principles. The objective of this study is to document and review international experiences, predominantly from selected emerging market economies and developing countries, with the design and implementation of activation programs, provided by Public Employment Services, through the prism of incentives and sanctions. Employment promotion legislation from the reviewed countries is a major source of information. Participation of beneficiaries in relevant services and programs is also analyzed. The study finds that the countries use a variety of instruments, be it specific employment services, active labor market programs, or benefit and other sanctions, to 'activate' jobseekers with an aim to encourage them to become more active in their efforts to find work and/or improve their employability. In practice, the activation policies vary considerably across countries.