Página 11 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.210 segundos

‣ Leishmaniases of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research.

Grimaldi, G; Tesh, R B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1993 Português
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Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that leishmaniasis in the Americas is far more abundant and of greater public health importance than was previously recognized. The disease in the New World is caused by a number of different parasite species that are capable of producing a wide variety of clinical manifestations. The outcome of leishmanial infection in humans is largely dependent on the immune responsiveness of the host and the virulence of the infecting parasite strain. This article reviews current concepts of the clinical forms, immunology, pathology, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of the disease as well as aspects of its epidemiology and control. Recommendations for future research on the disease and its control are made.

‣ Air pollution: brown skies research.

Tattersfield, A. E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1996 Português
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Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles...

‣ Ambulatory care groups: a categorization of diagnoses for research and management.

Starfield, B; Weiner, J; Mumford, L; Steinwachs, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1991 Português
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This article describes a case-mix measure for application in ambulatory populations. The method is based primarily on categorization of diagnoses according to their likelihood of persistence. Fifty-one combinations (the ambulatory care groups or ACGs) result from applying multivariate techniques to maximize variance explained in use of services and ambulatory care charges. The method is tested in four different HMOs and a large Medicaid population. The percentage of the population in each of the 51 categories is similar across the HMOs; the Medicaid population has higher burdens of morbidity as measured by more numerous types of diagnoses. Mean visit rates for individuals within each of the 51 morbidity categories are generally similar across the five facilities, but these visit rates vary markedly from one category to another, even within groupings that are similar in the number of types of diagnoses within them. Visit rates for individuals who stay in the same ACG were similar from one year to the next. The ACG system is found useful in predicting both concurrent and subsequent ambulatory care use and charges as well as subsequent morbidity. It provides a way to specify case mix in enrolled populations for research as well as administration and reimbursement for ambulatory care.

‣ The role of biomethylation in toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic: a research update.

Stýblo, Miroslav; Drobná, Zuzana; Jaspers, Ilona; Lin, Shan; Thomas, David J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 Português
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Recent research of the metabolism and biological effects of arsenic has profoundly changed our understanding of the role of metabolism in modulation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of this metalloid. Historically, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono- and dimethylated species has been considered a major mechanism for detoxification of inorganic arsenic. However, compelling experimental evidence obtained from several laboratories suggests that biomethylation, particularly the production of methylated metabolites that contain trivalent arsenic, is a process that activates arsenic as a toxin and a carcinogen. This article summarizes this evidence and provides new data on a) the toxicity of methylated trivalent arsenicals in mammalian cells, b) the effects of methylated trivalent arsenicals on gene transcription, and c) the mechanisms involved in arsenic methylation in animal and human tissues.

‣ Engaging Nurses in Research for a Randomized Clinical Trial of a Behavioral Health Intervention

Roll, Lona; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Barnes, Yvonne J.; Cherven, Brooke; Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Haase, Joan E.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Nurse involvement in research is essential to the expansion of nursing science and improved care for patients. The research participation challenges encountered by nurses providing direct care (direct care nurses) include balancing patient care demands with research, adjusting to fluctuating staff and patient volumes, working with interdisciplinary personnel, and feeling comfortable with their knowledge of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to describe efforts to engage nurses in research for the Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study. SMART was an NIH-funded, multisite, randomized, behavioral clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents/young adults (AYA) undergoing stem cell transplant for an oncology condition. The study was conducted at 8 sites by a large multidisciplinary team that included direct care nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse researchers, as well as board-certified music therapists, clinical research coordinators, and physicians. Efforts to include direct care nurses in the conduct of this study fostered mutual respect across disciplines in both academic and clinical settings.

‣ ICrESAI - IMeCI: Tools for Selecting and Evaluating Scientific Articles for Research and Evidence-based Practice; ICrESAI-IMeCI: instrumentos para elegir y evaluar artículos científicos para la investigación y la práctica basada en evidencia; ICRESAI-IMECI: instrumentos para escolher e avaliar artigos científicos para a pesquisa e prática baseada em evidência

Gómez-Ortega, Olga Rocío; Estudiante Candidata a Doctora en Enfermerìa Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Amaya Rey, María Consuelo del Pilar; Univerisdad Nacional de Colombia
Fonte: Aquichan Publicador: Aquichan
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; Investigación Metodológica-Instrumental; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Português
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Objective: The increase in the production of scientific knowledge is of concern to scientists, who must decide daily on selecting literature of utmost scientific merit to support decision- making on research and practice The purpose of this study is to construct two registered instruments5 with psychometric properties, face validity and content validity. Materials and Methods: The Research Article Eligibility Criteria Instrument (ICrESAI) proposes standards to be assessed to determine which research papers should be eligible for a systematic review (SR) or meta-analysis (MA). Inter-reevaluator reliability was calculated as well. The second instrument involves Criteria for Evaluating the Scientific Merit of Articles Selected for Meta-analysis (IMeCI) , which proposes standards to be evaluated to rate the scientific merit and methodological quality of the articles selected for a SR. The estimates for face and content validity were made with three researchers who are experts in research methodology and measurement. Content validity was calculated using the Modified Lawshe Index (Tristán -López, 2008) and inter-codifier reliability was measured for qualitative variables using Cohen’s Kappa Index. Results: The ICrESAI instrument obtained a content validity index (CVI) of 1.0 . The CVI for the IMeCI instrument was 0.75. With the ICrESAI instru- ment...

‣ Characterizing Interdisciplinarity of Researchers and Research Topics Using Web Search Engines

Sayama, Hiroki; Akaishi, Jin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2012 Português
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Researchers' networks have been subject to active modeling and analysis. Earlier literature mostly focused on citation or co-authorship networks reconstructed from annotated scientific publication databases, which have several limitations. Recently, general-purpose web search engines have also been utilized to collect information about social networks. Here we reconstructed, using web search engines, a network representing the relatedness of researchers to their peers as well as to various research topics. Relatedness between researchers and research topics was characterized by visibility boost—increase of a researcher's visibility by focusing on a particular topic. It was observed that researchers who had high visibility boosts by the same research topic tended to be close to each other in their network. We calculated correlations between visibility boosts by research topics and researchers' interdisciplinarity at the individual level (diversity of topics related to the researcher) and at the social level (his/her centrality in the researchers' network). We found that visibility boosts by certain research topics were positively correlated with researchers' individual-level interdisciplinarity despite their negative correlations with the general popularity of researchers. It was also found that visibility boosts by network-related topics had positive correlations with researchers' social-level interdisciplinarity. Research topics' correlations with researchers' individual- and social-level interdisciplinarities were found to be nearly independent from each other. These findings suggest that the notion of “interdisciplinarity" of a researcher should be understood as a multi-dimensional concept that should be evaluated using multiple assessment means.

‣ The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 Português
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African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee."

‣ 'Bin bag' study: a survey of the research requests received by general practitioners and the primary health care team.

Moore, M; Post, K; Smith, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1999 Português
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General practitioners receive a large and increasing number of unsolicited requests to participate in research. This study describes the volume and nature of research requests received by 18 primary care teams in a three-month period. On average, each practice receives 16 to 24 research requests each year. The most frequent request is to complete a questionnaire (32%). Only one-fifth of studies originate from academic or service general practice. Remuneration for participating in a study was only offered for 15% of studies. Although general practice teams feel swamped by research requests, this sensation may be exaggerated by invitations to participate in non-scientific surveys as well as true research projects. Practice teams would welcome help in distinguishing quality research proposals from the remainder.

‣ A comprehensive crop genome research project: the Superhybrid Rice Genome Project in China

Yu, Jun; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In May 2000, the Beijing Institute of Genomics formally announced the launch of a comprehensive crop genome research project on rice genomics, the Chinese Superhybrid Rice Genome Project. SRGP is not simply a sequencing project targeted to a single rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome, but a full-swing research effort with an ultimate goal of providing inclusive basic genomic information and molecular tools not only to understand biology of the rice, both as an important crop species and a model organism of cereals, but also to focus on a popular superhybrid rice landrace, LYP9. We have completed the first phase of SRGP and provide the rice research community with a finished genome sequence of an indica variety, 93-11 (the paternal cultivar of LYP9), together with ample data on subspecific (between subspecies) polymorphisms, transcriptomes and proteomes, useful for within-species comparative studies. In the second phase, we have acquired the genome sequence of the maternal cultivar, PA64S, together with the detailed catalogues of genes uniquely expressed in the parental cultivars and the hybrid as well as allele-specific markers that distinguish parental alleles. Although SRGP in China is not an open-ended research programme, it has been designed to pave a way for future plant genomics research and application...

‣ US health journal editors' opinions and policies on research in race, ethnicity, and health.

Bennett, T.; Bhopal, R.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
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Health research on race and ethnicity has been criticized for lacking rigor in conceptualization, terminology, and analysis. Scientific journals' editorial processes help determine research quality. This survey assessed editors' awareness of current debates, attitudes toward recent recommendations, and involvement in developing editorial policies. Twenty-nine editors of health journals with impact factors of > or = 1 (based on citation ratings) were sent a questionnaire including four key problems identified in research literature and recommendations from federal agencies; 23 (79%) responded. Seven editors relevant policies. Two had read the federal directive on racial and ethnic classification; one was aware of its current review. Most perceived the four key problems as uncommon. The majority agreed with Public Health Service recommendations on race and ethnicity research, except for analyzing effects of racism. Approximately 20% had discussed issues with co-editors, editorial boards, or reviewers. About 40% saw further discussion as beneficial; four planned to draft guidelines. Editors' potential for helping resolve problems in race/ethnicity research is not being realized. Greater participation would be beneficial to public health research and practice.

‣ The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male...

‣ Biomedical research in Quebec: the history of the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec.

Genest, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/1996 Português
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The author describes the history of the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec, from after World War II to the present day. The Conseil de la recherche médicale du Québec (Quebec Medical Research Council) was created in 1964 to bring Quebec up to speed in biomedical research through programs that complemented those of the Medical Research Council of Canada. The council progressively evolved, becoming the Conseil de la recherche en santé du Québec (Quebec Health Research Council) in 1974 and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec (FRSQ) in 1982. The FRSQ covers all aspects of medical research, in its broadest sense. Quebec's progress in biomedical research has been spectacular and has had direct and considerable influence on the quality of medical education and patient care. From 1982 to 1996, various Quebec governments have devoted more than +500 million to the FRSQ, a testimony to their comprehension of the importance of this area and to their farsightedness. The FRSQ and its predecessor organizations have been a major force in improving and maintaining the quality of medical teaching and care in Quebec during the last three decades.

‣ Research electives in rural health care.

Kelly, L.; Rourke, J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: As academic medical institutions being to address the education and service needs of rural Canadians, research will make its way to the foreground. Rural physicians are well positioned to lead in this venture, but often have little time or energy to take on extra duties. Rural populations differ in essential ways from urban populations. Certainly, the limitations of geography, funding, and population density alter medical surveillance, treatment, and research in ways that are largely undocumented. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To undertake research projects of interest to our group of rural clinicians and to expose medical students to both research and rural practice. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Seven rural family physicians welcomed medical students into their group practice for summer research electives. Topics were chosen in advance by the medical group, and one member was designated as supervisor for each student. A local nurse educator also provided support to students and to clinicians after the students' departure. Several projects were undertaken simultaneously each summer; the result was several published peer-reviewed articles and good teaching and learning experiences. CONCLUSION: Rural research electives provide a valuable experience for students and preceptors. Such initiatives deserve broad promotion and support.

‣ Attitudes and opinions toward surgical research. A survey of surgical residents and their chairpersons.

Souba, W W; Tanabe, K K; Gadd, M A; Smith, B L; Bushman, M S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To learn more about how research in academic surgery is viewed by surgical residents and their chairpersons. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There is a general perception that a productive experience in a basic science laboratory is an important prerequisite for a successful career in academic surgery. METHODS: An anonymous mail survey of 189 surgical residents entering the laboratory and their chairpersons (n=81) was done. Questions included how a laboratory was chosen by the resident, the importance of a basic science laboratory experience as a prerequisite to an academic career, and the perceived goal or goals of the laboratory experience. Data were analyzed by chi square analysis. RESULTS: The response rate from each group was excellent (80% response for residents, 90% from chairpersons). Of the residents surveyed, 78% were men and 22% were women; 51% entered the laboratory after 2 years of clinical training and 34% after 3 years; 84% did their research at their home institution and 91% worked in a surgeon's laboratory; 51% were scheduled to be in the laboratory for 1 year, 41% for 2 years, and 7% for 3 years. Two thirds of the residents were salaried by the surgery department. Both residents (70%) and chairpersons (86%) felt that the best surgical journal was Annals of Surgery. Both groups ranked Science as the top basic science journal. Twenty-four percent of the residents felt their peers offered the best advice in choosing a laboratory compared to 0% of the chairpersons (p<0.01); chairpersons felt they themselves or the program director were better advisors (chairpersons...

‣ Knowledge of the Tuskegee study and its impact on the willingness to participate in medical research studies.

Shavers, V. L.; Lynch, C. F.; Burmeister, L. F.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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The under-representation of racial/ethnic minorities among medical research participants has recently resulted in mandates for their inclusion by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Therefore, there is a need to determine how history, attitudes, cultural beliefs, social issues, and investigator behavior affect minority enrollment in medical research studies. From January 1998 to March 1999, 179 African-American and white residents of the Detroit Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA) participated in a mail and telephone survey designed to examine impediments to African-American participation in medical research studies. Chi-square tests were performed to assess differences between the study groups using the Survey Data Analysis Program (SUDAAN). Eighty-one percent of African Americans and 28% of whites had knowledge of the Tuskegee Study (p = <0.001). Knowledge of the Tuskegee Study resulted in less trust of researchers for 51% of African-Americans and 17% of whites (p = 0.02). Forty-six percent of African-Americans and 34% of whites indicated that their knowledge of the study would affect future research participation decisions (p = 0.25). Of these, 49% of African-Americans and 17% of whites would not be willing to participate in future medical research studies (p = 0.05). This study confirms the need for medical researchers to confront the issue of the Tuskegee Study and its continuing impact on African-Americans' trust of medical research studies.

‣ Determining the costs of journals used in support of federally sponsored research.

McKeehan, N C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1984 Português
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As a part of Medical University negotiations with the federal government regarding indirect cost rate, the library staff attempted to determine how much of current journal expenditures went to support federally sponsored research in 1982. We compiled a list of research journals for review by the library's Research Collection Development Committee and studied citations in MUSC faculty journal publications that acknowledged federal research support. A comparison of the Research Collection List and the file of referenced journals indicated that at least 30% of the library's current journals could be considered to be supporting federally sponsored research.

‣ The Burden of Research on Trauma for Respondents: A Prospective and Comparative Study on Respondents Evaluations and Predictors

van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W. G.; Scherpenzeel, Annette C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/10/2013 Português
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The possible burden of participating in trauma research is an important topic for Ethical Committees (EC's), Review Boards (RB's) and researchers. However, to what extent research on trauma is more burdensome than non-trauma research is unknown. Little is known about which factors explain respondents evaluations on the burden: to what extent are they trauma-related or dependent on other factors such as personality and how respondents evaluate research in general? Data of a large probability based multi-wave internet panel, with surveys on politics and values, personality and health in 2009 and 2011, and a survey on trauma in 2012 provided the unique opportunity to address these questions. Results among respondents confronted with these events in the past 2 years (N = 950) showed that questions on trauma were significantly and systematically evaluated as less pleasant (enjoyed less), more difficult, but also stimulated respondents to think about things more than almost all previous non-trauma surveys. Yet, the computed effect sizes indicated that the differences were (very) small and often meaningless. No differences were found between users and non-users of mental services, in contrast to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Evaluations of the burden of previous surveys in 2011 on politics and values...

‣ An Analysis of Citizen Science Based Research: Usage and Publication Patterns

Follett, Ria; Strezov, Vladimir
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2015 Português
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The use of citizen science for scientific discovery relies on the acceptance of this method by the scientific community. Using the Web of Science and Scopus as the source of peer reviewed articles, an analysis of all published articles on “citizen science” confirmed its growth, and found that significant research on methodology and validation techniques preceded the rapid rise of the publications on research outcomes based on citizen science methods. Of considerable interest is the growing number of studies relying on the re-use of collected datasets from past citizen science research projects, which used data from either individual or multiple citizen science projects for new discoveries, such as for climate change research. The extent to which citizen science has been used in scientific discovery demonstrates its importance as a research approach. This broad analysis of peer reviewed papers on citizen science, that included not only citizen science projects, but the theory and methods developed to underpin the research, highlights the breadth and depth of the citizen science approach and encourages cross-fertilization between the different disciplines.

‣ The use of experts and their judgments in nursing research: An overview

Bruce,JC; Langley,GC; Tjale,AA
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Experts and their judgments are widely used in the fields of research, education, health care, law, commerce and technology. Expert judgment is known for its subjectivity and its potential for bias, which brings into question the accuracy and authenticity of judgmental data. At the same time there is acknowledgment of the valued contribution of judgmental data towards valid inferences in research and education. Maximizing the use of experts and their judgments has therefore become an endeavour of educationists and researchers alike. Since this is not a research article its purpose is to guide and assist nurse researchers with important methodological and ethical decisions when using experts. Experts must be used in the context of appropriate research methods such as the Delphi and Nominal Group techniques. Sampling of experts and sample size is determined by the type and quality of data and the availability of population data; purposive and maximum variation sampling techniques are recommended as appropriate when sampling experts. Universal research ethics must be applied with particular consideration of aspects which may influence the truth value of consensus among experts and marginalization of minority or extreme viewpoints. Quantification of judgmental data is recommended and is important to minimize bias and to increase the authenticity of research findings. The content includes: design considerations when using experts...