Página 12 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.182 segundos

‣ Basic and applied research on choice responding.

Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
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Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions.

‣ Delivering HIV services to vulnerable populations: a review of CARE Act-funded research.

McKinney, Martha M.; Marconi, Katherine M.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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This article summarizes key findings from evaluation and research studies that have received financial support from the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration or from Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act grantees. These studies suggest that the CARE Act has improved but not equalized service accessibility, quality, and outcomes for different populations living with HIV disease. Evaluations of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) found that uninsured patients, women, people of color, and injection drug users waited much longer than others to receive the new therapies. These disparities were not uniform across study sites, suggesting that clinic characteristics and geographic location have a major influence on prescribing patterns. Once patients gained access to HAART, health insurance status made little difference in clinical outcomes.

‣ Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 Português
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Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient pollution; and that the fetus is more sensitive to genetic damage than the mother. The study also provided the first molecular evidence that transplacental PAH exposure to the fetus is compromising fetal development. If confirmed...

‣ Some comments on potency measures in mutagenicity research.

Margolin, B H; Kim, B S; Smith, M G; Fetterman, B A; Piegorsch, W W; Zeiger, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1994 Português
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In this article, the measurement of the potency of a chemical or mixture from its dose response in a particular assay is addressed. Attention is focused on data from the Ames Salmonella assay. Three measures of potency are explored and shown to be highly correlated. The presentation then discusses specific areas of research that might benefit from a study of potency.

‣ Risk assessment of oxidant gases and particulate air pollutants: uncertainties and research needs.

Samet, J M; Pepelko, W E; Sonawane, B; Hatch, G E; Driscoll, K E; Oberdörster, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 Português
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The assessment of risks to human health associated with exposure to oxidant air pollutants has not received adequate attention despite the recognized public health threat posed by the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in the environment. In this article, research needs and uncertainties at each of the steps in the risk assessment of oxidant air pollutants are identified: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these limitations and uncertainties arise at the interface between the laboratory and the regulatory arenas. Therefore, as a case study, relevant methodologic problems associated with the application of experimental findings to the risk assessment of respirable dusts are also discussed. These issues include the extrapolation of animal data to the human case and extrapolation from high-dose to environmentally relevant, low-level exposures.

‣ The Vietnam Era Twin Registry: a resource for medical research.

Henderson, W G; Eisen, S; Goldberg, J; True, W R; Barnes, J E; Vitek, M E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 Português
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The Vietnam Era Twin Registry consists of 4,774 male-male twin pairs born between 1939 and 1957 with both brothers having served in the United States military during the Vietnam War. The registry was originally developed to provide the best control group for Vietnam-exposed servicemen to study the long-term health consequences of service in Vietnam. Recognizing the potential value of the registry for other areas of medical research, the Department of Veterans Affairs in 1988 opened the registry for use by both VA and non-VA investigators. The existence of centralized VA data bases for deaths and VA hospitalizations will strengthen future followup of the twins. This article describes the characteristics of the registry population and the process for accessing the registry.

‣ A flow diagram to facilitate selection of interventions and research for health care.

Irwig, L.; Zwarenstein, M.; Zwi, A.; Chalmers, I.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
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Decisions about health care should be informed by systematic review of valid research evidence on the effects of interventions on health outcomes that matter. If systematic review suggests it is likely that a health care intervention does more good than harm in some settings, questions must be addressed about the local applicability of the intervention, its cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of implementation. If systematic review suggests that it is unlikely that an intervention does more good than harm in any setting, its use should be discouraged, while existing interventions are improved or alternative interventions developed. If it is uncertain whether an intervention does more good than harm, further analysis of existing data or new controlled trials are required. The article contains a flow diagram, which provides a structure for making such decisions.

‣ Strategic responses by hospitals to increased financial risk in the 1980s.

Friedman, B.; Farley, D.
Fonte: Health Research and Educational Trust Publicador: Health Research and Educational Trust
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
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OBJECTIVE. This research addresses the following types of responses by hospitals to increased financial risk: (a) increases in prices to privately insured patients (testing separately the effects of risk from the effects of "cost-shifting" that depends on level of Medicare payment in relation to case mix-adjusted cost); (b) changes in service mix offered and selectivity in acceptance of patients to reduce risk; and (c) efforts to reduce variation in resource use for those patients admitted. DATA SOURCES. The database includes a national panel of over 400 hospitals providing information from patient discharge abstracts, hospital financial reports, and county level information over the period 1980-1987. STUDY DESIGN. Econometric methods suitable to panel data are implemented, with tests for pooling, hospital-specific fixed effects, and possible problems of selection bias. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The prices paid by private insurers to a particular hospital were affected by the changes in risk imposed by Medicare prospective payment, the generosity of Medicare payment, state rate regulation, and ability of the hospital to bear risk. The risk-weighted measure of case mix did not respond to changes in payment policy, but other variables reflecting the management of care after admission to reduce risk did change in the predicted directions. CONCLUSIONS. Some of the findings in this article are relevant to current Medicare policies that involve risk-sharing...

‣ National Medical Association/National Institutes of Health Workshop on Violence and the Conduct of Research. Workgroup Proceedings, June 1-2, 1994.

Martinez, R. A.; Pointer, A.; Vereen, D.; Marks, S. F.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1995 Português
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The physical, economic, and mental toll caused by violence in the United States has put tremendous pressure on American medical, political, religious, and social institutions. The impact in urban neighborhoods has been especially harrowing, forcing African-American organizations to address this domestic problem with ideas and suggestions unique to their philosophies and collective talents. This article contains general perspectives and commentary from physicians and social science experts who participated in a workshop sponsored by the National Medical Association, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the National Institute of Mental Health to discuss topics on violence, its health consequences, and the conduct of research in the African-American community.

‣ Drew/Meharry/Morehouse Consortium Cancer Center: an approach to targeted research in minority institutions.

Haynes, M. A.; Bernard, L. J.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1992 Português
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This article describes the process by which three private minority medical schools planned and developed a consortium cancer research center focusing on the prevention of cancer in the African-American population. Several lessons were learned that may have relevance as minority schools search for ways to improve the health status of blacks.

‣ Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals

Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/06/2013 Português
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Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing...

‣ ExoCarta as a resource for exosomal research

Simpson, Richard J.; Kalra, Hina; Mathivanan, Suresh
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2012 Português
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Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles that are secreted by various cell types. Unlike other extracellular vesicles (ectosomes and apoptotic blebs), exosomes are of endocytic origin. The roles of exosomes in vaccine/drug delivery, intercellular communication and as a possible source of disease biomarkers have sparked immense interest in them, resulting in a plethora of studies. Whilst multidimensional datasets are continuously generated, it is difficult to harness the true potential of the data until they are compiled and made accessible to the biomedical researchers. Here, we describe ExoCarta (http://www.exocarta.org), a manually curated database of exosomal proteins, RNA and lipids. Datasets currently present in ExoCarta are integrated from both published and unpublished exosomal studies. Since its launch in 2009, ExoCarta has been accessed by more than 16,000 unique users. In this article, we discuss the utility of ExoCarta for exosomal research and urge biomedical researchers in the field to deposit their datasets directly to ExoCarta.

‣ ActivePapers: a platform for publishing and archiving computer-aided research

Hinsen, Konrad
Fonte: F1000Research Publicador: F1000Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2015 Português
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The lack of replicability and reproducibility of scientific studies based on computational methods has lead to serious mistakes in published scientific findings, some of which have been discovered and publicized recently. Many strategies are currently pursued to improve the situation. This article reports the first conclusions from the ActivePapers project, whose goal is the development and application of a computational platform that allows the publication of computational research in a form that enables installation-free deployment, encourages reuse, and permits the full integration of datasets and software into the scientific record. The main finding is that these goals can be achieved with existing technology, but that there is no straightforward way to adapt legacy software to such a framework.

‣ The Government Finance Database: A Common Resource for Quantitative Research in Public Financial Analysis

Pierson, Kawika; Hand, Michael L.; Thompson, Fred
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2015 Português
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Quantitative public financial management research focused on local governments is limited by the absence of a common database for empirical analysis. While the U.S. Census Bureau distributes government finance data that some scholars have utilized, the arduous process of collecting, interpreting, and organizing the data has led its adoption to be prohibitive and inconsistent. In this article we offer a single, coherent resource that contains all of the government financial data from 1967-2012, uses easy to understand natural-language variable names, and will be extended when new data is available.

‣ The Effects of Research & Development Funding on Scientific Productivity: Academic Chemistry, 1990-2009

Rosenbloom, Joshua L.; Ginther, Donna K.; Juhl, Ted; Heppert, Joseph A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2015 Português
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This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D) funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 29 (April 2008)

Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This issue of The NPS Maritime Domain Protection Newsletter includes an article on NPS and Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) students from a student-led Red Cell exercise, who briefed California OHS officials on their initial planning efforts for California's port system; and an article on the 21st Annual International Military Operations ; Law Conference held in April 2008.

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 33 (August 2008)

Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This issue of The NPS Maritime Domain Protection Newsletter includes an article that summarizes the August 2008 Global Maritime Information Sharing Symposium in Kings Point, New York, and information on receiving the extended brief on the conference; an article on the August 2008 Maritime Information Sharing Symposium in Long Beach, California, and information on how to obtain the white paper with findings, recommendations, and lessons learned from the conference; a calendar of upcoming events, and the Librarian's Corner, which highlights recent publications on maritime security.

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 27 (February 2008)

Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This issue of The NPS Maritime Domain Protection Newsletter includes an article on a Maritime Symposium on Preventive Radiological/ Nuclear Detection; an article on Radio Frequency Identification's Potential to Monitor Small Vessels; and upcoming events and recent documents related to maritime domain protection.

‣ Liaison services for a remotely located biotechnology research center.

Pratt, G F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1991 Português
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In April 1989, the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center (HAM-TMC) Library initiated a prototype liaison program with the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Center for Biotechnology (CBT). The library was interested in examining the benefits and costs of the outreach concept and in supporting Houston's efforts to develop into a center for biotechnology research. Located thirty-five miles from the HAM-TMC Library, CBT was receptive to an outreach project that would improve its access to the library's collection and services. This article describes the objectives and development of the pilot project, the services provided, feedback from the biotechnologists, and program costs. Although limited in scope, the project has provided the HAM-TMC Library with useful data about the information needs of a particular group of biotechnologists and strengthened relationships with these scientists. In addition, the knowledge and experience gained from this effort are being used to plan outreach efforts for other client groups.

‣ Learning to Rank Figures within a Biomedical Article

Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2014 Português
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Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the “bag of figures” assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as “figure ranking”. Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank.