Página 16 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.333 segundos

‣ The impact of technology upon medical history research: the past, the problems, the potential.

Kopp, J J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1987 Português
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The stereotypical view of the historian is that of a stodgy, bespectacled individual poring over tomes of printed text, dusty manuscripts, and thousands of index cards. In the twentieth century, however, many historians have relied increasingly on technological aids to assist in research. This paper focuses on technological developments of this century that have had some impact on medical history research, beginning with the photostat early in this century. It is argued that online bibliographic databases, although relatively recent and not yet fully developed, are only the beginning of technological aids to historical research. Other computer-assisted historiographical applications are examined and the potentials of developing technologies are explored. The specific and inherent problems of using technology in historical research are also presented, as is the need for an evolving role of libraries in dealing with these problems.

‣ Improving undergraduate biology education in a large research university.

Bender, C; Ward, S; Wells, M A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The campus-wide Undergraduate Biology Research Program (UBRP) at the University of Arizona improves undergraduate science education by expanding student opportunities for independent research in faculty laboratories. Within the supportive community of a research laboratory, underclassmen, nonscience majors, and those aspiring to scientific careers all learn to appreciate the process of science. The Program impacts more than the students, promoting departmental cooperation, interdisciplinary collaborations, and improvements in undergraduate science education throughout a Research I University.

‣ Research on human subjects: Australian ethics committees take tentative steps.

Osborne, L W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1983 Português
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Australian medical researchers are attempting to formulate a response to some of the ethical issues in medical research. The debate over the in vitro fertilisation programme has highlighted some community concern about research ethics and the role of the ethics committee. While very little is known about Australian ethics committees, it appears that a two-tiered approach comprising both ethical review and scientific review is acceptable to the research community. However, this approach plus some problems with the nature of informed consent, begs the question of the role of these committees in the broader context of medical research in the community. Important aspects of a seminar for members of hospital ethics committees are reported.

‣ Competition in hospital and health insurance markets: a review and research agenda.

Morrisey, M A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To review the empirical literature on the effects of selective contracting and hospital competition on hospital prices, travel distance, services, and quality; to review the effects of managed care penetration and competition on health insurance premiums; and to identify areas for further research. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Selective contracting has allowed managed care plans to obtain lower prices from hospitals. This finding is generalizable beyond California and is stronger when there is more competition in the hospital market. Travel distances to hospitals of admission have not increased as a result of managed care. Evidence on the diffusion of technology in hospitals and the extent to which hospitals have specialized as a result of managed care is mixed. Little research on the effects on quality has been undertaken, but preliminary evidence suggests that hospital quality has not declined and may have improved. Actual mergers in the hospital market have not affected hospital prices. Much less research has been focused on managed care markets. Greater market penetration and greater competition among managed care plans are associated with lower managed care premiums. Greater HMO penetration appears to be much more effective than PPO penetration in leading to lower premiums. While workers are willing to change plans when faced with higher out-of-pocket premiums...

‣ The care and feeding of a psychotherapy research team.

Mahrer, A R; Gagnon, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1991 Português
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Although psychotherapy research teams have been in existence since the 1940s, one of the reasons they are not more popular is the absence of literature on how they operate. There is essentially no literature on the organization and administration of psychotherapy research teams, on the management of their everyday practical issues, decisions, and problems. In order to open the way for a dialogue on these matters, an inside view is provided of one relatively productive psychotherapy research team. The topics include the mission and goal, nature and size of the team, administrative locale, team contract, meetings and homework, leadership and decision-making, the research tape library, and what team members get from participation on the team.

‣ Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.

Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk...

‣ Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
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Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region...

‣ Assessment of allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: an agenda for future research.

Selgrade, MaryJane K; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Germolec, Dori R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 Português
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Speakers and participants in the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods" met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. These groups agreed that research should progress quickly in the area of hazard identification and that a need exists for more basic research to understand the mechanisms underlying food allergy. A list of research needs was developed.

‣ Fate of research studies.

Easterbrook, P J; Matthews, D R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1992 Português
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A retrospective survey was conducted of 720 research protocols, approved by the Central Oxford Research Ethics Committee between 1984 and 1987, to determine the fate of research studies from inception. Forty-five per cent were clinical trials, 23% were observational studies and 32% were laboratory-based experimental studies. Further information was obtained on 487 studies, of which 287 (59%) had been completed, 100 (21%) had never started, 58 (12%) had been abandoned or were in abeyance and 42 (9%) were still ongoing, as of May 1990. Forty-three per cent of the original 487 studies were subsequently published or presented. The most frequent reason for not starting a study was failure to obtain funding (40%). The main reason for abandoning a study was difficulty in recruiting study participants (28%). Departure of one of the investigators from the institution and a variety of logistical problems were also common reasons for either not starting or abandoning a study. A thorough review of the pragmatic as well as the scientific aspects of a planned research project is important to minimize the initiation of studies that are unlikely to succeed.

‣ A comparison of research general practices and their patients with other practices--a cross-sectional survey in Trent.

Hammersley, Vicky; Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Wilson, Andrew; Pringle, Mike
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND: When interpreting results of studies undertaken by research networks we need to know how representative volunteer practices and their registered patients are of the total population of practices and patients in their locality. AIM: To compare the following in research and non-research general practices in one region: practice and population demography, morbidity and mortality, selected performance indicators, and health outcomes. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Sixty-six Trent Focus Collaborative Research Network general practices and 749 other general practices in Trent, United Kingdom. METHOD: Practice characteristics and GP contract data were obtained from the NHS Executive, Quarry House, Leeds. The Trent Regional NHS Hospital Admission Database was searched to identify all relevant admissions to hospital from all practices between 1 April 1993 and 31 March 1997. Ward-linked data on cancer were obtained from the Trent Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Of the 815 general practices in Trent Region in the study period, 66 (8%) were in the Trent Focus network. They were more likely to be involved in training GPs and to have a female partner. They tended to be larger, with fewer single-handed doctors and younger GPs. Network practices prescribed a higher proportion of generics (median % prescribed/practice = 70%...

‣ A model agreement for genetic research in socially identifiable populations.

Foster, M W; Bernsten, D; Carter, T H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
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Genetic research increasingly focuses on population-specific human genetic diversity. However, the naming of a human population in public databases and scientific publications entails collective risks for its members. Those collective risks can be evaluated and protections can be put in place by the establishment of a dialogue with the subject population, before a research study is initiated. Here we describe an agreement to undertake genetic research with a Native American tribe. We identified the culturally appropriate public and private social units within which community members are accustomed to make decisions about health. We then engaged those units in a process of communal discourse. In their discourses about our proposed study, community members expressed most concern about culturally specific implications. We also found that, in this population, private social units were more influential in communal decision making than were public authorities. An agreement was reached that defined the scope of research, provided options for naming the population in publications (including anonymity), and addressed the distribution of royalties from intellectual property, the future use of archival samples, and specific cultural concerns. We found that informed consent by individuals could not fully address these collective issues. This approach may serve as a general model for the undertaking of population-specific genetic studies.

‣ Expanding the research infrastructure for lesbian health.

Bradford, J; Ryan, C; Honnold, J; Rothblum, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 Português
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Interest in research about lesbian health has increased dramatically since the late 1980s and gained national attention in 1999 when the Institute of Medicine published the groundbreaking report Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future. In March 2000, the Department of Health and Human Services and partner organizations presented the Scientific Workshop on Lesbian Health, during which invited experts on lesbian health worked with federal representatives to develop action steps to implement recommendations in the Institute of Medicine report. National priorities were thus established for the emerging field of lesbian health research. Although researchers of various sexual orientation and gender identities will contribute to this field, lesbian researchers have a unique perspective and an important role to play. This commentary focuses on the preparedness of these individuals to respond to challenges set forth by the Institute of Medicine and Scientific Workshop reports. Despite differences in their academic backgrounds, lesbian researchers have reported common experiences and needs. Substantial proportions have encountered barriers because they were lesbians or conducted lesbian research, and many expressed willingness to mentor others...

‣ Pesticides--how research has succeeded and failed in informing policy: DDT and the link with breast cancer.

Wolff, M S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1995 Português
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Investigation of chemical exposures as possible etiologic factors for breast cancer has not been a research priority in the United States, which is surprising given the evidence from animal studies that environmental chemicals cause cancer and reproductive dysfunction. Study of environmental chemicals has also been indicated by the failure of traditional epidemiologic methods to account for significant proportions of breast cancer incidence with other risk factors. The fact that breast cancer risk is strongly associated with reproductive hormones is a further clue that environmental chemicals should be investigated. In addition to cancer, specific outcomes that need to be explored are reproductive dysfunction, immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Policy guiding our research should encourage toxicologic investigations of exposures to environmental chemicals that use state-of-the-art methods to determine exposure and human health effects. Using the approach suggested by John McLachlan, functional toxicology should be used to assess the activity of chemicals with regard to these outcomes. Just as dioxin toxicity can be expressed as toxic equivalents, estrogenic activity, for example, can be characterized in terms of estrogenic equivalents. In addition to the need to undertake this kind of research...

‣ Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment...

‣ European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

Sors, A I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future.

‣ The U.S. EPA Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children: a research agenda.

Carroquino, M J; Galson, S K; Licht, J; Amler, R W; Perera, F P; Claxton, L D; Landrigan, P J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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On 15-16 September 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children. The conference was convened to examine rising trends in reported incidence of childhood cancer and the association of these trends with environmental exposures. This paper summarizes recommendations for future research offered by participants. These recommendations included more collaborative research integrating epidemiology, molecular biology, toxicology, and risk assessment; the development of better protocols for toxicologic testing including carcinogenicity using young animals; and research focused on specific periods of development during which susceptibility to environmental agents may be enhanced. Also recommended was enhanced use and development of molecular biomarkers for identification of susceptible populations, and documentation of exposures and effects in epidemiologic and toxicologic studies. Although toxicologic testing is considered essential to determine the effects of potential carcinogens on biological organisms, participants emphasized the need to link these findings with epidemiologic and exposure assessment research.

‣ Some critical issues and concerns related to research advances on toxicology of chemical mixtures.

Yang, R S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper addresses some of the issues and concerns on research advances on the toxicology of chemical mixtures. Emphases will be selectively given to the following questions and answers: Can mechanistic studies be conducted on chemical mixtures? The fact that any studies, including mechanistic studies, of single chemicals are really the study of the parent chemical plus its metabolites underscores the relevance of mechanistic studies on chemical mixtures. Can predictions be made on the health effects of chemical mixtures? Some successes are already evident in the literature on simpler chemical mixtures. For more complex mixtures, it is possible and we propose an approach here. What can we learn from other disciplines (the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration)? Two aspects, the knowledge and methodologies available in clinical pharmacology and the latest advances in structure-oriented lumping in chemical engineering, are discussed in detail. Unrepeatable results: The possibility of magnification of biologic variability because of low-level exposures to chemical mixtures is suggested with special reference to some known examples, including the controversial study on synergistic interactions of endocrine disruptors. Is the driving force for scientific investigations on chemical mixtures the legislative and regulatory atmosphere? Two laws with chemical mixtures specifically in the language are quoted and discussed. Their implications regarding research funding and activities are described. What are the pitfalls of applying for research funding on investigating chemical mixtures? The dilemma at least one investigator faces in pursuing research funding is elaborated. The questions and issues listed above are not all inclusive...

‣ Arsenic: health effects, mechanisms of actions, and research issues.

Abernathy, C O; Liu, Y P; Longfellow, D; Aposhian, H V; Beck, B; Fowler, B; Goyer, R; Menzer, R; Rossman, T; Thompson, C; Waalkes, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1999 Português
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A meeting on the health effects of arsenic (As), its modes of action, and areas in need of future research was held in Hunt Valley, Maryland, on 22-24 September 1997. Exposure to As in drinking water has been associated with the development of skin and internal cancers and noncarcinogenic effects such as diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little data on specific mechanism(s) of action for As, but a great deal of information on possible modes of action. Although arsenite [As(III)] can inhibit more than 200 enzymes, events underlying the induction of the noncarcinogenic effects of As are not understood. With respect to carcinogenicity, As can affect DNA repair, methylation of DNA, and increase radical formation and activation of the protooncogene c-myc, but none of these potential pathways have widespread acceptance as the principal etiologic event. In addition, there are no accepted models for the study of As-induced carcinogenesis. At the final meeting session we considered research needs. Among the most important areas cited were a) As metabolism and its interaction with cellular constituents; b) possible bioaccumulation of As; c) interactions with other metals; d) effects of As on genetic material; e) development of animal models and cell systems to study effects of As; and f) a better characterization of human exposures as related to health risks. Some of the barriers to the advancement of As research included an apparent lack of interest in the United States on As research; lack of relevant animal models; difficulty with adoption of uniform methodologies; lack of accepted biomarkers; and the need for a central storage repository for stored specimens.

‣ Closer to a compromise on the direction of environmental research.

VanderMeer, D C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
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The Committee for the National Institute for the Environment (CNIE) was created in 1990 "to improve the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues," possibly through the establishment of a separate institute devoted to the environmental sciences. But while the goals proposed for the National Institute for the Environment were universally applauded, Congress was averse to adding a new agency to the federal bureaucracy. Recently, a compromise plan has been proposed that could expand the science base without having to create a new agency. On 29 July 1999, the National Science Board approved an interim report recommending an expanded program of environmental research and research planning, education, and scientific assessment with a funding target of an additional $1 billion over five years. The report stresses the importance of environmental research in formulating environmental protection programs and contains 12 recommendations intended to enhance and complement existing research activities in environmental sciences and engineering. If the National Science Foundation implements the recommendations in the report and if Congress appropriates funds for that purpose, the need for additional funding for new science activities identified by the CNIE should be satisfied.

‣ Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1994 Português
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This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research.