Página 19 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.272 segundos

‣ Using formative research to lay the foundation for community level HIV prevention efforts: an example from the AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

Higgins, D L; O'Reilly, K; Tashima, N; Crain, C; Beeker, C; Goldbaum, G; Elifson, C S; Galavotti, C; Guenther-Grey, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects provided community-level HIV prevention interventions to historically hard-to-reach groups at high risk for HIV infection. The projects operated under a common research protocol which encompassed formative research, intervention delivery, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation. A formative research process specifically focusing on intervention development was devised to assist project staff in identifying, prioritizing, accessing, and understanding the intervention target groups. This process was central to the creation of interventions that were acceptable and unique to the target populations. Intended to be rapid, the process took 6 months to complete. Drawn from the disciplines of anthropology, community psychology, sociology, and public health, the formative research process followed distinct steps which included (a) defining the populations at high-risk for HIV; (b) gathering information about these populations through interviews with persons who were outside of, but who had contact with, the target groups (such as staff from the health department and alcohol and drug treatment facilities, as well as persons who interacted in an informal manner with the target groups, such as clerks in neighborhood grocery stores and bartenders); (c) interviewing people with access to the target populations (gatekeepers)...

‣ Recommended minimum data to be collected in research studies on Alzheimer's disease. The MRC (UK) Alzheimer's Disease Workshop Steering Committee.

Wilcock, G K; Hope, R A; Brooks, D N; Lantos, P L; Oppenheimer, C; Reynolds, G P; Rossor, M N; Davies, M B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1989 Português
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In order to be able to compare the results of research work carried out in different centres on Alzheimer's disease and dementia, it is necessary for there to be standardised assessment methods. The Medical Research Council organised a workshop in order to see whether workers in Britain in the field of dementia research could agree on such standardised assessment methods. The workshop agreed guidelines for the minimum data which should be collected, in clinical and pathological studies, on patients with presumed Alzheimer's disease and dementia. These recommendations are compared with other approaches based on research diagnostic criteria.

‣ Overlooked opportunities for investing in health research and development.

Fraser, D. W.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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In 1996, an Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options (formed under the auspices of the World Health Organization) described a model for setting priorities in research funding. This model, however, as presented in the Ad Hoc Committee's report entitled Investing in health research and development, fails in the following important situations: (i) when there is a health problem about which little is known; (ii) when current control measures are unsustainable; (iii) when there are complex risk factors, like "social factors", which affect many different diseases; and (iv) when the disease burden and resources for control vary greatly from one place to another. In situations of uncertainty or complexity, a method of priority-setting that emphasizes certainty and simplicity may actually mislead. A transparent, matrix-based process--illustrated with an example of priority-setting for malaria--may permit such uncertainty and complexity to be better taken into account in setting health research priorities.

‣ How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?

Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi
Fonte: Avicenna Research Institute Publicador: Avicenna Research Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system.

‣ Assessing Public Engagement with Science in a University Primate Research Centre in a National Zoo

Bowler, Mark T.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Whiten, Andrew
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2012 Português
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Recent years have seen increasing encouragement by research institutions and funding bodies for scientists to actively engage with the public, who ultimately finance their work. Animal behaviour as a discipline possesses several features, including its inherent accessibility and appeal to the public, that may help it occupy a particularly successful niche within these developments. It has also established a repertoire of quantitative behavioural methodologies that can be used to document the public's responses to engagement initiatives. This kind of assessment is becoming increasingly important considering the enormous effort now being put into public engagement projects, whose effects are more often assumed than demonstrated. Here we report our first attempts to quantify relevant aspects of the behaviour of a sample of the hundreds of thousands of visitors who pass through the ‘Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre’ in Edinburgh Zoo. This University research centre actively encourages the public to view ongoing primate research and associated science engagement activities. Focal follows of visitors and scan sampling showed substantial ‘dwell times’ in the Centre by common zoo standards and the addition of new engagement elements in a second year was accompanied by significantly increased overall dwell times...

‣ Clinical research, prophylaxis, therapy, and care for HIV disease in Africa.

De Cock, K M; Lucas, S B; Lucas, S; Agness, J; Kadio, A; Gayle, H D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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By the end of the century, citizens of resource-poor countries will constitute 90% of the world's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. Clinical management of such persons in developing countries has been neglected; most AIDS research has concentrated on epidemiology, and donor agencies have generally invested in the prevention of HIV infection. The heavy burden of HIV disease in Africa requires that care for AIDS be addressed, and prevention and care should be seen as interrelated. Prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, the commonest severe infection in persons with AIDS in Africa, illustrate this interrelationship. We outline priorities for applied research on the management of HIV disease in a resource-poor environment, and discuss prophylaxis, therapy for opportunistic diseases, terminal care, and use of antiretroviral therapy. Research should define the standard of care that can realistically be demanded for HIV disease in a resource-poor environment. Research and public health programs for AIDS in developing countries must address AIDS care and attempt to reduce the widening gap between interventions available for HIV-infected persons in different parts of the world.

‣ Challenges of Introducing Participant Observation to Community Health Research

Zhao, Meng; Ji, Yingchun
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2014 Português
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Participant observation elicits unique observation data from both an insider's and an outsider's perspectives. Despite the growing tendency to adopt participant observation strategies in health care research regarding health-related beliefs and types of behavior, the use of participant observation in current research is mostly limited to structured clinical settings rather than community settings. In this paper, we describe how we use participant observation in a community health research study with Chinese-born immigrant women. We document discrepancies between these women's beliefs and types of behavior regarding health and health promotion. We further discuss the ethnical, time, and setting challenges in community health research using participant observation. Possible solutions are also discussed.

‣ Controlling the avoidable causes of cancer: needs and opportunities for etiologic research.

Samet, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1995 Português
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This meeting of the President's Cancer Panel was designed to provide an overview of known and suspect causes of cancer and to indicate those that might be considered avoidable. Two complex concepts are inherent in this charge: cause and avoidability. Risk factors for cancer are designated as causal when the evidence from observational and laboratory research is judged sufficient in relation to criteria for causality; the extent to which cancers of specific sites can be avoided is best estimated by the attributable risk statistic, which incorporates both the exposure pattern and the relative risk for the cancer-causing agent. A research agenda on avoidable causes of cancer should then address both the risks associated with the agents that cause cancer and the pattern of exposure to the agents. Presentations at the meeting highlighted gaps in the evidence on the risks associated with various known and potential causes of cancer and on the patterns of exposure across the diverse groups within the population. In spite of these gaps, presenters emphasized that the evidence is already sufficient to justify intervention for many agents and that action need not be delayed for the well-characterized causes of cancer. In addition to research recommendations offered by presenters for specific causal agents...

‣ Development of a pollution prevention and energy efficiency clearinghouse for biomedical research facilities.

Barker, L F; Rau, E H; Pfister, E A; Calcagni, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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This is the report of the National Association of Physicians for the Environment Committee on Development of a Pollution Prevention and Energy Efficiency Clearinghouse for Biomedical Research Facilities from the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, on 1--2 November 1999. A major goal of the conference was the establishment of a World Wide Web-based clearinghouse, which would lend tremendous resources to the biomedical research community by providing access to a database of peer-reviewed articles and references dealing with a host of aspects of biomedical research relating to energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and waste reduction. A temporary website has been established with the assistance of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions III and IV, where a pilot site provides access to the EPA's existing databases on these topics. A system of peer review for articles and promising techniques still must be developed, but a glimpse of topics and search engines is available for comment and review on the EPA Region IV-supported website (http://wrrc.p2pays.org/).

‣ Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing...

‣ Reforming the Department of Health's research and development policy: from the devil to the deep blue sea?

Maynard, A.; Sheldon, T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/1992 Português
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Research into health and social services in Britain is largely funded by the Department of Health. Regional NHS research and development has recently been reformed and a new report now proposes replacement of the 13 research units funded by the department with three or four large multidisciplinary centres. Evidence to support such a step is lacking, and many criticisms of the existing units arise from poor departmental planning rather than deficiencies of the units themselves. Large units may make research less responsive to the department's needs, and it is essential that the proposed new structure is thoroughly evaluated before it is introduced.

‣ Self-assessment of cultural attitudes and competence of clinical investigators to enhance recruitment and participation of minority populations in research.

O'Brien, Richard L.; Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Cook, Cynthia T.; Kissell, Judith; Peak, Frank; Williams, Ethel Hill
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 Português
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Reduction of health disparities in the United States is a high priority. One means of effecting such a reduction is to enroll persons of groups that are subject to health disparities in clinical trials. One barrier to minorities enrolling in clinical research is distrust of the medical establishment based on past abuses and perceived discrimination. We hypothesized that another barrier is a lack of investigators' understanding and skill in effectively communicating with members of minority cultures. We therefore assessed the cultural competency of faculty and staff involved in clinical care and research at Creighton University Medical Center (CUMC). Thirty-seven faculty and staff members participated. We found that the majority are reasonably culturally competent, but there are areas in which proficiency can be enhanced and recruitment of participants in clinical research can be improved. Most CUMC faculty and staff respect and have reasonable knowledge of the several cultures of the patients for whom they provide care and with whom they conduct research. But there is a need for continued cultural sensitivity/competency training to enhance understanding of certain aspects of minority cultures, group and interpersonal relationships...

‣ The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

Emerson, Paul M.; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers...

‣ The development of a relevant and comprehensive research agenda to improve Hispanic health.

Marin, G; Amaro, H; Eisenberg, C; Opava-Stitzer, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
422.2339%
The development of an appropriate research agenda for Hispanics requires progress in three areas: (a) developing an appropriate research infrastructure, (b) increasing the availability of appropriate research instrumentation, and (c) identifying and assigning priority areas. In addition, a Latino health research agenda must identify mechanisms for increasing the number of trained Hispanic researchers and the number of Latino professional staff members at the Department of Health and Human Services. It is recommended that an Office of Hispanic Health be established within the Office of Minority Health at the Department to oversee the implementation of the recommendations made as part of the Surgeon General's National Hispanic Health Initiative.

‣ The development of a treatment-research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children.

Lovaas, O I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 Português
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This paper describes the development and main results over the last 30 years from the treatment-research project with developmentally disabled (autistic) children in the Psychology Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Three important dimensions in treatment research are addressed. The first pertains to the role of serendipity or accidental discoveries, the second to the importance of pursuing inductive rather than theory-driven research, and the third to the importance of adding in a cumulative and step-wise manner to improve treatment adequacy. Data from various areas of treatment research have been used to illustrate new directions for the project. These illustrations center on early and successful attempts to isolate experimentally the environmental variables that control self-injury, failure to observe response and stimulus generalization with subsequent loss of treatment gains, and the main results of intensive and early behavioral intervention in the child's natural environment. Effective treatment for severe behavioral disorders is seen to require early intervention carried out during all or most of the child's waking hours, addressing all significant behaviors in all of the child's environments, by all significant persons...

‣ Pfiesteria: review of the science and identification of research gaps. Report for the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Samet, J; Bignami, G S; Feldman, R; Hawkins, W; Neff, J; Smayda, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
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In connection with the CDC National Conference on Pfiesteria, a multidisciplinary panel evaluated Pfiesteria-related research. The panel set out what was known and what was not known about adverse effects of the organism on estuarine ecology, fish, and human health; assessed the methods used in Pfiesteria research; and offered suggestions to address data gaps. The panel's expertise covered dinoflagellate ecology; fish pathology and toxicology; laboratory measurement of toxins, epidemiology, and neurology. The panel evaluated peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature available through June 2000 in a systematic conceptual framework that moved from the source of exposure, through exposure research and dose, to human health effects. Substantial uncertainties remain throughout the conceptual framework the panel used to guide its evaluation. Firm evidence demonstrates that Pfiesteria is toxic to fish, but the specific toxin has not been isolated or characterized. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that the organism has a complex life cycle. The consequences of human exposure to Pfiesteria toxin and the magnitude of the human health problem remain obscure. The patchwork of approaches used in clinical evaluation and surrogate measures of exposure to the toxin are major limitations of this work. To protect public health...

‣ Dissemination and Implementation Research Funded by the US National Institutes of Health, 2005–2012

Tinkle, Mindy; Kimball, Richard; Haozous, Emily A.; Shuster, George; Meize-Grochowski, Robin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is a growing area of science focused on overcoming the science-practice gap by targeting the distribution of information and adoption of interventions to public health and clinical practice settings. This study examined D&I research projects funded under specific program announcements by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2005 to 2012. The authors described the projects' D&I strategies, funding by NIH Institute, focus, characteristics of the principal investigators (PIs) and their organizations, and other aspects of study design and setting. Results showed 46 R01s, 6 R03s, and 24 R21s funded totaling $79.2 million. The top funders were the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Mental Health, together providing 61% of funding. The majority of PIs were affiliated with Schools of Medicine or large, nonprofit research organizations and think tanks. Only 4% of projects were to PIs with appointments at Schools of Nursing, with 7% of the funding. The most commonly funded projects across all of the studies focused on cancer control and screening, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and mental health services. Typically implemented in community and organizational settings...

‣ Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus.

Harrison, B D; Wilson, T M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/1999 Português
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Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different...

‣ The Veterans Administration Northwest Regional Health Services Research and Development Field Program: organization, activities, and early outcomes.

Austin, C D; Carter, W B; Durham, M L; Hedrick, S C; Hickam, D H; Inui, T S; Koepsell, T D; Pearlman, R A; Petersen, M D; Rothman, M L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1986 Português
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In 1982, the Veterans Administration established Health Services Research field programs in each of the six VA regions. Herein, we describe the historical origins, organization, responsibilities, activities, and early accomplishments of one of these programs--the Northwest Regional HSR&D field program. Special reference is made to this program's commitment to health services research relevant to geriatrics and gerontology, including the development of a system-wide agenda for research, information syntheses in geriatrics-relevant health services research topics, and the conduct of funded projects pertinent to care of the elderly. The importance of a medical center location for the field programs is discussed, and early indications of institutional impact are described.

‣ Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina;
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g....