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‣ A protocol system to satisfy research specific, disease specific, physician specific, and patient specific informational needs.

Chandrasekhar, A. J.; Price, R. N.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1992 Português
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The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center Chicago (LUMC) has developed and is utilizing a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS) to address clinical and research informational needs. PIPS, an integrated module of the department's Patient Information Management System (PIMS), enables end-users to access pre-defined informational templates or "protocols". Protocols detail pre-defined data requirements for patient management or clinical research needs. Each protocol consists of a defined collection of protocol elements. Protocol elements belong to an object group which has several defined attributes (e.g. description, acceptable ranges or inputs, units, and grouping keywords). Approximately 3,500 protocol elements have been identified to define treatments/drugs, symptoms/toxicity, clinical labs, x-rays/scans, physical findings, and lesion groups. Utilizing protocols, PIPS permits end-users to selectively review or capture clinical information. Patients may have several active protocols. PIPS interacts with a specialized database gateway to permit automatic capture of clinical laboratories information, and with reporting systems to produce one of several "chart-ready", time-oriented protocol summary reports. Data extraction programs operate in conjunction with PIPS to facilitate exporting of data for statistical analysis. PIPS has been in operation for over 24 months and has 63 defined protocols (40 clinical research and 23 patient care).

‣ The challenge of preventing environmentally related disease in young children: community-based research in New York City.

Perera, Frederica P; Illman, Susan M; Kinney, Patrick L; Whyatt, Robin M; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Shepard, Peggy; Evans, David; Fullilove, Mindy; Ford, Jean; Miller, Rachel L; Meyer, Ilan H; Rauh, Virginia A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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Rates of developmental and respiratory diseases are disproportionately high in underserved, minority populations such as those in New York City's Washington Heights, Harlem, and the South Bronx. Blacks and Latinos in these neighborhoods represent high risk groups for asthma, adverse birth outcomes, impaired development, and some types of cancer. The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health in Washington Heights uses molecular epidemiologic methods to study the health effects of urban indoor and outdoor air pollutants on children, prenatally and postnatally, in a cohort of over 500 African-American and Dominican (originally from the Dominican Republic) mothers and newborns. Extensive data are collected to determine exposures to particulate matter < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), nitrogen oxide, nonpersistent pesticides, home allergens (dust mite, mouse, cockroach), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and lead and other metals. Biomarkers, air sampling, and clinical assessments are used to study the effects of these exposures on children's increased risk for allergic sensitization, asthma and other respiratory disorders, impairment of neurocognitive and behavioral development...

‣ An Overview: Expanding the Women's Health Research Frontier

Davenport, Marsha G.
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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The articles featured in this issue are focused on health topics that are important to improving the health of women across the life span. Cancer and other chronic diseases will need to continue to be the focus for research efforts in the future. However, additional research on women's health must go beyond the biomedical model and encompass issues related to the cultural aspects of health. further, there is a great need for health services researchers and others to expand the frontier of policy research to explore the development of innovative health care delivery systems to improve the health and health status of all women.

‣ Gender, Work, and Health for Trans Health Providers: A Focus on Transmen

MacDonnell, Judith A.; Grigorovich, Alisa
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2012 Português
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Well-documented health research points to trans people's vulnerability to health inequities that are linked to deeply embedded structural and social determinants of health. Gender and work, as social determinants of health for trans people, both shape and are shaped by multiple factors such as support networks, social environments, income and social status, shelter, and personal health practices. There is a gap in the nursing literature in regards to research on work and health for diverse trans people and a virtual silence on the particular issues of trans-identified health providers. This qualitative study used comparative life history methodology and purposeful sampling to examine links among work, career, and health for transmen who are health providers. Semistructured interviews were completed with four Canadian transmen involved in health care professional and/or practice contexts with diverse professions, age, work, and transitioning experiences. Critical gender analysis showed that unique and gender-related critical events and influences shape continuities and discontinuities in their careerlives. This strength-based approach foregrounds how resilience and growth emerged through participants' articulation with everyday gender dynamics. These findings have implications for nursing research...

‣ New Thoughts on Thought Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Review of Current Research Strategies and Challenges

Goldman, Jennifer G.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2011 Português
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Psychosis is a frequent nonmotor complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by a broad phenomenology and likely due to a variety of intrinsic (i.e., PD-related) and extrinsic factors. Safe and effective therapies are greatly needed as PD psychosis contributes significantly to morbidity, mortality, nursing home placement, and quality of life. Novel research strategies focused on understanding the pharmacology and pathophysiology of PD psychosis, utilizing translational research including animal models, genetics, and neuroimaging, and even looking beyond the dopamine system may further therapeutic advances. This review discusses new research strategies regarding the neurobiology and treatment of PD psychosis and several associated challenges.

‣ Research, practice and the Cochrane Collaboration.

Robinson, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/1995 Português
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The Cochrane Collaboration coordinates the efforts of health care professionals and researchers around the world to prepare, maintain and disseminate systematic reviews of health care research. In carrying out the first two tasks the collaboration employs a rigorous method for analysing the findings of randomized controlled trials; this method was developed in the 1980s and has undergone continual improvement since then. The collaborators believe their work will consolidate and make available the accumulated results of sound research assessing the effectiveness of health care interventions and thus steer health care professionals and consumers toward the right treatments and help guide research into new therapies. Since the collaboration began, in 1993, Cochrane centres have been set up in the British Isles, Canada, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States, and many new Cochrane review groups have been registered. Canadian scientists have played an important role in the collaboration. They have prepared and maintained systematic reviews, hosted the collaboration's second annual colloquium and are currently in the vanguard of efforts to facilitate the dissemination of collaboration documents. Although the collaboration uses new modes of communication it has not abandoned traditional ones. Nor has it underestimated the work that remains to be done to bring review findings to the attention of health care providers. Early indications suggest...

‣ Status of marine biomedical research.

Bessey, O
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1976 Português
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A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities.

‣ Oil Palm Research in Context: Identifying the Need for Biodiversity Assessment

Turner, Edgar C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Foster, William A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2008 Português
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Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening in the scope of research, with a slight growth in publications on the environment and a dramatic increase in those on biofuel. Despite this, less than 1% of publications are related to biodiversity and species conservation. In the context of global vegetable oil markets, palm oil and soyabean account for over 60% of production but are the subject of less than 10% of research. Much more work must be done to establish the impacts of habitat conversion to oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Results from such studies are crucial for informing conservation strategies and ensuring sustainable management of plantations.

‣ Keeping the culture alive: the laboratory technician in mid-twentieth-century British medical research

Tansey, E.M.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper reports results from a detailed study of the careers of laboratory technicians in British medical research. Technicians and their contributions are very frequently missing from accounts of modern medicine, and this project is an attempt to correct that absence. The present paper focuses almost entirely on the Medical Research Council's National Institute for Medical Research in North London, from the first proposal of such a body in 1913 until the mid 1960s. The principal sources of information have been technical staff themselves, largely as recorded in an extensive series of oral history interviews. These have covered a wide range of issues and provide valuable perspectives about technicians' backgrounds and working lives.

‣ Assessing research productivity in an oncology research institute: the role of the documentation center.

Ugolini, D; Bogliolo, A; Parodi, S; Casilli, C; Santi, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1997 Português
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An evaluation method used to assess the quality of research productivity and to provide priorities for budget allocation purposes is presented. This method, developed by a working group of the National Institute for Research on Cancer (IST), Genoa, Italy, is based on the partitioning of categories of the Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Reports (SCI-JCR) into deciles, which normalizes journal impact factors in order to gauge the quality of the productivity. A second parameter related to the number of staff of each institute department co-authoring a given paper has been introduced in order to guide departmental budget allocations. The information scientists of the IST Documentation Center who participated in the working group played a pivotal role in developing the computerized database of publications, providing and analyzing data, supplying and evaluating literature on the topic, and placing international bibliographic databases at the working group's disposal.

‣ Appreciation of a Child's Journey: Implementation of a Cardiac Action Research Project

Dengler, Kate Alexa; Wilson, Valerie; Redshaw, Sarah; Scarfe, Gabrielle
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the phases of the action research process involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating the Heart Beads program. The aim of the project is to enrich the hospital experience of children with cardiac conditions. Heart Beads involves children receiving unique beads specific to each cardiac treatment, procedure or event in recognition of their experiences, and endurance. An action research approach, involving a partnership between clinicians and researchers and emphasising the involvement of patients and their families, was used to guide the Heart Beads program. The project followed the five phases of action research: identification, investigation, program development, implementation, and evaluation. Heart Beads began as a small project which continues to grow in popularity and significance with children at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. The program is now being implemented nationwide with the vision that all Australian children hospitalised with cardiac conditions can benefit from Heart Beads.

‣ Creation of an Open-Access, Mutation-Defined Fibroblast Resource for Neurological Disease Research

Wray, Selina; Self, Matthew; ; ; ; Lewis, Patrick A.; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Ryan, Natalie S.; Mahoney, Colin J.; Liang, Yuying; Devine, Michael J.; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Houlden, Henry; Morris, Huw R.; Healy, Daniel; Marti-Masso, Jose-Felix; Preza, Elisavet;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/08/2012 Português
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Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of many neurological disorders has been greatly enhanced by the discovery of mutations in genes linked to familial forms of these diseases. These have facilitated the generation of cell and animal models that can be used to understand the underlying molecular pathology. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the use of patient-derived cells, due to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into neurons and glia. Access to patient cell lines carrying the relevant mutations is a limiting factor for many centres wishing to pursue this research. We have therefore generated an open-access collection of fibroblast lines from patients carrying mutations linked to neurological disease. These cell lines have been deposited in the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Repository at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and can be requested by any research group for use in in vitro disease modelling. There are currently 71 mutation-defined cell lines available for request from a wide range of neurological disorders and this collection will be continually expanded. This represents a significant resource that will advance the use of patient cells as disease models by the scientific community.

‣ Attitudes to research ethical committees.

Allen, P; Waters, W E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1983 Português
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A questionnaire on the attitudes towards the functions of research ethical committees was sent to members of selected research ethical committees in Wessex and some controls. Almost all respondents felt there was a need for ethical review of research projects; 42 per cent thought there was a need for some training before joining a committee; 67 per cent thought the system could be improved and 47 per cent thought that monitoring or follow-up procedures should be adopted. Ethical committees were thought to be purely advisory, as opposed to mandatory, by 33 per cent, and 63 per cent thought they should restrict their review to ethical problems as opposed to scientific or design problems. Views about the function of non-medical members ranged from 'none at all' to 'very important'. Of the 10 controls who were asked whether they would become a member of an ethical committee if asked, seven said that on balance they would and the reasons stated varied from the view that it was a 'very important committee' to the feeling that it was 'a necessary but irksome job'.

‣ Research issues in the study of very low birthweight and preterm delivery among African-American women.

Rowley, D. L.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1994 Português
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Very low birthweight and preterm delivery explain two thirds of the excess deaths experienced by African-American infants. Although comprehensive, good quality services for all African-American women will help to reduce the twofold higher rate of infant mortality experienced by African-American infants compared with white infants, the infant mortality gap will not be closed until prevention research is conducted that incorporates the social, cultural, and political context of life for African-American women; the environmental stressors and the physiologic responses associated with stress; and the protective mechanisms available in the community for responding to stress. Discrimination may be an important stressor that influences a woman's susceptibility to a poor pregnancy outcome. Strategies already exist in the community to cope with discrimination and other environmental stressors. To capture the effects of discrimination and other environmental factors and the protective factors important for prevention, the research approach must involve African-American women and their communities as collaborators in the research. Such collaboration will help to avoid problems with scientific racism.

‣ Future directions and research needs.

Farland, W H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1991 Português
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In this paper, three perspectives for indoor air issues are considered: a) air inside of our homes and offices is a major component of our overall living environment and has potentially great impact on public health; b) there are important scientific questions raised specifically to indoor air that will require skills and expertise to develop and interpret research and data collection efforts; and c) from a risk assessor's point of view, the types and quality of scientific information is critical to the process of health risk assessment to risk managers to make the best decisions regarding environmental risks from indoor air. The primary focus of this presentation is to highlight suggested future directions and needs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that formed the core of a report to Congress on assessment and control of indoor air pollution. The five major areas that constitute the current EPA indoor air research strategy are monitoring/building studies; health effects; source characterization/mitigation; health impact/risk assessment; and program management/technology transfer. Additionally, major trends and research needs are discussed, including greater emphasis on noncancer effects and multiple pollutants at low levels and the need for more sensitive measures for detecting adverse health effects to more effectively characterize chemically sensitive individuals and population subgroups.

‣ How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

Redmon, R B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1986 Português
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The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research.

‣ Students' Evaluation of a Team-based Course on Research and Publication Ethics: Attitude Change in Medical School Graduate Students

Kim, Soo Young
Fonte: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea Publicador: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/12/2008 Português
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In response to a growing need for students to appreciate ethical issues in medical research and publication, a brief team-based learning (TBL) course was presented to graduate students in the medical school of Hallym University in October and November 2007. To gather information as a basis for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 19 students and the feedback was evaluated. The questionnaire consisted of four categories: general course content (7 items), changes in attitudes toward research and publication ethics (6 items), the TBL format (6 items), and an open-ended question about the class (1 item). The most positive response had to do with the importance of the material. Students reported that their knowledge about ethical issues increased, and they expressed satisfaction regarding the communication with their tutors within the TBL format. Most students showed positive responses to the subject as well as to TBL. Since this was the first trial offering of this material in the graduate program at this medical school, it may have been novel to the students. The attitude change and the knowledge acquisition reported by students reflect a very positive outcome of this class. After adjustments to improve weaknesses...

‣ Consent to clinical research--adequately voluntary or substantially influenced?

Hewlett, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 Português
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In clinical research the giving of consent by the patient often lies within the context of illness or the doctor/patient relationship. On exploration of these issues it would appear unlikely that the patient's consent is free of substantial influences, some of which may be strong enough to be controlling. Five categories of consent are suggested: voluntary, involuntary, coerced, enforced and partially voluntary. It is argued that consent in clinical research is substantially influenced and thus only partially voluntary. Several practical strategies are proposed to ensure adequately voluntary consent by reducing some circumstantial influences when consent to clinical research is obtained.

‣ Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China

Zhao, Heng; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Xu, Shuangqing; Han, Jinxiang
Fonte: International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement Publicador: International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 Português
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As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.

‣ A Survey of Italian Physicians' Opinion about Stem Cells Research: What Doctors Prefer and What the Law Requires

Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; D'Errico, Stefano; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. The questionnaire—distributed to 3361 physicians—involved physicians of different religious orientations and of different medical specialities. Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. The majority of the physicians interviewed do not have specific knowledge about stem cells (59%), most of them having only generic information (92%). The largest part of physicians prefer to use umbilical cord blood cells rather than embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of physicians were in favour of embryo research, especially when embryos are supernumerary (44% versus 34%). Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. Although they are in favour of heterologous stem cells donation...