Página 6 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.367 segundos

‣ Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents...

‣ Research general practices: what, who and why?

Smith, L F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1997 Português
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BACKGROUND: By the autumn of 1995, 14 research general practices had been funded. These are service NHS general medical practices that are supportive of primary care research and have a lead GP who has research experience as evidenced by publication in peer-reviewed journals. AIM: To ascertain the characteristics of those who have been successful in securing the first 14 grants, the effect the process has had on them, and the practical advice they would offer to future applicants and to future funding bodies. METHOD: A confidential postal survey of research general practices. RESULTS: They are atypical practices (high level of research and teaching involvement, mostly non-urban) with atypical lead GPs (male, research degrees, possess MRCGP, publications and grants obtained). Practices contemplating applying for future research practice grants should consider planning ahead, use of grant monies, protection of research time, involving the primary health care team, and sources of both internal and external support. Funding bodies need to make adequate funding available for capital expenditure and running costs as well as staff and lead GP time. CONCLUSION: Research general practices are ideal for integrating the core values of the medical profession...

‣ A classification of clinical paediatric research with analysis of related ethical themes.

Pearn, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1987 Português
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Different types of clinical research are associated with different degrees of risk and with varying utility. Usually classified as therapeutic or non-therapeutic, clinical research involving children necessitates a balance between the conflicts of intrusion into a group of vulnerable subjects, and the obvious advantages which such intrusion engenders. To understand better the potential ethical dilemmas of paediatric research the author has expanded the classification of such clinical research involving children. Five types of such research--preventive research, curative research, research to alleviate symptoms, studies to establish norms and baselines, and curiosity research--are discussed in the context of their ethical constraints, and the different ethical questions which confront workers operating in each of these different themes.

‣ Health research in Canada: a shifting paradigm.

Stiller, C R; Dirks, J H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/1993 Português
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A personal review of medical research in Canadian medical schools over the past 25 years reveals extraordinary contributions. Over this time, medical research evolved from a by-product of faculty members to a commitment that determines the future success of a medical faculty. The increasing competition for health research funding and the high standards created internationally have changed the way research is organized in our medical faculties. Current trends include a move toward group and thematic research, an increased role of research institutes and the development of strategic partnerships with industry. Because of the need for more planning and more critical and timely review of research efforts, the benefits of collaboration enhance the quality and competitiveness of a medical faculty. A broadened vision of the Medical Research Council and provincial foundations and the need to increase resources for research foreshadow even greater change.

‣ Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.
Fonte: College of Family Physicians of Canada Publicador: College of Family Physicians of Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research...

‣ Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.

Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake.

‣ Moving from Rabies Research to Rabies Control: Lessons from India

Kakkar, Manish; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Krishnan, Sampath; Chauhan, Ritu Singh; Abbas, Syed Shahid;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2012 Português
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Rabies is among the most widely spread zoonoses (diseases that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans) in humans in most Asian, African and Latin American countries. Even though researchers have demonstrated effectiveness of strategies to control rabies at the population level, such as post exposure prophylaxis in humans and animal birth control and immunization among dogs, are well known, policy makers in most countries are hesitant to implement these strategies. This paper examines the disconnect that prevents the translation of scientific research outputs into effective policies. We contrasted the type of research papers published on rabies from India in the last eleven years with a previously identified set of priority research options. We found that most published research articles related to biomedical research focussing on development of new interventions. This was in contrast to policy and systems-related research and research to improve the performance of existing interventions that were identified as priority research options for India earlier. The findings of our study highlight the importance of moving beyond a purely researcher-driven agenda and suggest the need to promote research that has a vision of rabies control in the near future.

‣ Enhancing the Participation of African Americans in Health-Related Genetic Research: Findings of a Collaborative Academic and Community-Based Research Study

Millon Underwood, Sandra; Buseh, Aaron G.; Kelber, Sheryl T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Townsend, Leolia
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The involvement of African Americans in research has long been expressed as a concern by the scientific community. While efforts have been undertaken to identify factors inhibiting the participation of African Americans in health-related research, few efforts have been undertaken to have highlight factors associated with their engagement of health-related research. An exploratory study of factors presumed to be associated with participation in health-related research was conducted among a nonprobability sample of African Americans (n = 212) from a large urban community in the Midwest. The study was guided by a framework that hypothesized the influence of knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers in decision-making on willingness to participate in health-related genetic research. The results revealed that knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers were associated with willingness to engage in health-related genetic research (P < .05). The most interesting, however, was that 88.7% of the participants who had not previously been involved in a health-related study who expressed a willingness to participate reported that they “had never been asked.” Study findings suggest the need for research that further examines factors associated with the involvement of African Americans in health-related genetic research.

‣ From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research

Tchetchik, Anat; Grinstein, Amir; Manes, Eran; Shapira, Daniel; Durst, Ronen
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2015 Português
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The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians’ research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics) in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments’ quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research.

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 8 (September 2004)

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This issue includes the article "NPS and the MDP Task Force Host Inaugural Maritime Domain Protection Symposium". The symposium "brought together over 50 commands, departments, agencies, local law enforcement, and academic institutions involved in maritime security. During the two day event, numerous briefs were delivered on Maritime Domain Protection, the status of MDP Task Force research projects and related efforts, providing a unique opportunity for members of the MDP community to learn about ongoing projects and share ideas."; SITREP, a monthly e-news brief covering the spectrum of maritime domain defense and security research. SITREP is produced by the Maritime Defense and Security Research Program as part of the National Security Institute—a cooperative research institute whose members include the Naval Postgraduate School, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The purpose of the Maritime Defense and Security Research program is to conduct, coordinate and collaborate Maritime defense and security research, experimentation, and information exchange between partnership universities; federal, state, and local agencies; national laboratories; maritime industry, and international partners through the National Security Institute. Each month SITREP will introduce at least two on-going maritime security research projects either from the National Security Institute or other research institutions or agencies. This month we provide a glimpse at a world-wide MIO at sea experimentation program and a library repository for issues related to maritime security. In addition...

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v.15 (2005)

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This issue of the SITREP includes information about a presentation that will take place on the NPS study entitled "Countering Terrorism from the Sea," as well as an article on Lt. Bruce Martin from the Department of Public Safety in the City of Marina. Lt. Martin provides information about what first responders deal with. This document also includes information on a "Requirements, Capabilities and Technology Forum, held by the U.S. Coast Guard's Maritime Domain Awareness Program Integrations Office and the NPS Maritime Domain Protection Research Group, that will take place on May 2, 2005.; SITREP, a monthly e-news brief covering the spectrum of maritime domain defense and security research. SITREP is produced by the Maritime Defense and Security Research Program as part of the National Security Institute—a cooperative research institute whose members include the Naval Postgraduate School, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The purpose of the Maritime Defense and Security Research program is to conduct, coordinate and collaborate Maritime defense and security research, experimentation, and information exchange between partnership universities; federal, state, and local agencies; national laboratories; maritime industry...

‣ The Carbon_h-Factor: Predicting Individuals' Research Impact at Early Stages of Their Career

Carbon, Claus-Christian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/12/2011 Português
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Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term “research impact” to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific “impact” of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index...

‣ Imperatives for continuing research education: results of a Medical Library Association survey.

Dalrymple, P W; Dahlen, K H; Stoddart, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1992 Português
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This paper reports the results of a survey assessing the interest of Medical Library Association (MLA) members in acquiring or improving research skills through continuing education (CE). It describes respondents' educational preparation for research and selected research activities, reviews MLA's experiences with offering CE courses on research topics, and discusses MLA's role in providing education to prepare members for research. The paper includes recommendations for improving research skills through CE and other professional activities. Topics of greatest interest to MLA members were survey development, problem identification, evaluation and cost studies, survey methodology, and methods of data collection. Many respondents preferred local courses. Academic health sciences librarians, as a group, were found to be more productive publishers than hospital librarians. Many respondents reported the availability of free or subsidized research-support services, but more than half did not. More than 90% of respondents indicated that MLA should actively encourage, require, or offer research education. A comprehensive plan for obtaining research skills through CE, along with individual self-assessment and counseling, is recommended.

‣ Research capacity in UK primary care.

Campbell, S M; Roland, M O; Bentley, E; Dowell, J; Hassall, K; Pooley, J E; Price, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
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BACKGROUND: Moves towards a 'primary care-led' National Health Service (NHS) and towards evidence-based care have focused attention upon the need for evaluative research relating to the structure, delivery, and outcome of primary health care in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper describes work carried out to inform the Department of Health Committee on Research and Development (R&D) in Primary Care (Mant Committee). AIM: To describe the extent and nature of current research capacity in primary care in the UK and to identify future needs and priorities. METHOD: Funding data were requested from NHS National Programmes, NHS Executive Regional Offices, the Department of Health (DoH), Scottish Office, Medical Research Council, and some charities. A postal survey was sent to relevant academic departments, and appropriate academic journals were reviewed from 1992 to 1996. In addition, interviews were conducted with academic and professional leaders in primary care. RESULTS: Overall, total annual primary care R&D spend by the NHS and the DoH was found to be 7% of the total spend, although annual primary care R&D spend differs according to funding source. Journals relating to primary care do not, with some notable exceptions (e.g. British Journal of General Practice...

‣ Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues.

Ostlin, Piroska; Sen, Gita; George, Asha
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 Português
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Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors--poverty and gender--to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations...

‣ Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities...

‣ International Stem Cell Collaboration: How Disparate Policies between the United States and the United Kingdom Impact Research

Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M.; Solnick, Rachel E.; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/03/2011 Português
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As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary...

‣ Correlates of Research Effort in Carnivores: Body Size, Range Size and Diet Matter

Brooke, Zoe M.; Bielby, Jon; Nambiar, Kate; Carbone, Chris
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2014 Português
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Given the budgetary restrictions on scientific research and the increasing need to better inform conservation actions, it is important to identify the patterns and causes of biases in research effort. We combine bibliometric information from a literature review of almost 16,500 peer-reviewed publications on a well-known group of 286 species, the Order Carnivora, with global datasets on species' life history and ecological traits to explore patterns in research effort. Our study explores how species' characteristics influenced the degree to which they were studied (measured as the number of publications). We identified a wide variation in intensity of research effort at both Family and Species levels, with some of the least studied being those which may need protection in future. Our findings hint at the complex role of human perspectives in setting research agendas. We found that better-studied species tended to be large-bodied and have a large geographic range whilst omnivory had a negative relationship with research effort. IUCN threat status did not exhibit a strong relationship with research effort which suggests that the conservation needs of individual species are not major drivers of research interest. This work is the first to use a combination of bibliometric analysis and biological data to quantify and interpret gaps in research knowledge across an entire Order. Our results could be combined with other resources...

‣ Developing a Culture to Facilitate Research Capacity Building for Clinical Nurse Consultants in Generalist Paediatric Practice

Wilkes, Lesley; Cummings, Joanne; McKay, Nicola
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper reports a research capacity building exercise with a group of CNCs practicing in the speciality of paediatrics in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. It explores the first step in building a research culture, through identifying the research priorities of members of the NSW Child Health Networks Paediatric Clinical Nurse Consultant group, and this forms the major focus of this paper. A nominal group technique (NGT) was utilised with sixteen members to identify research topics for investigation which were considered a priority for improving children's health care. The group reviewed and prioritised 43 research topics in children's health which were identified in the literature. As a result of conducting this research prioritisation exercise, the group chose two research topics to investigate: reasons for children representing to the Emergency Department and a comparison of the use of high-flow and low-flow nasal prongs in children with bronchiolitis. The research team will continue to mentor the nurses throughout their research projects which resulted from the NGT. One bridge to leadership development in enhancing patient care is translating knowledge to practice and policy development. This study leads the way for a group of CNCs in paediatric nursing to combine their research capacity and influence clinical knowledge.

‣ Barriers to Research Utilization among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

Zhou, Fen; Maier, Manfred; Hao, Yufang; Tang, Ling; Guo, Hong; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Yu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. As there might be relevant differences with regard to research utilization in the general hospitals, we aimed to study research utilization among registered nurses working in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. Methods. A total of 648 registered nurses from 4 tertiary-level hospitals in China were recruited for participation. A modified BARRIERS Scale and self-designed questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation analysis. Results. Overall, items which belong to the subscale “Research” were identified as the most important barriers. Among the individual items, the lack of time on the job was ranked as the top barrier, followed by the lack of knowledgeable colleagues and by overwhelming research publications. Clinical experience, working pressure, job satisfaction, and research experience could be identified as associated factors for barriers to research utilization. Conclusions. Registered nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals felt high barriers to research utilization. Reducing registered nurses' working pressure, promoting their positive attitude to nursing, and improving research training might be helpful for increasing research utilization. Close cooperation between clinical and nursing schools or academic research centres might facilitate the necessary change in nursing education and routine.