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‣ The quality of health services research in medical practice in the United Kingdom.

Fowkes, F G; Garraway, W M; Sheehy, C K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1991 Português
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STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the scope and quality of published health services research concerned with medical practice in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Scope of health services research was reviewed in articles published in 41 medical and public health journals in 1985. In random sample of 60 papers stratified by study design, 18 key research parameters were assessed for the quality of reporting and application in the studies. MAIN RESULTS--Over 80% of the research described in 246 articles was carried out by clinicians, mostly without acknowledged epidemiological or statistical assistance. More than half the studies were descriptive and only 17% were trials. In studies of hospital services, 4% covered long term care, in contrast to 67% concerned with inpatient care. One third of studies were conducted in general practice but only 10% of these included an assessment of clinical outcome. Important research parameters were often not reported; for example, response rates were missing in 52% of the studies, and comparability of cases and controls was not stated in 42% of relevant studies. Major inadequacies were found in the conduct of research, particularly in the selection of controls, allowance for confounding factors, objectivity of measurements...

‣ Ethics of research with psychiatric patients: principles, problems and the primary responsibilities of researchers.

Fulford, K W; Howse, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1993 Português
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In this paper some of the general issues surrounding recently published guidelines for the practice of research ethics committees are outlined, concentrating in particular on the difficulties raised by research with psychiatric patients. Research is distinguished from ordinary clinical practice by the intention to advance knowledge. So defined, research with psychiatric patients should be governed by the same four principles as research with any other group--knowledge, necessity, benefit and consent. In applying these principles, however, particularly the principle of consent, many acute difficulties are raised by psychiatric patients. A number of proposals for addressing these difficulties are discussed. It is suggested that, notwithstanding the value of published guidelines, and the help that may be available from research ethics committees, the primary responsibility for maintaining high standards of practice in research rests with research workers themselves.

‣ Compensation for subjects of medical research: the moral rights of patients and the power of research ethics committees.

Guest, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 Português
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Awareness of the morally significant distinction between research and innovative therapy reveals serious gaps in the legal provision for compensation in the UK for injured subjects of medical research. Major problems are limitations inherent in negligence actions and a culture that emphasises indemnifying researchers before compensating victims. Medical research morally requires compensation on a no-fault basis even where there is proper consent on the part of the research subject. In particular, for drug research, there is insufficient provision in the current patient guidelines of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, since they make "no legal commitment" to paying compensation for injury to patient subjects. There is a need for the provision of both adequate insurance and contractual arrangements for making payments. The solution is for Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) to make use of their power to withhold approval of medical research where compensation is not legally enforceable.

‣ Undercounts and overstatements: will the IOM report on lesbian health improve research?

Plumb, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
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In January 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a report on lesbian health research that fulfills 3 goals: it provides an extensive review of much of the research that has been done on the health of women who have sex with other women, it addresses the methodological and ethical issues inherent in conducting research on this population, and it suggests avenues for further research. This report will likely help lesbian health researchers gain funding, publish further research in medical journals, and receive support and validation from medical and research institutions. To ensure that such research is useful, benefits the lesbian community, and expands the understanding of lesbian health conditions, particular attention needs to be paid to the methods and definitions used and to the involvement of the lesbian community in designing, implementing, and analyzing the research itself.

‣ Cancer Research Campaign review of radiobiology research.

Horwich, A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1993 Português
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The meeting was reviewed and summarised by Professor Herman Suit. He judged that the potential clinical gains from research in radiobiology were very great and likely to translate to improved cancer treatment in the near future. He was highly complimentary about the contribution of UK research in radiobiology and he indicated that this viewpoint was held widely in the United States, Europe and Japan. Radiobiological research was the basis for major clinical trials in radiotherapy undertaken by trial groups in all these countries. He felt that major contributions to current practice in radiotherapy had been the definition of dose response, the rationale for the use of radiotherapy against slowly responding tumours, and the understanding of repair differentials and of clonal proliferation in the design of clinical fractionation trials, leading to clear demonstration of benefit for altered fractionation in the treatment of head and neck cancer and in the treatment of bladder cancer. An important goal of research should be the development of predictive testing for radiation response employing multiple predictive tests of radiation sensitivity (survival at 2 Gy), cellular proliferation (potential doubling time) and identification of hypoxic cells...

‣ Obstacles and approaches to clinical database research: experience at the University of California, San Francisco.

Newman, T. B.; Brown, A.; Easterling, M. J.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 Português
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With increasing availability of clinical data in machine-readable form, and decreasing cost of storing and manipulating that data, retrospective research using clinical databases has become more feasible. Nonetheless, much of the potential for clinical research using these data remains unrealized. Obstacles to clinical database research include difficulty accessing data, difficulty using retrospective data to draw valid inferences about medical tests and treatments, and a shortage of investigators trained and interested in using a clinical database to answer their questions. At the University of California, San Francisco, we have developed a Clinical Database Research Program (CDRP) to try to overcome these obstacles. The CDRP maintains a relational database of patient data obtained from diverse sources and a small staff dedicated to providing such data to researchers. The CDRP staff also provides support for design and analysis of studies using the database--the development of methods for such studies is our primary research interest. Finally, to increase the number of investigators using the database for research, we are integrating training in clinical epidemiology and clinical research methods into residency and fellowship training...

‣ Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2014 Português
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Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses.

‣ Underrepresented Minority High School and College Students Report STEM-Pipeline Sustaining Gains After Participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program

Salto, Lorena M.; Riggs, Matt L.; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2014 Português
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An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills...

‣ Views on Researcher-Community Engagement in Autism Research in the United Kingdom: A Mixed-Methods Study

Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/10/2014 Português
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There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors.

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 9 (October 2004)

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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In this issue: "The Naval Postgraduate School Maritime Domain Protection Task Force Threat and Vulnerability Symposium Report was completed 30 September. The report summarizes findings from the 15-17 June Threat and Vulnerability Assessment Symposium held at the Naval Postgraduate School." The article "Library Support of the Maritime Domain Protection Task Force" highlights a number of resources readily available through the Dudley Knox Library.; SITREP, a monthly e-news brief covering the spectrum of maritime domain defense and security research. SITREP is produced by the Maritime Defense and Security Research Program as part of the National Security Institute—a cooperative research institute whose members include the Naval Postgraduate School, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The purpose of the Maritime Defense and Security Research program is to conduct, coordinate and collaborate Maritime defense and security research, experimentation, and information exchange between partnership universities; federal, state, and local agencies; national laboratories; maritime industry, and international partners through the National Security Institute. Each month SITREP will introduce at least two on-going maritime security research projects either from the National Security Institute or other research institutions or agencies. This month we provide a glimpse at a world-wide MIO at sea experimentation program and a library repository for issues related to maritime security. In addition...

‣ Funding clinical research: the need for information and longer term strategies.

Feneley, M. R.; Feneley, R. C.
Fonte: Royal College of Surgeons of England Publicador: Royal College of Surgeons of England
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 Português
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The Chief Medical Officer's Working Group on Specialist Medical Training recommended that training in research methodology should be a recognised component of all postgraduate training programmes and that further consideration be given by those responsible for postgraduate education, training and research to establishing how this might be achieved. Funding of the trainee in research is a crucial aspect of this directive, yet both trainers and trainees have described this as haphazard, invariably reliant on 'soft' money. The subject has raised wide discussion and debate. A questionnaire was sent to 205 consultant urologists in the UK, 154 (75%) replied and 130 (84%) had experience of research during their training. The first report examined their opinion about the contribution of research to their training; this report covers the questions directed towards funding, the source of their funding, whether sufficient funds, advice and information were available and where they might expect to obtain such details. The replies indicated a variety of sources of funding; knowledge about the financial support available for research was sparse and the majority considered there was insufficient advice and information available for trainees on the subject. Substantial funds are available for high quality scientific research programmes providing unprecedented opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration that is essential for advancing clinical practice alongside technological developments. The process of obtaining support can be a time-consuming exercise...

‣ Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council.

Gillett, R; Harrow, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/06/1993 Português
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In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the reality. Although such units are theoretically managed from MRC head office (and units are charged an overhead for this), in practice each unit runs its own affairs. Between major reviews average contact time with the head office contact person is seven hours a year. The first paper argues that a purchaser-provider split would recognise the benefits of decentralisation and allow units to bid for research funds from several sources, the successful ones guaranteeing their survival through a rolling series of research programmes. The second paper criticises the MRC's cumbersome peer review system. Reliance on outside experts atrophies the scientific skills of head office staff and builds delays into decision making. A purchaser-provider model would allow the head office scientific staff to act like commercial research and development managers, commissioning research, and using the outcome...

‣ A Measure of Total Research Impact Independent of Time and Discipline

Pepe, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2012 Português
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Authorship and citation practices evolve with time and differ by academic discipline. As such, indicators of research productivity based on citation records are naturally subject to historical and disciplinary effects. We observe these effects on a corpus of astronomer career data constructed from a database of refereed publications. We employ a simple mechanism to measure research output using author and reference counts available in bibliographic databases to develop a citation-based indicator of research productivity. The total research impact (tori) quantifies, for an individual, the total amount of scholarly work that others have devoted to his/her work, measured in the volume of research papers. A derived measure, the research impact quotient (riq), is an age-independent measure of an individual's research ability. We demonstrate that these measures are substantially less vulnerable to temporal debasement and cross-disciplinary bias than the most popular current measures. The proposed measures of research impact, tori and riq, have been implemented in the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

‣ Conducting clinical research in the new NHS: the model of cancer. United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research.

Smyth, J. F.; Mossman, J.; Hall, R.; Hepburn, S.; Pinkerton, R.; Richards, M.; Thatcher, N.; Box, J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/08/1994 Português
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The United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research represents the major organizations funding cancer research in the United Kingdom. The deliberations of a working party convened by the committee to evaluate recently expressed concerns that the changes in the NHS threaten research, especially clinical trials to evaluate new treatments, are reported. A survey of contributors to trials coordinated by the committee showed that half are now experiencing difficulties in continuing to participate in clinical trials. The two major problems identified were lack of time and of staff, especially for NHS staff in non-teaching hospitals. Recent changes in junior doctors' hours and proposed reductions in the length of time for training will exacerbate this. It is possible to identify the direct and indirect excess costs of conducting research in the NHS, but currently the mechanism does not exist to designate funds specifically for this purpose. Consultation with the regional directors of research and development confirmed that the service increment for teaching and research is not the solution for this. Proposals are made to secure future clinical research in the NHS, including finance, indemnity, the licensing of new drugs, the greater use of nurse counsellors...

‣ The NIEHS Superfund Basic Research Program: overview and areas of future research directions.

Suk, W A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1995 Português
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The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' Superfund Basic Research Program is currently funding 142 separate research projects within 18 programs encompassing 29 universities and institutions around the United States. The research under this program covers a wide range of interdisciplinary science from both the biomedical and nonbiomedical perspectives. This is a unique program of technology-driven research. Nonetheless, there are some areas of research that should be investigated or investigated further, should funds become available. Environmental health risk posed by the location of Superfund sites may be distributed inequitably across socioeconomic status and racial groups. Since one in five children now lives below the poverty line, an important aspect of environmental equity must be the investigation of the health effects of environmental factors on children. The multidisciplinary investigation of the effects of hazardous substance exposure on children is an area that needs much research due to the fact that most of the toxicologic data available are based on adults and animals. This program is funding 27 projects on ecologic damage posed by hazardous wastes. Much more research is needed in the investigation of toxic effects on natural succession of ecosystems as well as on their effects on biodiversity to further our understanding of the food web in the role of bioavailability in human health...

‣ NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

Sheridan, P G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1988 Português
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The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR research focused on eliminating dental caries. NIDR scientists confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the use of fluoride in tooth decay prevention, leading to one of the nation's most successful public health efforts, community water fluoridation. During the past 40 years, NIDR scientists have provided research advances and fostered technologies which changed the philosophy and practice of dentistry and brought dental sciences into the mainstream of biomedical research. Dental researchers contribute to studies of such diseases and problems as AIDS, cancer, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, herpes, craniofacial anomalies, pain, and bone and joint disorders. NIDR's 40th anniversary in 1988 recognizes its continuing commitment to oral disease prevention and health research...

‣ The United States of America and Scientific Research

Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2010 Português
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To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms...

‣ Community involvement in the ethical review of genetic research: lessons from American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

Sharp, Richard R; Foster, Morris W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
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The National Bioethics Advisory Commission has proposed that regulatory oversight for research with human subjects be extended beyond the protection of individual research participants to include the protection of social groups. To accomplish this, the commission recommends that investigators and ethics review boards a) work directly with community representatives to develop study methods that minimize potential group harms, b) discuss group implications as part of the informed consent process, and c) consider group harms in reporting research results. We examine the utility of these recommendations in the context of research with American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Because much attention has been given to the question of how best to consult with members of these communities in the design and conduct of research, we believe it behooves investigators to consider the lessons to be learned from research involving American Indians and Alaska Natives. After describing several difficulties surrounding the application of the commission's approach to these research contexts, we propose a research agenda to develop best practices for working with local communities in the ethical assessment of epidemiologic and environmental health research.

‣ Review by a local medical research ethics committee of the conduct of approved research projects, by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview.

Smith, T.; Moore, E. J.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/1997 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To monitor the conduct of medical research projects that have already been approved by the local medical research ethics committee. DESIGN: Follow up study of ethically approved studies (randomly selected from all the studies approved in the previous year) by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview of the researchers at their workplace. SETTING: Tayside, Scotland (mixed rural and urban population). SUBJECTS: 30 research projects approved by Tayside local medical research ethics committee. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to the agreed protocol, particularly for recruitment (obtaining and recording informed consent) and for specific requirements of the ethics committee, including notification of changes to the protocol and of adverse events. RESULTS: In one project only oral consent had been obtained, and in a quarter of the studies one or more consent forms were incorrectly completed. Inadequate filing of case notes in five studies and of consent forms in six made them unavailable for scrutiny. Adverse events were reported, but there was a general failure to report the abandoning or non-starting of projects in two studies the investigators failed to notify a change in the responsible researcher. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of medical research by local medical research ethics committees promotes and preserves ethical standards...

‣ Rating authors' contributions to collaborative research: the PICNIC survey of university departments of pediatrics. Pediatric Investigators' Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada.

Davies, H D; Langley, J M; Speert, D P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To determine how department chairs in pediatrics rate involvement in medical research and to determine whether faculty deans' offices have written criteria for evaluating research activity when assessing candidates for promotion or tenure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey and telephone survey. SETTING: Canadian faculties of medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs of the 16 Canadian university departments of pediatrics and deans' offices of the 16 university medical faculties. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Weight assigned by department chairs to contributions to published research according to author's research role and position in list of authors and the method of listing authors. RESULTS: Fifteen of 16 chairs responded. Twelve submitted a completed survey, two described their institutions' policies and one responded that the institution had no policy. Eleven reported that faculty members were permitted or requested to indicate research roles on curricula vitae. There was a consensus that all or principal investigators should be listed as authors and that citing the research group as collective author was insufficient. The contribution of first authors was rated highest for articles in which all or principal investigators were listed. The contribution of joint-principal investigators listed as first author was also given a high rating. In the case of collective authorship...