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‣ Territorial behaviour and dominance hierarchy of Anthracothorax nigricollis Vieillot 1817 (Aves: Trochilidae) on food resources

Araujo-Silva, Lucas Eduardo; Bessa, Eduardo
Fonte: Soc Brasileira Ornitologia Publicador: Soc Brasileira Ornitologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 89-96
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Dominant species are those which delimit and defend territories from other individuals of the same or different species. Subordinate species are those which, furtive and sneakily, use sources of nectar from other individuals. This study aimed to describe the aggressive interactions between species of hummingbirds, define which species are dominant and which are subordinate, investigate if the sharing of resources occurs during the visits, and compare the behaviour of the dominant species in different strata (tree, arbustive and herbaceous). The species observed interacting with Anthracothorax nigricollis Vieillot 1817 were Phaethornis pretrei Lesson and Delattrer 1839, Thalurania furcata Gmelin 1788, and Polytmus guainumbi Pallas 1764. Nine behavioural acts grouped into four categories were identified and described. The dominant species is A. nigricollis (with 0.9 of the attacks), followed by T. furcata (with 0.07) and P. pretrei (with 0.03). The resource sharing was seen only in the shrub layer, in C. surinamensis, in which there was intraspecific and interspecific sharing. A. nigricollis showed higher interspecific toleration, T. furcata (0.27) and P. pretrei (0.55) than intraspecific A. nigricollis (0.18). The frequency of occurrence of behaviours expressed by A. nigricollis in the three vegetation strata differed significantly.

‣ Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content

Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/08/2014 Português
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It is unclear why and under what circumstances working memory (WM) and attention interact. Here, we apply the logic of the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of WM (e.g., Barrouillet et al., 2004) to explore the mixed findings of a separate, but related, literature that studies the guidance of visual attention by WM contents. Specifically, we hypothesize that the linkage between WM representations and visual attention is governed by a time-shared cognitive resource that alternately refreshes internal (WM) and selects external (visual attention) information. If this were the case, WM content should guide visual attention (involuntarily), but only when there is time for it to be refreshed in an internal focus of attention. To provide an initial test for this hypothesis, we examined whether the amount of unoccupied time during a WM delay could impact the magnitude of attentional capture by WM contents. Participants were presented with a series of visual search trials while they maintained a WM cue for a delayed-recognition test. WM cues could coincide with the search target, a distracter, or neither. We varied both the number of searches to be performed, and the amount of available time to perform them. Slowing of visual search by a WM matching distracter—and facilitation by a matching target—were curtailed when the delay was filled with fast-paced (refreshing-preventing) search trials...

‣ Resource sharing platform architecture for an information product factory

Sanchez, Abel, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 235 p.; 16369704 bytes; 16369512 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Efforts to share resources in collaborative pursuits are hindered by differing data representations, redundant applications, and software incompatibilities. Members of a collaborative effort often span different computational environments and the heterogeneity of contexts disrupts software interoperability. Sharing computational resources has become the focus of many research efforts. Efforts in the 1980s led to the Component Object Model (COM) [Williams, 1998a, 1998b, 1990] and the Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) architectures [Offall et al 1996; OMG, 2003]. In the 1990s both technologies were extended for network support. In recent years, Ian Foster, has phrased the distributed computing problem in terms of sharing computational resources. The grid problem is, "coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations", "to support collaborative problem solving in industry, science, and engineering in a data rich environment". [Foster et al, 2001] This work presents a new resource sharing platform architecture for information products that leverages the lessons learned from physical product platforms, the concepts of web services, and grid computing. The platform developed in this thesis integrates the contributions of these three areas into a system that is shown to be more efficient and effective at producing software products.; by Abel Sanchez.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Operating system-level on-chip resource management in the multicore era

Zhang, Xiao (1982 - ); Dwarkadas, Sandhya
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xvii, 128 leaves
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 2010.; CPU manufactures are trending toward designs with multiple cores on a chip in order to continue to scale with technology. One common feature of these multicore chips is resource sharing among sibling cores that sit on the same chip, such as shared last level cache and memory bandwidth. Without careful management, such sharing could open a loophole in terms of performance, fairness, and security concerns. My dissertation addresses resource management issues on multicore chips at the operating system level. Specifically, I introduce three techniques to control resource usage and study a variety of resource management policies that consider fairness, quality of service, performance, or power. First, I propose a hot-page coloring approach that enforces cache partitioning on only a small set of frequently accessed (or hot) pages to segregate most interthread cache conflicts. Cache colors are allocated using miss ratio curves. The cost of identifying hot pages online is reduced by leveraging knowledge of spatial locality during a page table scan of access bits. Hotness-based page coloring greatly alleviates the disadvantages of naive page coloring (memory allocation constraint and recoloring overhead) in practice. Second...

‣ Sharing Natural Resource Revenues with Affected Communities : Policy Options for Mozambique

Nombora, Dionisio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This note analyzes the institutional and policy context in which Mozambique allocates and manages resource revenues at the subnational level. Its objectives are: (i) to better understand the extent to which the current revenue-sharing system advances the countries stated development goals, (ii) to identify any significant weaknesses or constraints in the current system, and (iii) to provide recommendations for strengthening the policy framework and institutional mechanisms for sharing resource revenues. This analysis is informed by the international experience with allocating and managing resource revenues at the subnational level, and it applies a number of important lessons learned. The policy note is divided into five sections. Section one presents projections for future resource revenue transfers to subnational governments, both in absolute terms and as a share of each district s total budget. Section two reviews the international experience with resource sharing and identifies key lessons to inform successful policies. Section three presents a broader look at fiscal decentralization in Mozambique. Section four discusses the main findings of the analysis and situates them in the context of Mozambique s current revenue-sharing policies. Section five concludes the note by laying out recommendations to improve Mozambique s institutional and policy framework for allocating resource revenues at the subnational level. This policy note is based on a survey of the international literature on fiscal decentralization in general and resource revenue sharing in particular.

‣ Resource sharing : building collaboration for regionalization

Reinertson, Susan K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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CHDS State/Local; The major challenge in securing the homeland is to provide for all citizens effective and capable prevention and responsiveness to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive events. States have different homeland security organizational structures, priorities, funding strategies, and implementation methods. Consequently, the nation lacks a clear, uniform prevention and response strategy that translates into an overall capability that cannot be qualitatively defined. To combat this situation, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has linked future funding to implementation of a holistic approach to homeland security program strategies, which include implementing intrastate and interstate regional approaches that effectively leverage resource sharing. North Dakota responded to funding reductions by addressing its first comprehensive statewide regional plan to develop a more efficient and effective homeland security program; however, actual implementation was not realistic. A tiered approach to sharing resources through regionalization means jurisdictional capability levels will be thoroughly examined and homeland security allocations distributed accordingly. Local jurisdictions in North Dakota exhibit very independent attitudes; instituting regionalization...

‣ Cross-domain resource sharing: resource access recommendation based on semantics, provenance and traceability information

Bettencourt, Nuno Miguel Gomes
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Tese de Doutoramento em Informática; A Internet cresceu recentemente para mais de três mil milhões de utilizadores¹. Isto representa ligeiramente mais de quarenta por cento de toda a população mundial. Em algumas redes sociais, mais de duzentas mil fotografias são enviadas a cada minuto². Este volume de criação e geração de conteúdos nas redes sociais torna a tarefa de partilhar recursos mais difícil para os utilizadores. A partilha típica de recursos na Internet é conseguida através da concessão de direitos de acesso dos utilizadores aos recursos, comummente restrito aos recursos alojados num único domínio. As políticas de acesso são, por conseguinte, emitidas para os utilizadores registados no mesmo domínio. A partilha de recursos com utilizadores não registados no mesmo domínio tem-se provado insegura ou difícil de alcançar. Referenciar e aceder a recursos protegidos por políticas de acesso em outros domínios Web (para além de onde eles estão alojados) é praticamente não suportado pelas aplicações Web atuais. Na partilha de recursos em diferentes domínios, tais dificuldades incentivam a clonagem dos recursos, a multiplicação da identidade interna e social do utilizador e o aumento do peso da gestão de políticas de acesso...

‣ A financial analysis of resource sharing agreements as part of the TRICARE Managed Care Support Contracts

Hoeft, Steven L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 85 p.; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Escalating health care costs and base closures have forced the DoD to improve access to health care while maintaining quality, controlling costs, and increasing medical readiness. The response is a Tri-service managed care system called TRICARE. One mechanism utilized within the TRICARE Managed Care Support Contracts (MCSCs) is Resource Sharing. Resource sharing is a system to reduce the government's health care costs by recapturing the TRICARE workload This thesis explores if Resource Sharing Agreements (RSAs) are cost-effective and how they are being monitored and evaluated by the Lead Agent and MTFs. After conducting a literature review, interviews and performing data analysis, this thesis examined the reported cost analysis, retrospective analysis, and workload of RSAs in Health Services Region 10 as they are used under the MCSC for that region. A case study of RSAs, comparing forecasted and reported savings, was also conducted to understand RSAs and their role in controlling military health care costs. The analysis found that the RSAs are reducing government costs, but not at the predicted rate. This case study found that only 67 percent of the estimated government savings were realized. Decreasing workload is a key factor explaining this shortfall.; Lieutenant...

‣ An evaluation of resource sharing within TRICARE's managed care support contracts

McCue, Martin D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 133 p.
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To help reduce the overall cost of health care in the Military Health Services System, Managed Care Support Contracts include a provision known as Resource Sharing. Resource Sharing Agreements allow the contractor to provide personnel, equipment, or supplies to a military treatment facility to improve its capability to deliver health care. After reviewing civilian managed care programs, this thesis examines the Military Health Services System and its new managed care program known as TRICARE. Then the concept of Resource Sharing is examined and the process for identifying, evaluating, and using cost effective Resource Sharing Agreements is discussed. Case studies of different types of agreements are used to illustrate the complexity and importance of cost and workload estimates and key contract factors in understanding the agreements. The findings suggest that the contractor's and government's performance data and assumptions underlying the agreements should be continuously monitored to ensure the cost-effectiveness of the agreements.; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

‣ Compartilhamento de recursos e acesso à informação no Brasil : um estudo nas áreas de química e engenharia química; Resource sharing and information access : a study for chemistry and chemical engineering in Brazil

Carvalho, Maria Carmen Romcy de
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
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Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Ciência da Informação e Documentação, 1999.; O compartilhamento de recursos e do acesso à informação em ambiente eletrônico é tratado. O objetivo geral é analisar as condições que propiciam o compartilhamento de recursos e o acesso à informação entre provedores de informação e inferir sugestões para a construção de uma estratégia de amplo acesso à informação em Química e Engenharia Química no Brasil, com base no compartilhamento de recursos. A pesquisa desenvolveu-se por meio da realização de um referencial teórico e dois estudos de campo, que procuraram responder a duas questões básicas (i) quais são os fatores do contexto e dos paradigmas tecnológico, organizacional e do acesso à informação e como estes fatores afetam as atividades de compartilhamento de recursos e acesso à informação em provedores de informação científica e tecnológica; e (ii) como os provedores de ICT no Reino Unido e no Brasil estão utilizando as novas tecnologias e os novos modelos organizacionais de cooperação em rede, para atuarem de acordo com o novo modelo de prestação de serviços. Discutem-se as influências do contexto político, econômico e social sobre as atividades de compartilhamento e acesso à informação e o estabelecimento de mecanismos de desenvolvimento do setor de informação...

‣ Provably good scheduling of sporadic tasks with resource sharing on a two-type heterogeneous multiprocessor platform

Raravi, Gurulingesh; Andersson, Björn; Bletsas, Konstantinos
Fonte: IPP-Hurray Group Publicador: IPP-Hurray Group
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Consider the problem of scheduling a set of implicit-deadline sporadic tasks to meet all deadlines on a two-type heterogeneous multiprocessor platform where a task may request at most one of |R| shared resources. There are m1 processors of type-1 and m2 processors of type-2. Tasks may migrate only when requesting or releasing resources. We present a new algorithm, FF-3C-vpr, which offers a guarantee that if a task set is schedulable to meet deadlines by an optimal task assignment scheme that only allows tasks to migrate when requesting or releasing a resource, then FF-3Cvpr also meets deadlines if given processors 4+6*ceil(|R|/min(m1,m2)) times as fast. As far as we know, it is the first result for resource sharing on heterogeneous platforms with provable performance.

‣ A .net based resource sharing framework

Lin, Xiaohan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 p.
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This thesis presents an Internet resource sharing architecture. It allows users to access and utilize unused computer resources, such as CPU cycles and storage, without an expert's knowledge. It achieves this by providing a number of abstract services that hide some of the complexity inherent in distributed computing. In recent years, Grid Computing has been proposed as a solution for Internet resource sharing. However, Grid Computing as presently implemented does not address the need of the large majority of the users. In this thesis, we propose a different approach to achieve Internet resource sharing called the Realm. The Realm Framework offers a lightweight layer on top of the Microsoft .Net Framework so that the programs that can be migrated to .Net Framework can also utilize the shared resources through the Realm Framework. By leveraging the Microsoft .Net Framework, the Realm Framework avoids tedious re-working in this fast-paced world of technology by sitting on the top of the full-featured, coherent and up-to-date development platform. The Realm Framework applies current technologies such as Web Services, the Common Language Runtime (CLR) and popular encryption algorithms.; (cont.) In this thesis a versatile runtime system and a set of extension interfaces in C# programming language is developed. The modularized software package offers a layered programming model for distributed-application developers with different levels of proficiency. Two utilities that are helpful for maintaining a distributed system are also developed...

‣ Online Learning in Decentralized Multiuser Resource Sharing Problems

Tekin, Cem; Liu, Mingyan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/10/2012 Português
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In this paper, we consider the general scenario of resource sharing in a decentralized system when the resource rewards/qualities are time-varying and unknown to the users, and using the same resource by multiple users leads to reduced quality due to resource sharing. Firstly, we consider a user-independent reward model with no communication between the users, where a user gets feedback about the congestion level in the resource it uses. Secondly, we consider user-specific rewards and allow costly communication between the users. The users have a cooperative goal of achieving the highest system utility. There are multiple obstacles in achieving this goal such as the decentralized nature of the system, unknown resource qualities, communication, computation and switching costs. We propose distributed learning algorithms with logarithmic regret with respect to the optimal allocation. Our logarithmic regret result holds under both i.i.d. and Markovian reward models, as well as under communication, computation and switching costs.

‣ The combinatorics of resource sharing

Barbosa, V. C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2003 Português
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We discuss general models of resource-sharing computations, with emphasis on the combinatorial structures and concepts that underlie the various deadlock models that have been proposed, the design of algorithms and deadlock-handling policies, and concurrency issues. These structures are mostly graph-theoretic in nature, or partially ordered sets for the establishment of priorities among processes and acquisition orders on resources. We also discuss graph-coloring concepts as they relate to resource sharing.; Comment: R. Correa et alii (eds.), Models for Parallel and Distributed Computation, pp. 27-52. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002

‣ Mobile Online Gaming via Resource Sharing

Ferretti, Stefano; D'Angelo, Gabriele
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mobile gaming presents a number of main issues which remain open. These are concerned mainly with connectivity, computational capacities, memory and battery constraints. In this paper, we discuss the design of a fully distributed approach for the support of mobile Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs). In mobile environments, several features might be exploited to enable resource sharing among multiple devices / game consoles owned by different mobile users. We show the advantages of trading computing / networking facilities among mobile players. This operation mode opens a wide number of interesting sharing scenarios, thus promoting the deployment of novel mobile online games. In particular, once mobile nodes make their resource available for the community, it becomes possible to distribute the software modules that compose the game engine. This allows to distribute the workload for the game advancement management. We claim that resource sharing is in unison with the idea of ludic activity that is behind MOGs. Hence, such schemes can be profitably employed in these contexts.; Comment: Proceedings of 3nd ICST/CREATE-NET Workshop on DIstributed SImulation and Online gaming (DISIO 2012). In conjunction with SIMUTools 2012. Desenzano, Italy...

‣ Co-Primary Multi-Operator Resource Sharing for Small Cell Networks

Luoto, Petri; Pirinen, Pekka; Bennis, Mehdi; Samarakoon, Sumudu; Scott, Simon; Latva-aho, Matti
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2015 Português
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To tackle the challenge of providing higher data rates within limited spectral resources we consider the case of multiple operators sharing a common pool of radio resources. Four algorithms are proposed to address co-primary multi-operator radio resource sharing under heterogeneous traffic in both centralized and distributed scenarios. The performance of these algorithms is assessed through extensive system-level simulations for two indoor small cell layouts. It is assumed that the spectral allocations of the small cells are orthogonal to the macro network layer and thus, only the small cell traffic is modeled. The main performance metrics are user throughput and the relative amount of shared spectral resources. The numerical results demonstrate the importance of coordination among co-primary operators for an optimal resource sharing. Also, maximizing the spectrum sharing percentage generally improves the achievable throughput gains over non-sharing.

‣ Resource Sharing and Coevolution in Evolving Cellular Automata

Werfel, Justin; Mitchell, Melanie; Crutchfield, James P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/1999 Português
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Evolving one-dimensional cellular automata (CAs) with genetic algorithms has provided insight into how improved performance on a task requiring global coordination emerges when only local interactions are possible. Two approaches that can affect the search efficiency of the genetic algorithm are coevolution, in which a population of problems---in our case, initial configurations of the CA lattice---evolves along with the population of CAs; and resource sharing, in which a greater proportion of a limited fitness resource is assigned to those CAs which correctly solve problems that fewer other CAs in the population can solve. Here we present evidence that, in contrast to what has been suggested elsewhere, the improvements observed when both techniques are used together depend largely on resource sharing alone.; Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure; http://www.santafe.edu/~evca/rsc.ps.gz

‣ A stochastic analysis of resource sharing with logarithmic weights

Robert, Philippe; Véber, Amandine
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The paper investigates the properties of a class of resource allocation algorithms for communication networks: if a node of this network has $x$ requests to transmit, then it receives a fraction of the capacity proportional to $\log(1+x)$, the logarithm of its current load. A detailed fluid scaling analysis of such a network with two nodes is presented. It is shown that the interaction of several time scales plays an important role in the evolution of such a system, in particular its coordinates may live on very different time and space scales. As a consequence, the associated stochastic processes turn out to have unusual scaling behaviors. A heavy traffic limit theorem for the invariant distribution is also proved. Finally, we present a generalization to the resource sharing algorithm for which the $\log$ function is replaced by an increasing function. Possible generalizations of these results with $J>2$ nodes or with the function $\log$ replaced by another slowly increasing function are discussed.; Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-AAP1057 in the Annals of Applied Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aap/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

‣ The Semantics of Resource Sharing in Lexical-Functional Grammar

Kehler, Andrew; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Saraswat, Vijay
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/1995 Português
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We argue that the resource sharing that is commonly manifest in semantic accounts of coordination is instead appropriately handled in terms of structure-sharing in LFG f-structures. We provide an extension to the previous account of LFG semantics (Dalrymple et al., 1993b) according to which dependencies between f-structures are viewed as resources; as a result a one-to-one correspondence between uses of f-structures and meanings is maintained. The resulting system is sufficiently restricted in cases where other approaches overgenerate; the very property of resource-sensitivity for which resource sharing appears to be problematic actually provides explanatory advantages over systems that more freely replicate resources during derivation.; Comment: 8 pages, to appear in EACL-95. Requires eaclap.sty, tree-dvips.sty, tree-dvips.pro, lingmacros.sty, dgmacros.tex, lfgmacros.tex. Comments welcome.

‣ Dynamic Radio Cooperation for Downlink Cloud-RANs with Computing Resource Sharing

Tran, Tuyen X.; Pompili, Dario
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/08/2015 Português
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A novel dynamic radio-cooperation strategy is proposed for Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RANs) consisting of multiple Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) connected to a central Virtual Base Station (VBS) pool. In particular, the key capabilities of C-RANs in computing-resource sharing and real-time communication among the VBSs are leveraged to design a joint dynamic radio clustering and cooperative beamforming scheme that maximizes the downlink weighted sum-rate system utility (WSRSU). Due to the combinatorial nature of the radio clustering process and the non-convexity of the cooperative beamforming design, the underlying optimization problem is NP-hard, and is extremely difficult to solve for a large network. Our approach aims for a suboptimal solution by transforming the original problem into a Mixed-Integer Second-Order Cone Program (MI-SOCP), which can be solved efficiently using a proposed iterative algorithm. Numerical simulation results show that our low-complexity algorithm provides close-to-optimal performance in terms of WSRSU while significantly outperforming conventional radio clustering and beamforming schemes. Additionally, the results also demonstrate the significant improvement in computing-resource utilization of C-RANs over traditional RANs with distributed computing resources.; Comment: 9 pages...