Página 14 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.074 segundos

‣ Imatinib resistance: a review of alternative inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia

Bitencourt, Roberta; Zalcberg, Ilana; Louro, Iúri Drumond
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The development of point mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain is the main reason for imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia. Different detection methods are used in chronic myeloid leukemia monitoring, such as direct sequencing, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and allele specific polymerase chain reaction. Mutation analysis has become mandatory during patient workup of chronic myeloid leukemia in order for the physician to choose the most suitable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This article, a review of possible therapies used to overcome imatinib resistance, investigates the current position by searching the PubMed electronic database using the following keywords: imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, aurora kinase, SRC kinase, mutation, treatment, drugs and resistance. New tyrosine kinase inhibitors include BCR-ABL kinase selective inhibitors, dual ABL/SRC kinase inhibitors and aurora kinase inhibitors. Awareness of the spectrum of new drugs against mutations, in particular the T315I mutation, makes it possible to properly select the best therapy for each patient.

‣ Is Chlorhexidine an Ideal Vehicle for Calcium Hydroxide? A Microbiologic Review

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan
Fonte: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research Publicador: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Microorganisms play a major role in the initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical disease. In order to predictably achieve a bacteria-free root canal system, it is necessary to use intracanal medicaments. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] is the most common intracanal medicaments. It is effective against primary infections. However, its effectiveness against Enterococcus (E.) faecalis and Candida (C.) albicans is controversial. On the other hand, chlorhexidine (CHX) is a potent agent against E. faecalis and C. albicans. For this reason, the combination of Ca(OH)2 and CHX has been suggested as an intracanal medicament. The purpose of this article was to review antimicrobial efficacy of Ca(OH)2, CHX as well as their combination.

‣ Malignant tumours of the small intestine: a review of histopathology, multidetector CT and MRI aspects

Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zini, C; Kirchin, M A; Catalano, C; Passariello, R
Fonte: The British Institute of Radiology. Publicador: The British Institute of Radiology.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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Small bowel neoplasms, including adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumour, lymphoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumours, represent a small percentage of gastrointestinal cancers, yet are among those with the poorest prognosis compared with other gastrointestinal malignancies. Unclear clinical scenarios and difficult radiological diagnosis often delay treatment with negative effects on patient survival. Recently, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI have been introduced as feasible and accurate diagnostic techniques for the identification and staging of small bowel neoplasms. These techniques are gradually replacing conventional barium radiography as the tool of choice. However, the inherent technical and physiological challenges of small bowel imaging require a familiarity with patient preparation and scan protocols. Adequate knowledge of the histopathology and natural evolution of small bowel neoplasms is also important for differential diagnosis. The aim of this article is to review MDCT and MRI protocols for the evaluation of small bowel tumours and to provide a concise yet comprehensive guide to the most relevant imaging features relative to histopathology.

‣ Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice

Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A
Fonte: The British Institute of Radiology. Publicador: The British Institute of Radiology.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites.

‣ Primary Actinomycosis of the Foot: A Case Report and Literature Review

Bettesworth, Jacob; Gill, Kirandeep; Shah, Jayesh
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/07/2009 Português
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Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive, suppurative infection caused by gram-positive branching bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. The organism is a member of the oral and gastrointestinal microflora of humans. The disease actinomycosis most commonly occurs in 3 body regions: cervicofacial (55% of patients), abdominopelvic (20%), and pulmonothoracic (15%). Involvement of other parts of the body is uncommon and usually secondary to a lesion in one or the other of the above sites. Extremity disease can occur by secondary involvement through direct extension or hematogenous spread. However, primary actinomycosis of an extremity is very rare. A case of primary actinomycosis of the foot in a Hispanic male and a literature review with an emphasis on primary actinomycosis of the extremity are presented in this article.

‣ The overlooked relationship between motivational abilities and posttraumatic stress: a review

Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Brandstätter, Veronika; Maercker, Andreas
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2012 Português
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How does traumatic stress change the ability to motivate oneself to achieve certain goals? How do motivational abilities influence the development and course of trauma sequelae? Few studies have focused on motivational constructs within posttraumatic stress research. From a trauma research perspective, it can be hypothesized that traumatic stress may contribute to motivational dysfunction. The main goal of the present article is to fill this gap in research by reviewing and discussing the existing trauma literature in terms of motivation-related concepts, such as self-efficacy, locus of control, self-esteem, and self-control/impulsivity. Fifty-four studies were reviewed, 10 of which were longitudinal studies. Approximately 20% of the reviews assessed whether motivational concepts predict posttraumatic stress, whereas only 8% examined the reverse relationship. With the exception of a few studies, motivational constructs seem to predict posttraumatic stress over the life span. The strongest relationships were reported for self-efficacy, followed by locus of control and self-esteem and, lastly, impulsivity/self-control. Overall, the findings of this review indicate that there is a lack of research investigating motivational factors as outcome variables following traumatic experiences. Furthermore...

‣ Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research...

‣ Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review

Gulati, Gene; Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald
Fonte: The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematology results and (b) determine if a manual differential leukocyte count needs to be performed. Blood smear examination/manual differential leukocyte count with complete blood count (CBC) provides the complete hematologic picture of the case, at least from the morphologic standpoint. Blood smear review with or without interpretation serves to ensure that no clinically significant finding is missed, besides providing diagnosis or diagnostic clue(s), particularly if and when interpreted by a physician.

‣ A Review of Emergency Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Severe Poisoning by Cardiotoxic Drugs

Johnson, Nicholas J.; Gaieski, David F.; Allen, Steven R.; Perrone, Jeanmarie; DeRoos, Francis
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cardiovascular collapse remains a leading cause of death in severe acute drug intoxication. Commonly prescribed medications such as antidysrhythmics, calcium channel antagonists, and beta adrenergic receptor antagonists can cause refractory cardiovascular collapse in massive overdose. Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (ECPB), a modality originating in cardiac surgery, is a rescue technique that has been successfully implemented in the treatment of refractory cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest unresponsive to traditional medical interventions. More recently a growing number of animal studies, case reports, and case series have documented its use in refractory hemodynamic collapse in poisoned patients. This article will review current ECPB techniques and explore its growing role in the treatment of severely hemodynamically compromised poisoned patients.

‣ Performance of attachments used in implant-supported overdentures: review of trends in the literature

Lee, Damian J.
Fonte: Korean Academy of Periodontology Publicador: Korean Academy of Periodontology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of this review is to examine the performance of attachments used in implant-supported overdenture (IOD) in both clinical and in vitro settings and report the compiled findings, comparisons, and trends in the research literature. Articles published in PubMed on IOD attachment systems and performance were reviewed. Non-original articles were excluded. For each article included, the type of study, number of implants, number of attachment systems, and study outcome were recorded. Of the 283 articles found, 158 met the inclusion criteria. Ninety-four articles were clinical studies and 64 articles were in vitro studies. Studies on retention were the most common for in vitro studies, and four or more attachment systems were compared in most articles with significant differences in outcome. A clinical outcome of one attachment system was most common for clinical studies, while most studies had neutral outcomes overall. Ball attachment was the most commonly tested IOD attachment system. The trend in the literature showed that there is a large discrepancy between the study designs and outcomes between the clinical and the in vitro studies for IOD. Further clinical studies that can validate in vitro research should be encouraged to address this discrepancy between the two areas.

‣ Immunologic privilege in the central nervous system and the blood–brain barrier

Muldoon, Leslie L; Alvarez, Jorge I; Begley, David J; Boado, Ruben J; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Doolittle, Nancy D; Engelhardt, Britta; Hallenbeck, John M; Lonser, Russell R; Ohlfest, John R; Prat, Alexandre; Scarpa, Maurizio; Smeyne, Richard J; Drewes, Leste
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The brain is in many ways an immunologically and pharmacologically privileged site. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) of the cerebrovascular endothelium and its participation in the complex structure of the neurovascular unit (NVU) restrict access of immune cells and immune mediators to the central nervous system (CNS). In pathologic conditions, very well-organized immunologic responses can develop within the CNS, raising important questions about the real nature and the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of this immune privilege. We assess the interactions of immune cells and immune mediators with the BBB and NVU in neurologic disease, cerebrovascular disease, and intracerebral tumors. The goals of this review are to outline key scientific advances and the status of the science central to both the neuroinflammation and CNS barriers fields, and highlight the opportunities and priorities in advancing brain barriers research in the context of the larger immunology and neuroscience disciplines. This review article was developed from reports presented at the 2011 Annual Blood-Brain Barrier Consortium Meeting.

‣ Review of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Focusing on Long-term Results and Evaluation Methods

Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Jong-Min; Sohn, Dong-Wook; Bin, Seong-Il
Fonte: The Korean Knee Society Publicador: The Korean Knee Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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With recognition of the biomechanical role of the meniscus, such as load distribution and joint stability in the knee joint, there has been a shift in the treatment of meniscal tears from open total meniscectomy to preservation of the meniscal functions as much as possible with symptomatic relief. Recently, technical development of meniscal surgery, with advanced arthroscopic equipment and instruments, enables biological reconstruction of load bearing functions in the meniscus deficient knee through allograft tissue transplantation as well as repair of torn menisci. Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) has been considered as one of the few viable treatment options for the young meniscectomized knees based on various animal experiments and clinical studies. Still, there is insufficient evidence for the long-term chondroprotective effect of human MAT. Some long-term follow-up studies showed that the technique resulted in graft degeneration, deformation, and tear, and structural changes in the remodeling process in early MAT cases, disrupting functional restoration of the original meniscus. Nevertheless, advanced outcomes are documented in some recent studies. The purpose of this article is to review the mid- and long-term follow-up results of MAT and to improve understanding of MAT with evaluation methods of meniscal transplants using magnetic resonance imaging or second-look arthroscopy.

‣ Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Acanthus ilicifolius

Singh, Dharya; Aeri, Vidhu
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Acanthus ilicifolius (Acanthaceae) has received considerable attention due to its wide range of secondary metabolites and its traditional usage in Indian and Chinese system of medicine. This plant is reported to be a mangrove. Mangrove survives in the most hostile environment with fluctuating tidal and saline regime. Hence, these plants are considered to be rich sources of steroids, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. Present review article is an attempt to cover recent developments in phytochemical and pharmacological potential of drug. Traditionally, the plant has been used for dyspepsia, paralysis, asthsma, headache, rheumatism, and skin diseases. The plant is known as ‘Krishnasaireyaka’ or ‘Karimkurunji’, is one of the 9 plants equated to the drug ‘Sahachara,’ which is used in Ayurvedic medicine for rheumatic complaints. The plant has not been explored to its full potential. The review will be a good reference tool for investigators who wish to work on natural compounds with free radical scavenging activity to combat diseases associated with stress.

‣ Does platelet-rich plasma enhance the survival of grafted fat? An update review

Jin, Rong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Guang
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/04/2013 Português
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Autologous fat grafting enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The main limitation of fat grafting is unpredictable graft resorption. To obviate this disadvantage, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to mix the fat graft with Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) before transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review systematically the available comparative evidence about PRP-assisted fat grafting.

‣ The critical evaluation of laser Doppler imaging in determining burn depth

Gill, Parneet
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/04/2013 Português
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This review article discusses the use of laser Doppler imaging as a clinimetric tool to determine burn depth in patients presenting to hospital. Laser Doppler imaging is a very sensitive and specific tool to measure burn depth, easy to use, reliable and acceptable to the patient due to its quick and non-invasive nature. Improvements in validity, cost and reproducibility would improve its use in clinical practice however it is difficult to satisfy the entire evaluation criterion all the time. It remains a widely accepted tool to assess burn depth, with an ever-increasing body of evidence to support its use, as discussed in this review. Close collaboration between clinicians, statisticians, epidemiologists and psychologists is necessary in order to develop the evidence base for the use of laser Doppler imaging as standard in burn depth assessment and therefore act as an influencing factor in management decisions.

‣ The Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Disease Risks in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Yousefzadeh, Pegah; Wang, Xiangbing
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective. To review the current literature investigating the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We conducted a search of PubMed and MEDLINE database, using the term DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the following terms: metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and CVD. We reviewed 100 relevant studies out of 227 articles, excluding single case reports, studies using animal models, and reports not written in English. We included 38 references in this review article. Results. The majority of the recent clinical studies have demonstrated that DPP-4 inhibitors have beneficial effects on cardiovascular (CV) system. These agents may have the potential to lower blood pressure, improve lipid profile and endothelial dysfunction, decrease the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, and prevent myocardial injury. Conclusion. DPP-4 inhibitors have some CV protective effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in addition to their antidiabetic actions. Long-term outcome clinical trials are under way to investigate the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitors on the elevated CV risks in patients with T2DM. Further investigation in a large cohort is warranted to assess the exact mechanisms of CV protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors.

‣ A Review of Polymeric Refabrication Techniques to Modify Polymer Properties for Biomedical and Drug Delivery Applications

Pillay, Viness; Seedat, Ahmed; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2013 Português
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Polymers are extensively used in the pharmaceutical and medical field because of their unique and phenomenal properties that they display. They are capable of demonstrating drug delivery properties that are smart and novel, such properties that are not achievable by employing the conventional excipients. Appropriately, polymeric refabrication remains at the forefront of process technology development in an endeavor to produce more useful pharmaceutical and medical products because of the multitudes of smart properties that can be attained through the alteration of polymers. Small alterations to a polymer by either addition, subtraction, self-reaction, or cross reaction with other entities have the capability of generating polymers with properties that are at the level to enable the creation of novel pharmaceutical and medical products. Properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, site targeting, and chronotherapeutics are no longer figures of imaginations but have become a reality through utilizing processes of polymer refabrication. This article has sought to review the different techniques that have been employed in polymeric refabrication to produce superior products in the pharmaceutical and medical disciplines. Techniques such as grafting...

‣ Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe
Fonte: CIC Edizioni Internazionali Publicador: CIC Edizioni Internazionali
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/09/2012 Português
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Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures.

‣ Anti-tumor action of trichosanthin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein, employed in traditional Chinese medicine: a mini review

Sha, Ou; Niu, Junfei; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Cho, Eric Yu-Pang; Fu, Xiaoyuan; Jiang, Wenqi
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Trichosanthin (TCS) as a midterm abortifacient medicine has been used clinically in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Additionally, TCS manifests a host of pharmacological properties, for instance, anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. TCS has been reported to inhibit cell growth of a diversity of cancers, including cervical cancer, choriocarcinoma, and leukemia/lymphoma, etc. This article purported to review the various anti-tumor activities of TCS and the mechanism of apoptosis it induced in these tumor cells. These research progresses provide an insight into cancer research and treatment as well as disclose new pharmacological properties of the ancient but popular Chinese medicine.

‣ Variants of Insulin-Signaling Inhibitor Genes in Type 2 Diabetes and Related Metabolic Abnormalities

de Lorenzo, Carlo; Greco, Annalisa; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Hribal, Marta Letizia
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insulin resistance has a central role in the pathogenesis of several metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance and related traits are likely to be caused by abnormalities in the genes encoding for proteins involved in the composite network of insulin-signaling; in this review we have focused our attention on genetic variants of insulin-signaling inhibitor molecules. These proteins interfere with different steps in insulin-signaling: ENPP1/PC-1 and the phosphatases PTP1B and PTPRF/LAR inhibit the insulin receptor activation; INPPL1/SHIP-2 hydrolyzes PI3-kinase products, hampering the phosphoinositide-mediated downstream signaling; and TRIB3 binds the serine-threonine kinase Akt, reducing its phosphorylation levels. While several variants have been described over the years for all these genes, solid evidence of an association with type 2 diabetes and related diseases seems to exist only for rs1044498 of the ENPP1 gene and for rs2295490 of the TRIB3 gene. However, overall the data recapitulated in this Review article may supply useful elements to interpret the results of novel, more technically advanced genetic studies; indeed it is becoming increasingly evident that genetic information on metabolic diseases should be interpreted taking into account the complex biological pathways underlying their pathogenesis.