Página 15 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.120 segundos

‣ Stem Cell Therapy in Stroke: A Review Literature

Meamar, Rokhsareh; Dehghani, Leila; Ghasemi, Majid; Khorvash, Fariborz; Shaygannejad, Vahid
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 Português
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Stroke is an important cause of death in the world and disability world-wide especially in developed countries. Following acute phase of stroke, some procedures and medical treatment such as thrombolytic agents has been recommended; nevertheless many patients have enduring deficits. Thus, there is a realistic need to develop treatment strategies for reducing neurological deficits. However, the stem cell (SC) therapy could arrange an alternative intervention for disease modifying therapy. In this article, we present a brief review of different methods of SC therapy in stroke patients and discuss the results with different cell types and routes of administration.

‣ Sphincter Preservation in Anal Cancer: A Brief Review

Khosla, Divya; Kumar, Ritesh; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, Suresh C.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Management of anal cancer is a challenge. The goal of treatment is to eradicate tumor without sacrificing the anal sphincters. The idea of organ preservation emerged following the discovery of a high complete response rate from preoperative combined chemoradiation (CRT) prior to abdominoperineal resection. CRT is widely accepted as the standard therapy for treating anal squamous cell cancer. The combination of external beam radiotherapy with interstitial brachytherapy increases the dose to the tumor volume and decreases dose to normal tissues. The current goal is to avoid colostomy, and surgery has become a salvage or secondary therapy. In this article, we review the non-surgical management of anal cancer with special emphasis on CRT, role of intensity modulated radiation therapy and brachytherapy.

‣ Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

Rodriguez, Erika F.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R. Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2013 Português
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Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors...

‣ Mechanics and Learning Practices Associated with the Tennis Forehand: A Review

Reid, Machar; Elliott, Bruce; Crespo, Miguel
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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The forehand ranks closely behind the serve in importance in the sport of tennis. Yet, while the serve has been the focus of a litany of research reviews, the literature describing forehand stroke production has not been reviewed as extensively. The purposes of this article are therefore to review the research describing the mechanics of the forehand and then to appraise that research alongside the coach-led development of the stroke. The consensus of this research supports the importance of axial rotation of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder horizontal adduction and internal rotation as the primary contributors to the development of racket speed in the forehand. The relationship between grip style and racket velocity is similarly well established. However, it is also clear that there remains considerable scope for future research to longitudinally examine the inter-relationships between different teaching methodologies, equipment scaling and forehand mechanics.

‣ A Review of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Combination Amlodipine/Valsartan in Non-White Patients with Hypertension

Ferdinand, Keith C.; Nasser, Samar A.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article discusses racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension, with particular focus on non-white populations including blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asians. Hypertension and its related morbidity and mortality affect a disproportionate number of black patients compared with white patients. Blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asians have poor rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. Given the high prevalence of comorbidities (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) in these populations, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers are a good choice for foundation therapy. This review also discusses the importance of adherence and persistence with antihypertensive medication, which remain suboptimal in these non-white populations. Evidence suggests improvement with the use of single-pill combination therapy. Lastly, clinical trial data on the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the combination of a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin receptor blocker, a widely utilized combination, in non-white populations are presented. PubMed was searched using the title/abstract key words (amlodipine AND valsartan AND [hypertension OR hypertensive] AND [black(s) OR African American(s) OR Hispanic(s) OR Latino(s) OR Mexican(s) OR Asian(s)]). In total...

‣ Negative-pressure wound therapy in the management of diabetic Charcot foot and ankle wounds

Ramanujam, Crystal L.; Stapleton, John J.; Zgonis, Thomas
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2013 Português
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As the prevalence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, innovative medical and surgical treatment options have increased dramatically to address diabetic-related foot and ankle complications. Among the most challenging clinical case scenarios is Charcot neuroarthropathy associated with soft tissue loss and/or osteomyelitis. In this review article, the authors present a review of the most common utilizations of negative-pressure wound therapy as an adjunctive therapy or combined with plastic surgery as it relates to the surgical management of diabetic Charcot foot and ankle wounds.

‣ Non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review

Scholkmann, Felix; Fels, Daniel; Cifra, Michal
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2013 Português
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Cell-to-cell communication is the basis of coordinated cellular activity and thus fundamental for the functioning of biological systems. In a recently published research article by Chaban et al. (Am. J. Transl. Res., 5(1), 69-79), the authors report on interesting new experimental findings supporting a neuro-hormonal independent, non-diffusible cell-to-cell signaling. Our paper aims to (i) discuss some critical notions used by the authors to describe their findings, and (ii) briefly review related experimental work performed so far but not discussed in the original work of Chaban et al. In our opinion, the research on principles of non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication has the potential to offer new fundamental insights into biological processes. With this paper, we want to encourage future research on this topic by discussing critical issues and giving an overview of the current state of research.

‣ Stereolithographic Surgical Template: A Review

Dandekeri, Shilpa Sudesh; Sowmya, M.K.; Bhandary, Shruthi
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Implant placement has become a routine modality of dental care.Improvements in surgical reconstructive methods as well as increased prosthetic demands,require a highly accurate diagnosis, planning and placement. Recently,computer-aided design and manufacturing have made it possible to use data from computerised tomography to not only plan implant rehabilitation,but also transfer this information to the surgery.A review on one of this technique called Stereolithography is presented in this article.It permits graphic and complex 3D implant placement and fabrication of stereolithographic surgical templates. Also offers many significant benefits over traditional procedures.

‣ Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug – Targets

Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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432.11176%
Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy.

‣ Host Genomics in Infectious Diseases

Loeb, Mark
Fonte: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy Publicador: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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432.11176%
Understanding mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complications of infectious diseases can lead to important benefits including the development of biomarkers to prioritize vaccination or prophylactic therapy. Family studies, candidate genes in animal models, and the absence of well-defined risks where the complications are rare all can point to genetic predisposition. The most common approach to assessing genetic risk is to conduct an association study, which is a case control study using either a candidate gene approach or a genome wide approach. Although candidate gene variants may focus on potentially causal variants, because other variants across the genome are not tested these studies frequently cannot be replicated. Genome wide association studies need a sizable sample and usually do not identify causal variants but variants which may be in linkage disequilibrium to the actual causal variant. There are many pitfalls that can lead to bias in such studies, including misclassification of cases and controls, use of improper phenotypes, and genotyping errors. These studies have been limited to common genes and rare variants may not be detected. As the use of next generation sequencing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that more variants will be confirmed. The purpose of this review article is to address the issue of genomics in infectious diseases with an emphasis on the host. Although there are a plentitude of studies that focus on the molecular characteristics of pathogens...

‣ The association between natural disasters and violence: A systematic review of the literature and a call for more epidemiological studies

Rezaeian, Mohsen
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2013 Português
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The links between disasters and violence either self-directed or interpersonal are now more recognized. Nevertheless, the amount of research is limited. This article discusses the underlying association of disasters and violence and it also outlines a systematic review of the literature from 1976 to 2011. Finally, it concludes and recommends particular approaches for further epidemiological research.

‣ A Review on Genetics of Sleep Disorders

Bidaki, Reza; Zarei, Mina; Khorram Toosi, Ali; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra
Fonte: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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432.11176%
One-third of population deal with sleep disorders which might be due to social, economic or medical problems. Studies on twins have indicated the role of genetic factors in these disorders. Monozygotic twins have a very similar hypnogram. A higher prevalence of some sleep disorders is reported in relatives of the patients with these disorders. Genes also affect sleep disorders as well as some other disorders at the same time. Sleep disorders can also influence the level of the personal and social functioning. Recent genetic advances have clarified the role of different genes in sleep disorders. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review about the role of genetic factors in some of the sleep disorders.

‣ Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

Aggarwal, Ankita; Agrawal, Devendra K.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES) on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

‣ Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies

Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi
Fonte: JKL International LLC Publicador: JKL International LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
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Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis.

‣ Advances in Metered Dose Inhaler Technology: Formulation Development

Myrdal, Paul B.; Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2014 Português
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432.11176%
Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are a long-standing method to treat diseases of the lung, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MDIs rely on the driving force of the propellant, which comprises the bulk of the MDI formulation, to atomize droplets containing drug and excipients, which ideally should deposit in the lungs. During the phase out of chlorofluorocarbon propellants and the introduction of more environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane propellants, many improvements were made to the methods of formulating for MDI drug delivery along with a greater understanding of formulation variables on product performance. This review presents a survey of challenges associated with formulating MDIs as solution or suspension products with one or more drugs, while considering the physicochemical properties of various excipients and how the addition of these excipients may impact overall product performance of the MDI. Propellants, volatile and nonvolatile cosolvents, surfactants, polymers, suspension stabilizers, and bulking agents are among the variety of excipients discussed in this review article. Furthermore, other formulation approaches, such as engineered excipient and drug-excipient particles, to deliver multiple drugs from a single MDI are also evaluated.

‣ A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction

Xu, X George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end.

‣ Overview of four prescription monitoring/review programs in Canada

Furlan, Andrea D; MacDougall, Peter; Pellerin, Denise; Shaw, Karen; Spitzig, Doug; Wilson, Galt; Wright, Janet
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Although Canada has one of the highest opioid use rates in the world, it also has a high proportion of individuals with chronic pain. It is important to monitor prescription of drugs, such as opioids, that are associated with a potential for addiction to ensure that overprescribing and inappropriate prescribing are avoided, but also to avoid underprescribing without a valid reason. The programs responsible for prescription monitoring/review differ according to province. The authors of this article describe four such programs (in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia), including discussion of the aims of each program, and also describe an ideal program.

‣ Religion, Spirituality, and Schizophrenia: A Review

Grover, Sandeep; Davuluri, Triveni; Chakrabarti, Subho
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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432.11176%
Religion and spirituality exert a significant role in the lives of many individuals, including people with schizophrenia. However, the contribution of religion and spirituality to various domains (psychopathology, explanatory models, treatment seeking, treatment adherence, outcome, etc.) has not received much attention. In this article, we review the exiting data with regards to the relationship of religion, spirituality, and various domains in patients with schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that for some patients, religion instills hope, purpose, and meaning in their lives, whereas for others, it induces spiritual despair. Patients with schizophrenia also exhibit religious delusions and hallucinations. Further, there is some evidence to suggest that religion influences the level of psychopathology. Religion and religious practices also influence social integration, risk of suicide attempts, and substance use. Religion and spirituality also serves as an effective method of coping with the illness. Religion also influences the treatment compliance and outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

‣ The Long and Short of Tamoxifen Therapy: A Review of the ATLAS Trial

Smith, G. Lita
Fonte: Harborside Press Publicador: Harborside Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Review of "Long term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial" by Davies et al. (2013), Lancet, 381, 805–816. For another perspective on the ATLAS trial, please see the article on randomization and adjusting for covariates by Dustin Dickerson starting on page 61.

‣ A Review of Antibacterial Agents in Endodontic Treatment

Rahimi, Saeed; Janani, Maryam; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahi, Shahriar; Aghbali, Amirala; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi; Salem Milani, Amin; Ghasemi, Negin
Fonte: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research Publicador: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Microorganisms play a major role in initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical diseases. Therefore, elimination of the microorganisms present in the root canal system is the fundamental objective of endodontic treatment. The use of mechanical debridement, chemical irrigation or other antimicrobial protocols and intra-canal medicaments are critical to attain this goal. The aim of this article was to review the antimicrobial agents and their properties in endodontics.