Página 17 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.119 segundos

‣ A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines

Jain, Shipra; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Goyal, Jaswant; Kumar, Abhijit; Jain, Pushpawati; Seth, Vikas; Moghe, Vijay V
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS) are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of PPMS is to facilitate rational use of medicines (RUM). There is paucity of published data analysing the effectiveness of PPMS. The present review has been done to assess the effectiveness of prescription pattern monitoring studies in promoting RUM. Data search was conducted on internet. A multitude of PPMS done on different classes of drugs were collected and analyzed. PPMS using WHO prescribing indicators were also included. The present article reviews various prescription pattern monitoring studies of drugs conducted all over country and abroad. It was observed in the majority of such studies that physicians do not adhere to the guidelines made by regulatory agencies leading to irrational use of medicines. This in turn leads to increased incidence of treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance and economic burden on the patient and the community as a whole. The treatment of diseases by the use of essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasized by the WHO and the National Health Policy of India. We conclude that the prescription monitoring studies provide a bridge between areas like rational use of drugs...

‣ A Comprehensive Review of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran-Narrative Review Article

SHARIFI, Iraj; AFLATOONIAN, Mohammad Reza; FEKRI, Ali Reza; HAKIMI PARIZI, Maryam; AGHAEI AFSHAR, Abbas; KHOSRAVI, Ahmad; SHARIFI, Fatemeh; AFLATOONIAN, Behnaz; KHAMESIPOUR, Ali; DOWLATI, Yahya; MODABBER, Farrokh; NADIM, Abolhasan
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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‣ Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

Upadhyay, Ravi Kant
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs...

‣ Rectal cancer: a review

Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza
Fonte: Iran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Iran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2015 Português
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Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail.

‣ A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak (Salvadora Persica) on oral health

Haque, Mohammad M.; Alsareii, Saeed A.
Fonte: Saudi Medical Journal Publicador: Saudi Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2015 Português
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Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of Salvadora persica and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years. A number of scientific studies have demonstrated that the miswak (Salvadora persica) possesses antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque properties. Several studies have also claimed that miswak has anti-oxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of a miswak has an immediate effect on the composition of saliva. Several clinical studies have confirmed that the mechanical and chemical cleansing efficacy of miswak chewing sticks are equal and at times greater than that of the toothbrush. The present article provides a review of the various therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica on oral health, which will help to elucidate the significance and importance of this indigenous oral hygiene tool.

‣ Diabetes mellitus and burns. Part II-outcomes from burn injuries and future directions

Goutos, Ioannis; Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Pandya, Atisha A; Ghosh, Sudip J
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/03/2015 Português
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Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent comorbidity in patients presenting to burn facilities. Diabetic patients tend to be older and present in a delayed manner with deeper injuries predominantly affecting the lower limb. Morbidity from burns is higher in this cohort including a longer length of hospital stay, greater need for surgical interventions and increased rate of infective complications. Nevertheless, there seems to be little effect of diabetes on associated mortality. The second part of this review article concentrates on the epidemiological profile of diabetic burn patients and the effect of the disease on morbidity and mortality. In addition, we present a review of therapeutic adjuncts, which may hold promise for the future management of this cohort of burn patients.

‣ Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis

Andrabi, Yasir; Patino, Manuel; Das, Chandan J.; Eisner, Brian; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Kambadakone, Avinash
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) is highly sensitive (>95%) and specific (>96%) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT) and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT) has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice.

‣ Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: A review and update for urologists

Yoo, Sangjun; Kim, Jeong Kon; Jeong, In Gab
Fonte: The Korean Urological Association Publicador: The Korean Urological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recently, imaging of prostate cancer has greatly advanced since the introduction of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). mpMRI consists of T2-weighted sequences combined with several functional sequences including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and/or magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Interest has been growing in mpMRI because no single MRI sequence adequately detects and characterizes prostate cancer. During the last decade, the role of mpMRI has been expanded in prostate cancer detection, staging, and targeting or guiding prostate biopsy. Recently, mpMRI has been used to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness and to identify anteriorly located tumors before and during active surveillance. Moreover, recent studies have reported that mpMRI is a reliable imaging modality for detecting local recurrence after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy. In this regard, some urologic clinical practice guidelines recommended the use of mpMRI in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Because mpMRI is the evolving reference standard imaging modality for prostate cancer, urologists should acquire cutting-edge knowledge about mpMRI. In this article, we review the literature on the use of mpMRI in urologic practice and provide a brief description of techniques. More specifically...

‣ Update on Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Focus on Treatment

Hadziyannis, Stephanos J.
Fonte: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd Publicador: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This review article is an update of the current treatment strategies available for chronic hepatitis B. In addition to achieving on-therapy clinical remission and suppression of HBV replication without resistance, the ultimate goal of therapy is the development of sustained remission and HBsAg loss after discontinuation of treatment. This is the closest possible to cure outcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. These goals can be achieved by response-guided courses of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN)-alpha at rates higher than 30%, both in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. Review of the data regarding discontinuation of long term NA treatment in HBeAg-negative patients revealed that stopping such therapy is safe with high rates of sustained off treatment responses that appear to be immunologically induced. Decreasing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titers under therapy to <500, particularly <100 IU/mL, and adding a course of peg-IFN to ongoing long term nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy increase the percentage of sustained responses following discontinuation of NA treatment.

‣ Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) review of a lifesaving technology

Makdisi, George; Wang, I-wen
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2015 Português
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Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) indications and usage has strikingly progressed over the last 20 years; it has become essential tool in the care of adults and children with severe cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction refractory to conventional management. In this article we will provide a review of ECMO development, clinical indications, patients’ management, options and cannulations techniques, complications, outcomes, and the appropriate strategy of organ management while on ECMO.

‣ Review of running injuries of the foot and ankle: clinical presentation and SPECT-CT imaging patterns

Pelletier-Galarneau, Matthieu; Martineau, Patrick; Gaudreault, Maxime; Pham, Xuan
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2015 Português
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Distance running is among the fastest growing sports, with record registration to marathons worldwide. It is estimated that more than half of recreational runners will experience injuries related to the practice of their sport. Three-phase bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive tool to identify sports injury, allowing imaging of hyperemia, stress reaction, enthesopathy and fractures, often before abnormalities can be detected on conventional anatomical modalities. In this article, we review the most common running related injuries and their imaging findings on bone scintigraphy with SPECT-CT.

‣ Ultrasound guided distal peripheral nerve block of the upper limb: A technical review

Sehmbi, Herman; Madjdpour, Caveh; Shah, Ushma Jitendra; Chin, Ki Jinn
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Upper extremity surgery is commonly performed under regional anesthesia. The advent of ultrasonography has made performing upper extremity nerve blocks relatively easy with a high degree of reliability. The proximal approaches to brachial plexus block such as supraclavicular plexus block, infraclavicular plexus block, or the axillary block are favored for the most surgical procedures of distal upper extremity. Ultrasound guidance has however made distal nerve blocks of the upper limb a technically feasible, safe and efficacious option. In recent years, there has thus been a resurgence of distal peripheral nerve blocks to facilitate hand and wrist surgery. In this article, we review the technical aspects of performing the distal blocks of the upper extremity and highlight some of the clinical aspects of their usage.

‣ Adlay (薏苡 yì yĭ; “soft-shelled job's tears”; the seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agent toward Multistage Carcinogenesis Processes

Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chen, Huang-Hui; Chiang, Wenchang
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Adlay (薏苡 yì yĭ “soft-shelled job's tears”, the seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop that has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and as a nourishing food in China for the treatment of warts, chapped skin, rheumatism, neuralgia, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases. In addition, adlay also has been said to have stomachic, diuretic, antipholgistic, anodynic, and antispasmodic effects. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process that begins with exposure of viruses or chemicals that are found in the environment. Chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic, non-toxic chemical substances to reverse, repress, or prevent carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to study the chemopreventive blocking and suppressing potential of adlay and its active components in scavenging electrophiles and reactive oxygen species, antimutagenicity, enhancing Nrf2-mediated detoxification and antioxidant effect, altering carcinogen metabolism, suppressing proliferation, decreasing inflammation, and enhancing antitumor immunity. In addition, several active components with diverse chemopreventive properties have been also mentioned in this review article.

‣ Biofilm in endodontics: A review

Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So...

‣ A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries

Ali, Syed Sadat
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2013 Português
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The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child's brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients can have long-term effects on the brain's structure and on the child's socio-emotional development. Children's development is essentially cumulative in nature and hence, the early years of life are the foundation for later development. A Med-line search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of risk factors influencing child development. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Influences upon children's development tend to be specific in nature and developmental influences rarely operate in isolation from each other. Developmental risk factors tend to cluster together thereby, interventions designed to facilitate development must be multifocal in nature, integrating influences from different domains.

‣ Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2014 Português
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This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

‣ Squamous cell carcinoma and dental implants: A systematic review of case reports

Jeelani, S.; Rajkumar, E.; Mary, G. Geena; Khan, Parvez Ahmad; Gopal, Harish; Roy, Soumya; Maheswaran, T.; Anand, B.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2015 Português
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Apart from the most common etiopathological factors related to cancer, at times very rare causes such as irritant or foreign body induced carcinogenesis is not to be overlooked. To systematically review case reports concerned with the association between dental implants and oral squamous cell carcinoma. A Medline (PubMed), Cochrane database, and Google Scholar search was conducted of dental article published in English related to case reports concerned with oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring around dental implants from 2000 to 2014. Twenty articles were retrieved, which included 20 rare case reports which were systematically reviewed and the results were obtained pertaining to age, clinical symptoms, habits, previous history of cancer, potentially malignant disorders, systemic illness, and local factors. It is imperative to identify promptly persisting inflammation associated with implants. Since malignancy may disguise as periimplantitis, especially in patients who are at risk with contributing prominent predisposing factors.

‣ Beyond the “I” in the Obesity Epidemic: A Review of Social Relational and Network Interventions on Obesity

Leroux, Janette S.; Moore, Spencer; Dubé, Laurette
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Recent research has shown the importance of networks in the spread of obesity. Yet, the translation of research on social networks and obesity into health promotion practice has been slow. Objectives. To review the types of obesity interventions targeting social relational factors. Methods. Six databases were searched in January 2013. A Boolean search was employed with the following sets of terms: (1) social dimensions: social capital, cohesion, collective efficacy, support, social networks, or trust; (2) intervention type: intervention, experiment, program, trial, or policy; and (3) obesity in the title or abstract. Titles and abstracts were reviewed. Articles were included if they described an obesity intervention with the social relational component central. Articles were assessed on the social relational factor(s) addressed, social ecological level(s) targeted, the intervention's theoretical approach, and the conceptual placement of the social relational component in the intervention. Results. Database searches and final article screening yielded 30 articles. Findings suggested that (1) social support was most often targeted; (2) few interventions were beyond the individual level; (3) most interventions were framed on behaviour change theories; and (4) the social relational component tended to be conceptually ancillary to the intervention. Conclusions. Theoretically and practically...

‣ Local ablation therapy with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma: a practical review

Kim, Tae Kyoung; Khalili, Korosh; Jang, Hyun-Jung
Fonte: Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine Publicador: Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A successful program for local ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires extensive imaging support for diagnosis and localization of HCC, imaging guidance for the ablation procedures, and post-treatment monitoring. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) has several advantages over computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI), including real-time imaging capability, sensitive detection of arterial-phase hypervascularity and washout, no renal excretion, no ionizing radiation, repeatability, excellent patient compliance, and relatively low cost. CEUS is useful for image guidance for isoechoic lesions. While contrast-enhanced CT/MRI is the standard method for the diagnosis of HCC and post-ablation monitoring, CEUS is useful when CT/MRI findings are indeterminate or CT/MRI is contraindicated. This article provides a practical review of the role of CEUS in imaging algorithms for pre- and post-ablation therapy for HCC.

‣ Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

Mohammadi, Z; Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M
Fonte: Chonnam National University Medical School Publicador: Chonnam National University Medical School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial.