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‣ Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: Review of the Short Form 36-Health Questionnaire Survey

Ku, Ja Hyeon
Fonte: Yonsei University College of Medicine Publicador: Yonsei University College of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Advances in medical and rehabilitative care have increased interest in studying how different factors may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). There has been a large increase in the number of studies assessing HRQOL among persons with SCI. However, despite these advances, numerous issues remain unanswered because these studies have used a variety of methodologic approaches and assessment tools to examine how different factors have a role in predicting HRQOL in SCI populations. Therefore, standardized instruments should be used as part of this process. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36) was developed in order to survey health status of the general population. However, the available data on the HRQOL of individuals with SCI are currently limited. In addition, there is little information currently available on the factors that are associated with HRQOL in the SCI population and this issue remains controversial. The findings from several individual studies that used the SF-36 to assess the HRQOL of patients suffering from SCI were reviewed, and the results were interpreted with disability in mind. This review article aims to summarize the data regarding the HRQOL of individuals with SCI by using the SF-36.

‣ Invited Review Article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy

Carriles, Ramón; Schafer, Dawn N.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus; Sylvester, Anne W.; Squier, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences.

‣ Is routine thromboprophylaxis justified among Indian patients sustaining major orthopedic trauma? A systematic review

Sen, Ramesh K; Tripathy, Sujit K; Singh, Amit K
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google Scholar’ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury). Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients) were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury...

‣ Review of 18F-FDG Synthesis and Quality Control

Yu, S
Fonte: Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia Publicador: Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2006 Português
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This review article covers a concise account on fludeoxyglucose (18F–FDG) synthesis and quality control procedures with emphasis on practical synthesis Currently, 18F–FDG is the most successful PET radiopharmaceutical so far. The advancement in synthesis and quality control of 18F–FDG, together with its approval by the US FDA and the availability of reimbursement, are probably the main reasons for the flourish of clinical PET over the last 20 years. 18F–FDG can be synthesised by either electrophilic fluorination or nucleophilic fluorination reaction. Nucleophilic fluorination using mannose triflate as precursor and Kryptofix or tetrabutylammonium salts (TBA) is widely used because of higher yield and shorter reaction time. The quality control requirements of 18F–FDG can be found in United States Pharmacopeia (USP), British Pharmacopeia (BP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) and the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) section from United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) PET draft guidance documents. Basic requirements include radionuclidic identity, radiochemical purity, chemical purity, pH, residual solvent, sterility, and bacterial endotoxin level. Some of these tests (sterility, endotoxins and radionuclidic purity) can be finished after the 18F–FDG has been released. Although USP...

‣ A review on peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in healthy adult Indians

Shete, Ashwini; Thakar, Madhuri; Abraham, Philip Raj; Paranjape, Ramesh
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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The CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial cells in the cascade of events in forming immune response to the foreign antigen and hence monitoring the CD4+ T cell counts to understand the extent of immune deficiency is a common practice. CD4+ T cells are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hence CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the most important marker of immune dysfunction in HIV disease progression. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). To develop the threshold levels of CD4+ T cell counts, data from western countries are being used in India. The CD4+ T cell counts are known to be influenced by race and environmental factors. Hence it is important to establish the reference ranges for the CD4+ T cell counts in the target population to understand the immune dysfunction. The information on the lower limits of the CD4+ T cells count is necessary to decide the initiation and monitoring of ART. The published data on the CD4+ T cells count in healthy Indian adult population have been reviewed, analyzed and discussed in this review article. The requirement of establishment of reference ranges in Indian population is discussed.

‣ Ultrasound Guidance for Deep Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Brief Review

Wadhwa, Anupama; Kandadai, Sunitha Kanchi; Tongpresert, Sujittra; Obal, Detlef; Gebhard, Ralf Erich
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nerve stimulation and ultrasound have been introduced to the practice of regional anesthesia mostly in the last two decades. Ultrasound did not gain as much popularity as the nerve stimulation until a decade ago because of the simplicity, accuracy and portability of the nerve stimulator. Ultrasound is now available in most academic centers practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool amongst trainees for performance of nerve blocks. This review article specifically discusses the role of ultrasonography for deeply situated nerves or plexuses such as the infraclavicular block for the upper extremity and lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks for the lower extremity. Transitioning from nerve stimulation to ultrasound-guided blocks alone or in combination is beneficial in certain scenarios. However, not every patient undergoing regional anesthesia technique benefits from the use of ultrasound, especially when circumstances resulting in difficult visualization such as deep nerve blocks and/or block performed by inexperienced ultrasonographers. The use of ultrasound does not replace experience and knowledge of relevant anatomy...

‣ Sensory Processing Problems in Children with ADHD, a Systematic Review

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad
Fonte: Korean Neuropsychiatric Association Publicador: Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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One of the most common psychiatric disorders in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its course and outcome are heterogeneous. Sensory processing problems impact the nature of response to daily events. ADHD and sensory problems may occur together and interact. No published review article about sensory processing problems in children with ADHD were found. A systematic search, conducted on Pub-Med (up to January 2010), and Google Scholar, yielded 255 abstracts on sensory processing problems in children including 11 studies about sensory problems in children with ADHD. Sensory processing problems in children with ADHD is not a well studied area. Sensory processing problems in children with ADHD are more common than in typically developing children. Findings do not support that ADHD subtypes are distinct disorders with regard to sensory processing problems. However, co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder and anxiety are predictors of more severe sensory processing problems in children with ADHD.

‣ A brief review on recent developments in animal models of schizophrenia

Trivedi, M.S.; Jarbe, T.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Number of patients suffering from schizophrenia is increasing daily, subsequently, increasing the need of proper medication to treat the symptoms and eventually improve the patients’ condition. However, all the progress for designing or discovering medication comes to a standstill, as the symptomatic treatment can only be done in the patients, but performing clinical trials with all the possible candidate drugs in human beings and patients is unethical. Thus, the need arises for proper animal and non-human primate animal models of the disease, which would not only serve the purpose of understanding the disease in a better physiological setting, but also would allow the scientists to focus on developing a therapeutically effective and potent medication for treating this hazardous disease. This brief review article focuses on a few animal models which are generally used for carrying out studies on schizophrenic symptoms in research labs and industry worldwide. The paper also tries to validate the pre-clinically available models based on certain specified criteria like the predictive constructive and face validity. Thus, the paper gives guidance toward the mechanistic and traditional models of schizophrenia applying some of the newer principles and helps researchers in deciding a particular relevant model for their own purpose.

‣ A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species.

‣ Aerva lanata: A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects

Goyal, Manoj; Pareek, Anil; Nagori, B. P.; Sasmal, D.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Aerva lanata (L.) A. L. Juss. ex Schultes. (Amaranthaceae) locally known as ‘bui’ is an erect or prostrate undershrub with a long tap-root and many wolly-tomentose branches, found in the wild, throughout India. In traditional medicine the plant is used in cough, strangury (slow to be and painful discharge of urine), headache and urolithiasis. The photochemical constituents present in the plant include alkaloids (ervine, methylervine, ervoside, aervine, methylaervine, aervoside, ervolanine, and aervolanine), flavanoids (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, persinol, persinosides A and B), methyl grevillate, lupeol, lupeol acetate benzoic acid, β-sitosteryl acetate and tannic acid. Pharmacological studies reported diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-diabetic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, hepoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, antiasthmatic, antifertility and hypolipidemic properties of Aerva lanata. This review article includes the detailed exploration of the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Aerva lanata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

‣ A Rethinking on the Benefits and Drawbacks of Common Antioxidants and a Proposal to Look for the Antioxidants in Allium Products as Ideal Agents: A Review

Augusti, K. T.; Jose, Regi; Sajitha, G. R.; Augustine, Paul
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This review article on the beneficial uses of Allium antioxidants tries to give some answers to the recent doubts raised by Singh et al. (Ind J Clin Biochem 25(3):225–243, 2010) against the claim of some researchers that Antioxidants (AOs) are miraculous molecules. Many people still believe that vitamins like A, C and E are the only true AOs that play important role in the corrections of metabolic derangements in life style diseases and hence all their faults are attributed to the failures of AOs as a class. This is quite unfair as there are many other natural AOs that do equal or even better AO action than the vitamins. Such is the case with the Allium S-alkyl sulfoxide aminoacids and their breakdown products viz, the various poly sulfides and their oxides e.g. allicin and ajoene type compounds which trap electrons mainly. It is true that antioxidant vitamins and β-carotene a precursor of Vitamin A bring about problems as prooxidant or as agents that block some metabolic pathways and gene expression. Again the argument that AOs cannot improve the level of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and glutathione Px is also not universal. Actually allium AOs can even spare the use of antioxidant vitamins in the body and enhance the action of antioxidant enzymes and supply of ATP and other nutrients to the tissues as the former are good vasodialators and promoters of membrane permeability. The use of AOs should be selective and moderate. Allium AOs satisfy the role of ideal AOs based on many of their invivo and invitro actions reported by the author and others. Their metabolits can regenerate them and recycle them for a sufficient time in the body. They have non antioxidant effects also such as antiplatelet...

‣ The association of hepatitis B virus infection with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma – a review

Marcucci, Fabrizio; Spada, Enea; Mele, Alfonso; Caserta, Carmelo Antonio; Pulsoni, Alessandro
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Epidemiological studies performed over the last decade have demonstrated a positive association between persistent, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with HBV-infected patients having a 2-3-fold higher risk to develop NHL than non-infected patients. Moreover, there is evidence that also occult HBV infection (HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-positive) associates with NHL. An association with HBV infection may exist also for other hematological malignancies, but available evidence is much less persuasive than for NHL. In this review article we will discuss available results on the association between HBsAg-positive HBV infection and NHL, as well as the significance of other serological markers of HBV infection in these subjects. We will also discuss the possible etiopathogenic role of HBV, and propose a multifactorial model for lymphomagenesis. Experimental evidence for multifactorial etiopathogenesis has been obtained in recent years for HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and we suggest that a similar model may apply to HBV-associated lymphoma as well. Eventually, we will also address some unresolved questions. Two of these are of particular relevance. First...

‣ Laparoscopic Myomectomy with Uterine Artery Ligation: Review Article and Comparative Analysis

Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Mahajan, Chaitali; Raje, Shweta; Kadam, Pratima; Rao, Gayatri
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Uterine leiomyomas are one of the most common benign smooth muscle tumors in women, with a prevalence of 20 to 40% in women over the age of 35 years. Although many women are asymptomatic, problems such as bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility may necessitate treatment. Laparoscopic myomectomy is one of the treatment options for myomas. The major concern of myomectomy either by open method or by laparoscopy is the bleeding encountered during the procedure. Most studies have aimed at ways of reducing blood loss during myomectomy. There are various ways in which bleeding during laparoscopic myomectomy can be reduced, the most reliable of which is ligation of the uterine vessels bilaterally. In this review we propose to discuss the benefits and possible disadvantages of ligating the uterine arteries bilaterally before performing laparoscopic myomectomy.

‣ HIV/HBV Co-Infections: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Treatment: A Review Article

Ranjbar, R; Davari, A; Izadi, M; Jonaidi, N; Alavian, S M
Fonte: Kowsar Publicador: Kowsar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one of the major health priorities, accounts approximately for 350 million chronic cases and a global total of 33 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world.Co-infection with HIV and the HBV presents a significant challenge to health care providers, with different prevalence rates in different parts of the world. It is important to screen all HIV infected individuals for HBV infection and reverse. Infection with HBV becomes more violent in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and of experiencing HAART toxicity. In this review, the latest statistics on epidemiology of HIV, HBV and their co-infection has been presented along with prominent characteristics of HBV. Transmission routes which are the common between HBV and HIV are described and the most important ones are described according to the regional and age features. Also, there is a series of actions being performed once HBV infections occur to prevent HIV or to diagnose if the HBV-infected individuals are also infected with HIV. As in treatment case, some of the frequent treatment methods including applying interferon and using nucleoside and nucleotide analogues have been discussed. Finally...

‣ Ophthalmic Parasitosis: A Review Article

Nimir, Amal R.; Saliem, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Ocular parasitosis in human is more prevalent in geographical areas where environmental factors and poor sanitary conditions favor the parasitism between man and animals. Lesions in the eye can be due to damage directly caused by the infectious pathogen, indirect pathology caused by toxic products, or the immune response incited by infections or ectopic parasitism. The epidemiology of parasitic ocular diseases reflects the habitat of the causative parasites as well as the habits and health status of the patient. An ocular examination may provide clues to the underlying disease/infection, and an awareness of the possibilities of travel-related pathology may shed light on an ocular presentation. This paper is a comprehensive review of the parasitic diseases of the eye. The majority of the clinically important species of parasites involved in eye infection are reviewed in this paper. Parasites are discussed by the disease or infection they cause.

‣ Partial breast irradiation: a review of techniques and indications

Stewart, A J; Khan, A J; Devlin, P M
Fonte: The British Institute of Radiology. Publicador: The British Institute of Radiology.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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The addition of whole-breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to breast-conserving surgery results in a significant reduction in the risk of death due to breast cancer, but this may be offset by an increase in deaths from other causes and toxicity to surrounding organs. Because of this, and with a view to patterns of local recurrence, irradiation of the tumour bed has been explored in selected patients with early breast cancer using a variety of radiotherapeutic modalities. This review article explores the treatment options for partial breast irradiation and examines their role within the field of breast cancer treatment.

‣ Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

Takayanagi, Susumu
Fonte: The Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons Publicador: The Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

‣ Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema; a Systematic Review

Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Parvaresh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Modarres, Mehdi; Hashemi, Masih; Samiy, Nasrollah
Fonte: Ophthalmic Research Center Publicador: Ophthalmic Research Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 Português
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Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a major cause of decreased vision after complicated or uncomplicated cataract surgery. This paper reviews the use of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection for treatment of pseudophakic CME. In a literature search of all articles available on Medline and Scopus databases, 11 studies including one prospective and 4 retrospective studies, 4 case reports, one letter to editor and one review article were identified. All articles except one, reported the use of IVB for chronic CME unresponsive to at least one conventional treatment modality. The level of evidence for all studies was categorized as low or very low. Although intravitreal bevacizumab might be effective for many cases of pseudophakic CME, its use should be reserved for eyes unresponsive to conventional treatment modalities.

‣ Physiotherapy for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review Article

Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E.
Fonte: The Society of Physical Therapy Science Publicador: The Society of Physical Therapy Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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[Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address physiotherapy for SUI, including the Cochrane Library, Medline, and CINAHL. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, greater improvements in SUI occur when women receive a supervised exercise program of at least three months. The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment is increased if the exercise program is based on some principles, such as intensity, duration, resembling functional task, and the position in which the exercise for pelvic floor muscles is performed. Biofeedback and electrical stimulation may also be clinically useful and acceptable modalities for some women with SUI. [Conclusion] We concluded that the plan for physiotherapy care should be individualized for each patient and include standard physiotherapy interventions.

‣ The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article

Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
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Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation.