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‣ Lung cancer and diesel exhaust: an updated critical review of the occupational epidemiology literature

Gamble, John F.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Boffetta, Paolo
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A recent review concluded that the evidence from epidemiology studies was indeterminate and that additional studies were required to support the diesel exhaust-lung cancer hypothesis. This updated review includes seven recent studies. Two population-based studies concluded that significant exposure-response (E-R) trends between cumulative diesel exhaust and lung cancer were unlikely to be entirely explained by bias or confounding. Those studies have quality data on life-style risk factors, but do not allow definitive conclusions because of inconsistent E-R trends, qualitative exposure estimates and exposure misclassification (insufficient latency based on job title), and selection bias from low participation rates. Non-definitive results are consistent with the larger body of population studies. An NCI/NIOSH cohort mortality and nested case-control study of non-metal miners have some surrogate-based quantitative diesel exposure estimates (including highest exposure measured as respirable elemental carbon (REC) in the workplace) and smoking histories. The authors concluded that diesel exhaust may cause lung cancer. Nonetheless, the results are non-definitive because the conclusions are based on E-R patterns where high exposures were deleted to achieve significant results...

‣ Hydrodynamic ultrasonic maxillary sinus lift: Review of a new technique and presentation of a clinical case

Velázquez-Cayón, Rocío; Romero-Ruiz, Manuel M.; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Pérez-Dorao, Beatriz; Wainwright, Marcel; Abalos-Labruzzi, Camilo; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José L.
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objectives: Placing implants in the posterior maxillary area has the drawback of working with scarce, poor quality bone in a significant percentage of cases. Numerous advanced surgical techniques have been developed to overcome the difficulties associated with these limitations. Subsequent to reports on the elevation of the maxillary sinus through the lateral approach, there were reports on the use of the crestal approach, which is less aggressive but requires a minimal amount of bone. Furthermore, it is more sensitive to operator technique, as the integrity of the sinus membrane is checked indirectly. The aim of this paper is to review the technical literature on minimally invasive sinus lift and compare the advantages of different techniques with Intralift™, a new technique. Study Design: The present study is a review of techniques used to perform minimally invasive sinus lift published in Cochrane, Embase and Medline over the past ten years and the description of the crestal sinus lift technique based on minimally invasive piezosurgery, with the example of a case report. Results: Only eight articles were found on minimally invasive techniques for sinus lift. The main advantage of this new technique, Intralift, is that it does not require a minimum amount of crestal bone (indeed...

‣ Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies

Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir; Stovner, Lars Jacob
Fonte: Springer Milan Publicador: Springer Milan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more pronounced for studies including patients with migraine only (−14.6 days/month) compared to studies with the original diagnoses of migraine and tension-type headache (−9.2 days/month). Six studies reported relapse rate (mean of 26%) and/or responder rate (mean of 28%). Medication days/month and change in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points such as headache days/month, medication days/month...

‣ Review of surgical ventricular restoration: A procedure to treat cardiac failure

Sule, Anupam A.; Sule, Ajey A.; Fred, Downey H.; Thakur, Sanjeev S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Severe heart failure refractory to medical treatment necessitates the use of other modalities of treatment. Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) surgery can provide relief until donour hearts are available or when transplantation is contraindicated. In this review we look at the physiological basis for improvement in cardiac function and cardiac and haemodynamic changes that occur after SVR. We also compile the reported factors affecting surgical outcome, criteria for patient selection and predictors of postoperative mortality. NYHA class, presence of diastolic failure, severe impairment of contractile function and presence of mitral regurgitation were the most important determinants. Various different procedures for achieving SVR are briefly discussed. Importance of mitral valve repair/replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting and intraoperative echocardiography in improving postoperative result is highlighted. Role of perioperative medication (anti-arrhythmics, ACE inhibitors and β-blockers) is briefly studied at the end of the review.

‣ A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.

‣ Cognitive Effects of “Older” Anticonvulsants in Children with Epilepsy: A Review and Critique of the Literature

Ries, Michele
Fonte: Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group Publicador: Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Cognitive decline in children with seizure disorders is due to several factors, one being the choice of anticonvulsant and total anticonvulsant exposure. This paper reviews research investigating cognitive effects associated with “older” anticonvulsant medications (i.e., phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproate) prescribed as monotherapy. A number of cognitive difficulties such as intellectual decline, mild memory loss, visual-motor impairment, and psychomotor slowing have been associated with these medications. Each study included in this review is assessed in terms of the appropriateness of study design and ability of the reader to draw clear conclusions about the cognitive effects associated with the anticonvulsant under investigation. The review also includes a synopsis of the myriad of methodological difficulties that plague this body of literature. Conclusions that can be drawn from the existing literature are delineated, and future directions for research are suggested.

‣ Incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests: a systematic review

Lumbreras, B; Donat, L; Hernández-Aguado, I
Fonte: The British Institute of Radiology. Publicador: The British Institute of Radiology.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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The objective of this review is to summarise the available evidence on the frequency and management of incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests. Original articles were identified by a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Plus databases using appropriate medical headings. Extracted variables were study design; sample size; type of imaging test; initial diagnosis; frequency and location of incidental findings; whether clinical follow-up was performed; and whether a definitive diagnosis was made. Study characteristics were assessed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Any disagreement was solved by consensus. The relationship between the frequency of incidental findings and the study characteristics was assessed using a one-way ANOVA test, as was the frequency of follow-up of incidental findings and the frequency of confirmation. 251 potentially relevant abstracts were identified and 44 articles were finally included in the review. Overall, the mean frequency of incidental findings was 23.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8–31.3%). The frequency of incidental findings was higher in studies involving CT technology (mean 31.1%, 95% CI 20.1–41.9%), in patients with an unspecific initial diagnosis (mean 30.5...

‣ Orofacial pain of cardiac origin: Review literature and clinical cases

López-López, José; Garcia-Vicente, Laia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Roca-Elias, Josep
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The most common types of orofacial pain originate at the dental or periodontal level or in the musculoskeletal structures. However, the patient may present pain in this region even though the source is located elsewhere in the body. One possible source of heterotopic pain is of cardiac origin. Objectives: Report two cases of orofacial pain of cardiac origin and review the clinical cases described in the literature. Study Design: Description of clinical cases and review of clinical cases. Results and conclusions: Nine cases of atypical pain of cardiac origin are recorded, which include 5 females and 4 males. In craniofacial structures, pain of cardiac origin is usually bilateral. At the craniofacial level, the most frequent location described is in the throat and jaw. Pain of cardiac origin is considered atypical due to its location, although roughly 10% of the cases of cardiac ischemia manifest primarily in craniofacial structures. Finally, the differential diagnosis of pain of odontogenic origin must be taken into account with pain of non-odontogenic origin (muscle, psychogenic, neuronal, cardiac, sinus and neurovascular pain) in order to avoid diagnostic errors in the dental practice as well as unnecessary treatments.

‣ Accidental displacement and migration of endosseous implants into adjacent craniofacial structures: A review and update

González-García, Alberto; González-García, Jaime; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; García-García, Abel; Bullón, Pedro
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objectives: Accidental displacement of endosseous implants into the maxillary sinus is an unusual but potential complication in implantology procedures due to the special features of the posterior aspect of the maxillary bone; there is also a possibility of migration throughout the upper paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. The aim of this paper is to review the published literature about accidental displacement and migration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus and other adjacent structures. Study Design: A review has been done based on a search in the main on-line medical databases looking for papers about migration of dental implants published in major oral surgery, periodontal, dental implant and ear-nose-throat journals, using the keywords “implant,” “migration,” “complication,” “foreign body” and “sinus.” Results: 24 articles showing displacement or migration to maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, orbit and cranial fossae, with different degrees of associated symptoms, were identified. Techniques found to solve these clinical issues include Cadwell-Luc approach, transoral endoscopy approach via canine fossae and transnasal functional endoscopy surgery. Conclusion: Before removing the foreign body...

‣ Vitamin E and Bone Structural Changes: An Evidence-Based Review

Naina Mohamed, Isa; Borhanuddin, Boekhtiar; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohd Fozi, Nur Farhana
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Purpose. This paper explores the effects of vitamin E on bone structural changes. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies about vitamin E and osteoporosis/bone structural changes. A comprehensive search in Medline and CINAHL for relevant studies published between the years 1946 and 2012 was conducted. The main inclusion criteria were published in English, studies had to report the association or effect of vitamin E and osteoporosis-related bone changes, and the osteoporosis-related bone changes should be related to lifestyle variables, aging, or experimentally-induced conditions. Results. The literature search identified 561 potentially relevant articles, whereby 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three human epidemiological studies and eight animal experimental studies included in this paper. Four animal studies reported positive bone structural changes with vitamin E supplementation. The rest of the studies had negative changes or no effect. Studies with positive changes reported better effects with tocotrienol vitamin E isomer supplementation. Conclusions. This evidence-based review underscores the potential of vitamin E being used for osteoporosis. The effect of one of the vitamin E isomers...

‣ An update review of stem cell applications in burns and wound care

Huang, Lin; Burd, Andrew
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The ultimate goal of the treatment of cutaneous burns and wounds is to restore the damaged skin both structurally and functionally to its original state. Recent research advances have shown the great potential of stem cells in improving the rate and quality of wound healing and regenerating the skin and its appendages. Stem cell-based therapeutic strategies offer new prospects in the medical technology for burns and wounds care. This review seeks to give an updated overview of the applications of stem cell therapy in burns and wound management since our previous review of the “stem cell strategies in burns care”.

‣ Use of Condition-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Trials among Patients with Wrist Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

McPhail, Steven M.; Bagraith, Karl S.; Schippers, Mandy; Wells, Paula J.; Hatton, Anna
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. This paper aimed to identify condition-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in clinical trials among people with wrist osteoarthritis and summarise empirical peer-reviewed evidence supporting their reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change. Methods. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials among people with wrist osteoarthritis was undertaken. Studies reporting reliability, validity, or responsiveness were identified using a systematic reverse citation trail audit procedure. Psychometric properties of the instruments were examined against predefined criteria and summarised. Results. Thirteen clinical trials met inclusion criteria. The most common patient-reported outcome was the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire (DASH). The DASH, the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), the Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM), and the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) had evidence supporting their reliability, validity, and responsiveness. A post-hoc review of excluded studies revealed the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index as another suitable instrument that had favourable reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Conclusions. The DASH, MHQ, and AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index instruments were supported by the most favourable empirical evidence for validity...

‣ Clinical Experience Using Vitamin D and Analogs in the Treatment of Myelodysplasia and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Review of the Literature

Harrison, Jonathan S.; Bershadskiy, Alexander
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Despite progress in understanding the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and despite advances in treatment, the majority of patients with AML die from the disease. The observation that Vitamin D can induce AML blast cells in vitro to differentiate along the monocytic lineage was made 30 years ago; however, it remains to translate this into a clinically meaningful strategy. This is a review of published clinical experience regarding the use of Vitamin D and its analogs, either alone or in combination with other agents, to treat AML. In many of these reports, investigators included patients with myelodysplasia (MDS) as well as AML patients in their treatment cohorts; therefore reports of Vitamin D and its analogs in treating MDS are included. This review documents heterogeneity in selection criteria for patients treated in these studies, the spectrum of Vitamin D analogs used in various studies, and the differing dosing strategies employed by investigators. Despite examples of occasional clinical efficacy, barriers remain to the successful application of Vitamin D in the treatment of MDS and AML. These include the lack of definition of a particularly sensitive target population, and the as yet unknown optimal choice of Vitamin D analog and dosing schedule.

‣ Serum Adiponectin Level and Different Kinds of Cancer: A Review of Recent Evidence

Izadi, Vajihe; Farabad, Elaheh; Azadbakht, Leila
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2012 Português
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Background. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, has antiobesity, anti-insulin resistance, and anticancer roles. The present study aimed to review the epidemiologic evidence about the association between adiponectin and cancers. Method. We searched in PubMed from 2002 to October 2011 by using the following key words: cancer, malignancy, cell proliferation, and adiponectin. Finally, 45 articles were recruited to review in the present paper. Findings. Several findings suggested inverse association between concentration of hormone and breast cancer risk. Low levels of adiponectin increase the risk of endometrial cancer in women. Adiponectin levels were significantly associated with prostate cancer in men. It seems that there is an inverse relationship between levels of adiponectin or its gene and colorectal cancer. Significant association between hormone and pancreatic cancer was found. Conclusion. Several findings suggested the negative correlation between adiponectin and risk of cancers. This relationship was more elucidated by the correlation between the hormone with obesity and insulin resistance. Suppression of growth and proliferation of cancer cells by adiponectin were explained via several mechanisms.

‣ Diagnosing pubovisceral avulsions: a systematic review of the clinical relevance of a prevalent anatomical defect

Lammers, Karin; Fütterer, Jurgen J.; Prokop, Mathias; Vierhout, Mark E.; Kluivers, Kirsten B.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The aims of this systematic literature review were to assess whether the detection of pubovisceral avulsions using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or perineal ultrasonography was clinically relevant in women with pelvic floor dysfunction and to evaluate the relation with anatomy, symptoms, and recurrence after surgery. We performed a systematic literature review using three bibliographical databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) as data sources. Clinical studies were included in which pubovisceral avulsions were studied in relation to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage, pelvic floor symptoms, and/or recurrence of POP after surgery. Ultimately, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. POP stage and recurrence of POP after surgery were strongly associated with pubovisceral avulsions. Contradictory results were found regarding the relation between pubovisceral avulsions and urinary symptoms and symptoms of anorectal dysfunction. Pubovisceral avulsions, as diagnosed by MR imaging or perineal ultrasonography, are associated with higher stages of POP and recurrence of POP after surgery.

‣ Anticoagulant therapy for ischemic stroke: A review of literature

Shahpouri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyed; Khorvash, Faribourz; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Hoseini, Tahereh
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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For many years, anticoagulants have been used in the emergent treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Anticoagulants are prescribed in an effort to prevent first or recurrent stroke, especially among patients with cardioembolism due to arterial fibrillation and large-artery atherosclerotic disease. Despite the widespread use, efficacy and safety of anticoagulants are controversial. Experts have given a broad spectrum of opinions. Surveys of practitioners have also demonstrated a lack of consensus on the use of anticoagulants for ischemic stroke. The uncertainty is due, in large part, to the lack of definitive clinical data. A review by the panel of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association found no strong evidence for effectiveness of anticoagulants in treating acute ischemic stroke. Several clinical trials have suggested that utility of emergent anticoagulation has no significant effect in improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the present review, we have attempted to provide a framework for the emergent use of anticoagulants in acute ischemic stroke patients.

‣ Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

Imam, Mustapha Umar; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR) for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

‣ The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011...

‣ A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

Sechopoulos, Ioannis
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

‣ Mental and Physical Health and Intimate Partner Violence against Women: A Review of the Literature

Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Rahman, Saifur
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and poor physical and mental health of women have been demonstrated in the international and national literature across numerous studies. This paper presents a review of the literature on this topic. The 75 papers included in this review cover both original research studies and those which undertook secondary analyses of primary data sources. The reviewed research papers published from 2006 to 2012 include quantitative and qualitative studies from Western and developing countries. The results show that while there is variation in prevalence of IPV across various cultural settings, IPV was associated with a range of mental health issues including depression, PTSD, anxiety, self-harm, and sleep disorders. In most studies, these effects were observed using validated measurement tools. IPV was also found to be associated with poor physical health including poor functional health, somatic disorders, chronic disorders and chronic pain, gynaecological problems, and increased risk of STIs. An increased risk of HIV was reported to be associated with a history of sexual abuse and violence. The implications of the study findings in relation to methodological issues, clinical significance, and future research direction are discussed.