The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all...
Objective. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of hemoglobin effect on the pregnancy outcomes. Methods. We searched MEDLINE and SCOPUS from January 1, 1990 to April 10, 2011. Observational studies addressing association between hemoglobin and adverse pregnancy outcomes were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data. A mixed logistic regression was applied to assess the effects of hemoglobin on preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age. Results. Seventeen studies were included in poolings. Hemoglobin below 11 g/dL was, respectively, 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02–1.19), 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03–1.32), and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05–1.24) times higher risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age than normal hemoglobin in the first trimester. In the third trimester, hemoglobin below 11 g/dL was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08–1.58) times higher risk of low birth weight. Hemoglobin above 14 g/dL in third trimester decreased the risk of preterm term with ORs of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.26–0.97), but it might be affected by publication bias. Conclusions. Our review suggests that hemoglobin below 11 g/dl increases the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small gestational age in the first trimester and the risk of low birth weight in the third trimester.
Wound healing is a complex pathway of regulated reactions and cellular infiltrates. The mechanisms at play have been thoroughly studied but there is much still to learn. The health care system in the USA alone spends on average 9 billion dollars annually on treating of wounds. To help reduce patient morbidity and mortality related to abnormal or prolonged skin healing, an updated review and understanding of wound healing is essential. Recent works have helped shape the multistep process in wound healing and introduced various growth factors that can augment this process. The complement cascade has been shown to have a role in inflammation and has only recently been shown to augment wound healing. In this review, we have outlined the biology of wound healing and discussed the use of growth factors and the role of complements in this intricate pathway.
The indications for surgical intervention in complex fractures of the proximal humerus are disputed. In elderly patients with poor bone stock it may be impossible to obtain satisfactory fixation of the tuberosities to a hemiarthroplasty (HA). In such cases primary insertion of a reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has been suggested. We aimed to review clinical studies reporting benefits and harms of RSA in acute fractures. A systematic review. We included 18 studies containing 430 RSA in acute fractures. We found no randomized clinical trials. Four studies compared outcome after RSA with a historical control group of HA. The median constant score was 58 (range 44-68) which is comparable to previous reviews of HA in 4-part fractures. Complications included dislocation, infection, hematoma, instability, neurological injury, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, intraoperative fractures, periprosthetic fractures, and baseplate failure. Scapular notching was reported in 11 studies with a median value of 25% (range 0-94). Heterogeneity of study designs and lack of primary data precluded statistical pooling of data. No high quality evidence was identified. Based on the available evidence the use of RSA in acute fractures is questionable. The complication rate was high and the clinical implications of long term scapular notching are worrying. Randomized studies with long term follow up using the latest techniques of tubercular reinsertion in RSA toward HA should be encouraged.
This systematic review aims to illustrate the published results of “minimally invasive” procedures for correction of hallux valgus. Based on former systematic reviews on that topic, the literature search was organised by two independent investigators. MEDLINE was systematically searched for available studies. The keywords used were “hallux valgus”, “bunion”, “percutaneous surgery”, “minimally invasive surgery”, “arthroscopy”, “Bosch” and “SERI”. Studies were assessed using the level of evidence rating. A total of 21 papers were included in this review. These studies described a total of 1,750 patients with 2,195 instances of percutaneous, minimally invasive or arthroscopic hallux valgus surgery. Clinical reports of results after minimally invasive hallux valgus surgery at meetings are common. Published results in peer-reviewed journals are less common and the majority of papers are level IV studies according to the level of evidence ratings. We found one level II and three level III studies. Reported complications seem to be less than one may see in one’s own clinical practice. This possible bias may be related to the fact that most studies are published by centres performing primarily minimally invasive hallux valgus surgery.
Background. The impact of hepatic steatosis on outcome following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains controversial with conflicting clinical results. A number of experimental studies have been published examining the relationship between hepatic steatosis and IRI. This systematic review evaluates these experimental studies.
Methods. An electronic search of the Medline and Embase databases (January 1946 to June 2012) was performed to identify studies that reported relevant outcomes in animal models of hepatic steatosis subjected to IRI.
Results. A total of 1314 articles were identified, of which 33 met the predefined criteria and were included in the study. There was large variation in the type of animal model, duration, and type of IRI and reporting of histological findings. Increased macrovesicular steatosis (>30%) was associated with increased histological damage, liver function derangement, and reduced survival. Increased duration of warm or cold ischemia had a negative impact on all outcomes measured. Microvesicular steatosis did not influence outcome.
Conclusions. Findings from this systemic review support the hypothesis that livers with >30% macrovesicular steatosis are less tolerant of IRI. Clinically, it is likely that these findings are applicable to patients undergoing hepatic resection...
Although table tennis has a tradition lasting more than 100 years, relatively little is known about players’ physiological requirements – especially during competition. In this review we discuss research studies that have led to our current understanding of how the body functions during table tennis training and competition and how this is altered by training. Match and practice analysis of the table tennis game indicates that during intense practice and competition it is predominantly the anaerobic alactic system that is called into play, while the endurance system is relied on to recovery the anaerobic stores used during such effort. It is thus important for coaches to keep in mind that, while the anaerobic alactic system is the most energetic system used during periods of exertion in a table tennis game, a strong capacity for endurance is what helps a player recover quicker for the following match and the next day of competition. This paper provides a review of specific studies that relate to competitive table tennis, and highlights the need for training and research programs tailored to table tennis.
The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic) power (Pmax) assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of Pmax during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips), methodological (protocols) and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue) limiting Pmax in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions…) are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.
Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare condition, of unknown pathogenesis, that primarily affects the thoracic spinal cord. It is characterized by ventral displacement of the spinal cord through a dural defect. The aim of this study was to review the literature and to present a retrospective single center experience with three cases of ISCH. The literature review analyzed a total of 78 relevant publications on ISCH, which included a total of 171 patients, supplemented with 3 patients treated at our institution. Numerous case reports have demonstrated improvement in clinical outcomes after surgery; however, follow-up is predominantly short, data are incomplete, the condition is frequently misdiagnosed, and it is difficult to predict which patients will benefit from surgery. We identified 159 cases treated with surgical management. The mean symptom duration was 54 months, and the mean follow-up 33 months. The result at follow-up was improved neurological outcome in 74%, unchanged result in 18%, and worse outcome in 8%. There were 15 cases of conservative management, with mean symptom duration 52 months and mean follow-up 33 months. The neurological outcome was unchanged in 100%. ISCH is a rare condition causing progressive thoracic myelopathy...
The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of tofacitinib, a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, recently approved for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in patients who have failed previous treatment with methotrexate (MTX) or other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and other databases till 3 May 2013. All included studies were analyzed with the use of the Review Manager 5.1.0. software according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement protocol. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tofacitinib with placebo were identified. Two of them additionally provided the comparison with adalimumab. However, only eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The overall results of the meta-analysis showed that tofacitinib provided a statistically significant improvement according to the response criteria (ACR20/50/70) after 12 weeks of treatment when compared to placebo (p < 0.00001). Moreover, it was demonstrated that tofacitinib was significantly superior to adalimumab in achieving the ACR50 response criteria at week 12 (p = 0.003). For the safety analysis...
Understanding the forces underpinning female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a necessary first step to prevent the continuation of a practice that is associated with health complications and human rights violations. To this end, a systematic review of 21 studies was conducted. Based on this review, the authors reveal six key factors that underpin FGM/C: cultural tradition, sexual morals, marriageability, religion, health benefits, and male sexual enjoyment. There were four key factors perceived to hinder FGM/C: health consequences, it is not a religious requirement, it is illegal, and the host society discourse rejects FGM/C. The results show that FGM/C appears to be a tradition in transition.
This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact.
Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.
Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a spondyloarthropathic disorder characterized by inflammation of the joints and tissues occurring after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. Diagnostic criteria for ReA do not exist and, therefore, it is subject to clinical opinion resulting in cases with a wide range of symptoms and definitions. Using standardized diagnostic criteria, we conducted a systematic literature review to establish the global incidence of ReA for each of the three most commonly-associated enteric pathogens
: Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. The weighted mean incidence of reactive arthritis was 9, 12, and 12 cases per 1,000 cases of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella infections respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of worldwide data that use well-defined criteria to characterize diarrhoea-associated ReA. This information will aid in determining the burden of disease and act as a planning tool for public-health programmes.
Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia...
Introduction. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in about 5% of cancer patients. Ocular involvement is a common clinical manifestation and often the presenting clinical feature. Materials and Methods. We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of neoplastic meningitis and a review of ocular involvement in neoplastic meningitis. Ocular symptoms were the presenting clinical feature in 34 patients (83%) out of 41 included in our review, the unique manifestation of meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 patients (7%). Visual loss was the presenting clinical manifestation in 17 patients (50%) and was the most common ocular symptom (70%). Other ocular signs were diplopia, ptosis, papilledema, anisocoria, exophthalmos, orbital pain, scotomas, hemianopsia, and nystagmus. Associated clinical symptoms were headache, altered consciousness, meningism, limb weakness, ataxia, dizziness, seizures, and other cranial nerves involvement. All patients except five underwent CSF examination which was normal in 1 patient, pleocytosis was found in 11 patients, increased protein levels were observed in 16 patients, and decreased glucose levels were found in 8 patients. Cytology was positive in 29 patients (76%). Conclusion. Meningeal carcinomatosis should be considered in patients with ocular symptoms even in the absence of other suggestive clinical symptoms.
Aim. To conduct a systematic review of this relationship using available published observational studies in the field of solid municipal waste treatment. Methods. The review of the scientific literature was based on Medline and Scopus databases up to December 2012, using the keywords HBV, waste, solid, treatment, workers, disposal, and refuse in different combinations. Results. 160 studies were found and checked. Finally, 5 observational studies were considered suitable, all cross-sectional. The pooled proportion of HBs-Ag considering all the studies was 11% (95% CI: 5–21%), and considering the high quality studies only, this proportion was 14% (95% CI: 6–24%). The pooled proportion of HBs-Ab positivity among waste workers considering all the studies was 14.2% (95% CI: 1.4–37.2%), and considering the high quality studies only, this proportion was 24% (95% CI: 18–30%). The pooled proportion of HBc-Ab positivity among waste workers considering all the studies was 24% (95% CI: 6–49%). The pooled estimation of the risk of HBV positivity (HBsAg) among exposed was OR = 2.39 (95% CI: 0.88–6.52). Conclusion. In conclusion, waste workers need to be vaccinated against HBV infection since they are at risk of acquiring this infection through the exposure to potentially infected waste.
Aim. The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between sleeping body posture and severity of obstructive sleep apnea. This relationship has been investigated in the past. However, the conclusions derived from some of these studies are conflicting with each other. This paper intends to summarize the reported relationships between sleep posture and various sleep indices in patients diagnosed with sleep apnea. Methods and Materials. A systematic review of the published English literature during a 25-year period from 1983 to 2008 was performed. Results. Published data concerning the sleep apnea severity and posture in adults are limited. Supine sleep posture is consistently associated with more severe obstructive sleep apnea indices in adults. However, relationship between sleep apnea severity indices and prone posture is inconsistent.
Thoracic sarcoidosis is a common disease, with well-described and recognizable radiographic features. Nevertheless, most physicians are not familiar with the rare atypical often-confusing manifestations of thoracic sarcoid. Although these findings have been previously reviewed, but more recent advances in imaging and laboratory science, need to be incorporated. We present a review of literature and illustrate the review with unpublished data, intended to provide a more recent single comprehensive reference to assist with the diagnosis when atypical radiographic findings of thoracic sarcoidosis are encountered. Thoracic involvement accounts for most of morbidity and mortality associated with sarcoidosis. An accurate timely identification is required to minimize morbidity and mortality. It is essential to recognize atypical imaging findings and relate these to clinical manifestations and histology.
The growing trend to manage hepatic injuries nonoperatively has been increasing demand for advanced endovascular interventions. This brings up the necessity for general and trauma surgeons to update their knowledge in such matter. Effective treatment mandates a multispecialty team effort that is usually led by the trauma surgeon and includes vascular surgery, orthopedics, and, increasingly, interventional radiology. The focus on hemorrhage control and the angiographer’s unique access to vascular structures gives interventional radiology (IR) an important and increasingly recognized role in the treatment of patients with hemodynamic instability. Our aim is to review the basic concepts of IR primarily in hepatic trauma and secondarily in some other special situations. A liver vascular anatomy review is also needed for better understanding the roles of IR. As a final point we propose a guideline for the operative/nonoperative management of traumatic hepatic injuries. The benefit of multidisciplinary approach (TAE) appears to be a powerful weapon in the medical arsenal against the high mortality of injured trauma liver patients.