Objectives. The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition with only few evidence-based complementary and alternative therapies available. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Qigong for fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cambase databases were screened in December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials comparing Qigong to control interventions. Major outcome measures were pain and quality of life; and secondary outcomes included sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and safety. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. Seven trials were located with a total of 395 FMS patients. Analyses revealed low quality evidence for short-term improvement of pain, quality of life, and sleep quality and very low quality evidence for improvement of fatigue after Qigong for FMS, when compared to usual care. No evidence was found for superiority of Qigong compared to active treatments. No serious adverse events were reported. Discussion. This systematic review found that Qigong may be a useful approach for FMS patients. According to the quality of evidence, only a weak recommendation for Qigong can be made at this point. Further high quality RCTs are required for the conclusive judgment of its long-term effects.
Objective. The present systematic review of RA registry data was undertaken to analyse the time on treatment of licensed TNF inhibitors in patients with RA in Europe. Methods. English language European registry studies comparing TNF inhibitors were searched using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and WHO: ICTRP up to 16 April 2012 and proceedings of three selected conferences held between 2010 and 2012. Pooled analysis was performed to determine drug survival rates for each TNF inhibitor. Results. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 studies assessed biologic-naive patients and five studies included a mixed population of biologic-naive and biologic pretreated patients. The overall effectiveness of TNF inhibitors diminished with time, leading to decreased drug survival rates. Pooled drug survival rates after 60 months follow-up were 37% (infliximab), 48% (adalimumab), and 52% (etanercept). Further, in an observational study, when TNF inhibitors were used in combination with methotrexate, a longer drug survival was observed compared to TNF inhibitors alone. Conclusion. The findings of this systematic review indicated numerically lower drug discontinuation rates with etanercept than adalimumab, whereas infliximab had the highest rate. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of treatment discontinuation with TNF inhibitors.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global health concern, and the recent literature
reports that a single mild TBI can result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
It has been suggested that CTE may lead to death by suicide, raising important prevention,
treatment, and policy implications. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the
medical literature to answer the key question: What is the existing evidence
in support of a relationship between CTE and suicide? Systematic
searches of CTE and suicide yielded 85 unique abstracts. Seven articles were
identified for full text review. Only two case series met inclusion criteria and included
autopsies from 17 unique cases, 5 of whom died by suicide. Neither studies used blinding,
control cases, or systematic data collection regarding TBI exposure and/or
medical/neuropsychiatric history. The identified CTE literature revealed divergent
opinions regarding neuropathological elements of CTE and heterogeneity regarding
clinical manifestations. Overall quality of evidence regarding a relationship between
CTE and suicide was rated as very low using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE) criteria. Further studies of
higher quality and methodological rigor are needed to determine the existence and
nature of any relationship between CTE and suicide.
Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Materials and Methods: A nonsystematic review of all English language PubMed articles published between 1995 and December 2012 using the terms “circadian rhythms”, “mood disorders”, “depression”, “age”, “aging”, “elderly” and “sleep”. Discussion and conclusion: Sleep disorders, mainly insomnia, and depression have been demonstrated to be highly co-prevalent and mutually precipitating conditions in the elderly population. There is extensive research on the pathophysiological mechanisms through which age conditions circadian disruption, being the disruption of the Melatonin system one of the main changes. However, research linking clearly and unequivocally circadian disruption and mood disorders is still lacking. Nonetheless...
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are key molecules for the incorporation of glutamate in synaptic vesicles across the nervous system, and since their discovery in the early 1990s, research on these transporters has been intense and productive. This review will focus on several aspects of VGLUTs research on neurons in the periphery and the spinal cord. Firstly, it will begin with a historical account on the evolution of the morphological analysis of glutamatergic systems and the pivotal role played by the discovery of VGLUTs. Secondly, and in order to provide an appropriate framework, there will be a synthetic description of the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of peripheral neurons and the spinal cord. This will be followed by a succinct description of the current knowledge on the expression of VGLUTs in peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons and neurons in the spinal cord. Finally, this review will address the modulation of VGLUTs expression after nerve and tissue insult, their physiological relevance in relation to sensation, pain, and neuroprotection, and their potential pharmacological usefulness.
Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociception, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve and anti-inflammatory effects. This review is elaborately describing the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. This review would assist researchers to search scientific information in the future.
The purpose of this review was to inform all medical health care professionals about cuboid syndrome, which has been described as difficult to recognize and is commonly misdiagnosed, by explaining the etiology of this syndrome, its clinical diagnosis in relation to differential diagnoses, commonly administered treatment techniques, and patient outcomes. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted with MEDLINE, EBSCO, and PubMed (1960 - Present) using the key words cuboid, cuboid syndrome, foot anatomy, tarsal bones, manual therapy, and manipulation. Medical professionals must be aware that any lateral foot and ankle pain may be the result of cuboid syndrome. Once properly diagnosed, cuboid syndrome responds exceptionally well to conservative treatment involving specific cuboid manipulation techniques. Other methods of conservative treatment including therapeutic modalities, therapeutic exercises, padding, and low dye taping techniques are used as adjuncts in the treatment of this syndrome. Immediately after the manipulation is performed, the patient may note a decrease or a complete cessation of their symptoms. Occasionally, if the patient has had symptoms for a longer duration, several manipulations may be warranted throughout the course of time. Due to the fact radiographic imaging is of little value...
The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems.
Background. Acupoint stimulation is popular for treatment of fibromyalgia though there is lack of comprehensive evaluation of current clinical evidence for its effect and safety. Objective. To systematically review the beneficial effects and safety of acupoint stimulation for fibromyalgia. Methods. We searched six electronic databases for randomized trials on acupoint stimulation for treatment of fibromyalgia. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trial quality independently. RevMan 5.2 software was used for data analyses with effect estimate presented as (standard) mean difference and a 95% confidence interval. We defined minimum, medium, and large SMD effect sizes as 0.3, 0.5, and 0.75. Results. 16 RCTs with 1081 participants were involved in this review. Only two trials were evaluated as low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture alone or combined with cupping therapy was superior to conventional medications on reducing pain scores and/or the number of tender points. However, acupuncture showed no better than sham acupuncture on pain reduction. There was no serious adverse event reported to be related to acupoint stimulation. Conclusions. Acupoint stimulation appears to be effective in treating fibromyalgia compared with medications. However...
More than half of persons living with HIV infection in the United States (U.S.) will be ≥50 years of age by 2020, including postmenopausal women. We conducted a systematic literature review about the effects of (1) HIV infection on age at menopause and (2) menopause on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response, in order to inform optimal treatment strategies for menopausal women living with HIV infection. We used the Ovid Medline database from 1980 to 2012. We included studies that focused on HIV-infected persons, included postmenopausal women, and reported outcome data for either age at menopause or response to ART across menopause. We identified six original research articles for age at menopause and five for response to ART across menopause. Our review revealed that current data were conflicting and inconclusive; more rigorous studies are needed. Disentangling the effects of menopause requires well-designed studies with adequate numbers of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, especially disproportionately affected women of color. Future studies should follow women from premenopause through menopause, use both surveys and laboratory measurements for menopause diagnoses, and control for confounders related to normal aging processes...
Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24%) while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals...
Objectives: The main aim of this review article is to discuss implant-supported overdentures (ISOs) as treatment in edentulous patients. Besides, we will try to discuss among the different treatment options in such patients and to analyze their validity when ISOs are compared with other clinical modalities. At the same time, we will try to suggest clinical guidelines supported by current clinical studies.
Material and methods: We performed a Medline search and review of pertinent articles on the mentioned subject from 1986 to 2011. As a searching strategy, we used the following words: implant-supported overdentures, attachment systems, Locator attachment, cantilever, fixed prosthesis.
Results and conclusions: Implant-supported overdentures constitute an accurate and predictable treatment option and achieve a higher patients’ satisfaction. This type of treatment constitutes a cheaper treatment than fixed prostheses and in some patients, with loss of lip support or with an interoclusal space larger than 15 mm, the choice of implant-supported overdentures seems to prevent future aesthetic or phonetic problems.
Objective. To provide a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Xuesaitong soft capsule (XST) in treating unstable angina (UA). Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to August 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving XST alone or combined with conventional drugs versus conventional drugs were included. A meta-analysis of reduction of angina symptoms and electrocardiogram (ECG) improvement was performed to evaluate the effects of XST on UA. Results. After researching, a total of 6 RCTs with 716 participants were included. Our review showed that XST combined with conventional drugs had significant effect on relieving angina symptoms (RR: 1.14 [1.07, 1.22]; P = 0.0001) and improving ECG (RR: 1.26 [1.12, 1.42]; P = 0.0001) compared with conventional drugs alone. Conclusions. XST appears to have beneficial effects on improvement of ECG, reduction of angina symptoms, and decreasing the frequency and duration of angina attack in participants with UA. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the poor methodological quality of the included trials.
Tobacco use among the adolescents in india is believed to be on an increase. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out to summarize these studies. Several electronic databases were searched, supplemented by screening reference lists, smoking-related websites, and contacting experts. Selection, extraction, and quality assessments were carried out by one or two independent reviewers. The focus was on studies conducted on the school-going children in india and discussed in a global perspective. A narrative review was carried out. Many of the studies lacked sufficient power to estimate precise risks associated with the study subjects, as it mainly involved questionnaire studies. Studies were often designed to investigate tobacco use, but many had major methodological limitations including poor control and imprecise measurements of exposure. Studies in india showed a high risk of major health-related illness and several forms of cancers such as oro-pharyngeal cancers associated with the chewing form of tobacco. Studies from other regions and of other cancer types were not consistent. Tobacco use is increasing among the adolescents and has become an persistent issue that is usually carried over to their adulthood. In india, there is a stringent need for awareness creating oral health education programs in the school and college premises.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the seventh-most common malignancy in males and ninth in females with incidence of one million new cases every year. Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital condition, in which there is a mirror-image transposition of both the abdominal and thoracic viscera. There are very few reported cases of HCC developing in people with SIT. In this review, we present a new case of HCC with SIT, and a review of literatures published between 1983 and 2011 on it. The literatures in English were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, while those in Japanese language were accessed through J-EAST and translated in English with the help of Google translator on 22 April 2012. There are 6 English and 6 Japanese literatures showing 12 published cases, of which 10 cases were from Japan, 1 from Taiwan and 1 from China. Our case is probably the first case in the world beyond these regions. The articles containing adequate information, such as patient age and sex, investigations, diagnosis, type of congenital anomalies and methods of surgery, were reviewed. On reviewing the literature, we observed that clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and etiology correlate well with HCC, while anomalous hepatic vascularity correlates well with SIT. The reason for high incidence of HCC with SIT in Japan is not well correlated...
Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.
Background. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to provide a descriptive analysis for cases of synovial sarcoma (SS) arising in the mediastinum and to analyze prognostic factors. Methods. We performed PubMed database search in July 2013. Twenty-two studies, which included 40 patients, form the basis of this review. Demographic and disease-related factors were analyzed for possible influence on survival. Findings were compared with extremity SS studies reported in literature. Results. Sixteen cases (40%) presented with locally advanced unresectable disease, 2 (5%) with metastatic disease, and 22 (55%) with localized resectable disease. Median tumor size was 11 cm (range: 5–20 cm). Thirty patients were assessable for survival and had a 5-year OS of 36%. Completeness of resection was the only factor associated with significant improvement in OS (5-year survival of 63% and 0% in favor of complete resection, P = 0.003). Conclusion. Mediastinal SS is associated with poor prognosis as more cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage and with larger tumor size compared to extremity SS. Complete surgical resection is the only identified factor associated with better prognosis and may result in survival outcomes that are comparable with those for localized SS of the extremity.
We review the literature conjoining acupuncture, migraine, and cerebral hemodynamics. To do so, we searched PubMed in March 2013 for studies investigating cerebral hemodynamics with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, and other tools in migraineurs, acupuncture recipients, and migraineurs receiving acupuncture. Our search identified 1321 distinct articles – acupuncture (n = 463), migraine (n = 866), and both (n = 8). Only three (n = 3) satisfied our inclusion criteria. Based on these three, we found the following: (1) Acupuncture may positively influence not just dynamic, but also static cerebral autoregulation during the interictal phase, depending on the intervals between sessions of acupuncture as dose units. (2) TCD can detect pretreatment differences between responders and non-responders to acupuncture, which may be predictive of clinical response. (3) “Point-through-point” needling (at angles connecting acupoints) may be clinically superior to standard acupuncture, thus needling angles may affect treatment effectiveness. None of the reviewed articles investigated patient responses during migraine attack. Although the 2009 Cochrane review affirmed acupuncture as effective prophylaxis for migraine...
Background. Terminalia arjuna is a popular Indian medicinal plant with its bark been used for over centuries as cardiotonic. The bark has been found to contain several bioactive compounds including saponins and flavonoids. A number of experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to explore therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna in cardiovascular ailments specially in patients of coronary heart disease. A number of narrative reviews have been done but no systematic review has been conducted to date. Objective. To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the available literature evaluating the efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Study selection. We included randomised, pseudo-randomized and before-after comparative studies which compared Terminalia arjuna/commercial preparation of Terminalia arjuna with current standard/ conventional treatment regimens in patients with chronic stable angina. Findings. Studies were found to be of poor methodological design. We found no significant difference in the Terminalia arjuna group as compared to control arm in the outcomes for which we were able to pool data and undertake meta-analysis. Conclusions. Currently, the evidence is insufficient to draw any definite conclusions in favour of or against Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Further...
Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (P = 0.000). Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (P = 0.022...