Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.
Recent advances in the study of alcoholism have thrown light on the involvement of various neurotransmitters in the phenomenon of alcohol addiction. Various neurotransmitters have been implicated in alcohol addiction due to their imbalance in the brain, which could be either due to their excess activity or inhibition. This review paper aims to consolidate and to summarize some of the recent papers which have been published in this regard. The review paper will give an overview of the neurobiology of alcohol addiction, followed by detailed reviews of some of the recent papers published in the context of the genetics of alcohol addiction. Furthermore, the author hopes that the present text will be found useful to novices and experts alike in the field of neurotransmitters in alcoholism.
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.
Objectives. This paper offers a critical review of published information on the imaging strategies used for diagnosing bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients taking intravenous bisphosphonates, pointing at the different methodologies and results of existing literature. Methods. Electronic literature search was performed in order to identify as many quantitative studies that discussed the imaging findings of BRONJ up to February 2014. Initially, the search for articles was based on the following four types of imaging modalities for evaluating BRONJ: computed tomography, plain film radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear bone scanning. Results. Eleven out of the 79 initially selected articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of the selected articles were cross-sectional studies. Regarding the selected studies, 54.5% have used plain films radiographs and 54.5% were based on computed tomography findings. All of the selected studies showed a small number of patients and none of the selected studies have tested the accuracy of the imaging examination for evaluating BRONJ. Conclusions. This critical review showed a scarcity of quantitative studies that analyzed the typical imaging findings related to BRONJ. Further studies are necessary in order to analyze the role of different imaging techniques in the assessment of BRONJ.
Diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of death risk in Chagas cardiomyopathy still
constitute a challenge due to the diversity of manifestations, which determine
the importance of using echocardiography, tissue Doppler and biomarkers. To
evaluate, within a systematic review, clinical and echocardiographic profiles of
patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, which may be related to worse
prognosis and major mortality risk. To perform the systematic review, we used
Medline (via PubMed), LILACS and SciELO databases to identify 82 articles
published from 1991 to 2012, with the following descriptors: echocardiography,
mortality and Chagas disease. We selected 31 original articles, involving
diagnostic and prognostic methods. The importance of Chagas disease has
increased due to its emergence in Europe and United States, but most evidence
came from Brazil. Among the predictors of worse prognosis and higher mortality
risk are morphological and functional alterations in the left and right
ventricles, evaluated by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler, as
well as the increase in brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I concentrations.
Recently, the evaluations of dyssynchrony, dysautonomia, as well as strain,
strain rate and myocardial twisting were added to the diagnostic arsenal for the
early differentiation of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Developments in imaging and
biochemical diagnostic procedures have enabled more detailed cardiac
Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus...
Herbs are widely used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Eastern Asian countries, and certain herbs regarded have anti-inflammatory properties that can help with AD. With the goal of developing a topical herbal agent for AD, we conducted a systematic review of in vivo studies of AD-like skin models for screening potential herbs. Searches were conducted from PubMed and EMBASE. After all, 22 studies were included for this review. We judged most of the domains of all studies to be at unclear risk of bias. Among 22 included studies, 21 herbs have been reported to reduce AD-like skin lesions in mouse models by suppressing Th2 cell response. Our findings may offer potential herbs for the topical application treatment of AD.
Single incision laparoscopic surgery is a rather innovative surgical technique. A systematic literature review was performed with the intention to evaluate the till now clinical evidence regarding the application of single incision technique on liver resections as a method of management in hepatic lesions. Twelve relative studies were found in the field including 30 patients with a age range from 29 to 90 years and a body mass index from 20.1 to 36.5 kg/m2. Primary hepatic carcinoma (40%), metastatic nodules (26.7%), hepatic cysts (16.7%), hepatic haemangiomas (13.3%) and hepatic adenoma (3.3%) were the most common indications of the lesions resected. The types of hepatectomy performed included partial hepatectomy (43.3%), segmentectomy (30%) and lobectomy (26.7%). In the majority of the patients, left lateral segments (II-III-IV) (76.7%) were resected. The median operative time was 110 min (range: 55-235) while the median quantity of blood loss was 50 ml (range: 0-100). No conversion to open surgery and no transfusion were needed. The duration of hospital stay ranged between 2 and 11 days. No complications, no cases of disease recurrence or death of patients were reported. None of the studies included described data on the cosmesis of the application of single incision laparoscopic technique on hepatic resections. Moreover...
Postcoital bleeding refers to spotting or bleeding that occurs after intercourse and is not related to menstruation. The prevalence of postcoital bleeding ranges from 0.7 to 9.0 percent of menstruating women. There are multiple etiologies for this common complaint in which most are benign such as cervicitis or cervical polyps. However, the most serious cause of postcoital bleeding is cervical cancer. There are currently no recommendations from governing bodies such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on evaluating and treating women with postcoital bleeding. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the common causes of postcoital bleeding, the etiologies of postcoital bleeding, and the likelihood that malignancy is the underlying cause. After an extensive literature review, we compiled a paper illustrating the key concepts a practitioner should know when it comes to postcoital bleeding. Finally, this review will conclude with treatment options for women who are found to have an identifiable source for their bleeding and a discussion on the natural history of postcoital bleeding in women who are found to have no identifiable etiology on evaluation.
Introduction. Smokeless tobacco is considered one of the major risk factors for oral cancer. It is estimated that over 90% of the global smokeless tobacco use burden is in South Asia. This paper aims to systematically review publications reporting epidemiological observational studies published in South Asia from 1984 till 2013. Methods. An electronic search in “Medline” and “ISI Web of Knowledge” yielded 734 publications out of which 21 were included in this review. All publications were assessed for quality using a standard quality assessment tool. Effect estimates (odds ratios (OR)) were abstracted or calculated from the given data. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk of oral cancer with the use of different forms of smokeless tobacco. Results and Conclusion. The pooled OR for chewing tobacco and risk of oral cancer was 4.7 [3.1–7.1] and for paan with tobacco and risk of oral cancer was 7.1 [4.5–11.1]. The findings of this study suggest a strong causal link between oral cancer and various forms of smokeless tobacco. Public health policies in affected countries should consider SLT specific cessation programs in addition to campaigns and activities incorporated into smoking cessation programs.
Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) are widely distributed perennial shrub or small tree in tropical and subtropical region in outer Himalayas regions with an altitude below 1,000 m and are reported to have wide range of pharmacological activities. Mallotus philippinensis species are known to contain different natural compounds, mainly phenols, diterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, isocoumarins, and many more especially phenols; that is, bergenin, mallotophilippinens, rottlerin, and isorottlerin have been isolated, identified, and reported interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory activity protein inhibition against cancer cell. We have selected all the pharmacological aspects and toxicological and all its biological related studies. The present review reveals that Mallotus philippinensis is a valuable source of medicinally important natural molecules and provides convincing support for its future use in modern medicine. However, the existing knowledge is very limited about Mallotus philippinensis and its different parts like steam, leaf, and fruit. Further, more detailed safety data pertaining to the acute and subacute toxicity and cardio- and immunotoxicity also needs to be generated for crude extracts or its pure isolated compounds. This review underlines the interest to continue the study of this genus of the Euphorbiaceae.
Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions...
Approximately forty million surgeries take place annually in the United States,
many of them requiring overnight or lengthier post operative stays in the over
five thousand hospitals that comprise our acute healthcare system. Leading up to
this Century, it was common for most hospitalized patients and their families to
believe that being surrounded by well-trained nurses and physicians assured
their safety. That bubble burst with the Institute of Medicine’s 1999
report: To Err Is Human, followed closely by its 2001 report: Crossing the
Quality Chasm. This review article discusses unexpected, potentially lethal
respiratory complications known for being difficult to detect early, especially
in postoperative patients recovering on hospital general care floors (GCF). We
have designed our physiologic explanations and simplified cognitive framework to
give our front line clinical nurses a thorough, easy-to-recall understanding of
just how these events evolve, and how to detect them early when most amenable to
treatment. Our review will also discuss currently available practices in general
care floor monitoring that can both improve patient safety and significantly
reduce monitor associated alarm fatigue.
Cellular culture infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a tool used to dissect the biological mechanisms behind Chagas disease as well as to screen potential trypanocidal compounds. Data on these models are highly heterogeneous, which represents a challenge when attempting to compare different studies. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the cell culture infectivity assays performed to date. Scientific journal databases were searched for articles in which cultured cells were infected with any Trypanosoma cruzi strain or isolate regardless of the study’s goal. From these articles the cell type, parasite genotype, culture conditions and infectivity results were extracted. This review represents an initial step toward the unification of infectivity model data. Important differences were detected when comparing the pathophysiology of Chagas disease with the experimental conditions used in the analyzed studies. While Trypanosoma cruzi preferentially infects stromal cells in vivo, most of the assays employ epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, the most commonly used parasite strain (Tulahuen-TcVI) is associated with chagasic cardiomyopathy only in the Southern Cone of South America. Suggestions to overcome these discrepancies include the use of stromal cell lines and parasite genotypes associated with the known characteristics of the natural history of Chagas disease.
Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-α. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4–8.2%, I2: 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6–7.2, I2: 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2–41.2%, I2: 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1–8.4%, I2: 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5–12.5%, I2: 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2–8.3%, I2: 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-α for rheumatic and dermatological conditions...
Meningiomas are among the most common primary adult brain tumors, which arise either spontaneously or secondary to environmental factors such as ionizing radiation. The latter are referred to as radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs) which, while much less common than their spontaneous counterparts, are challenging from a management point of view. Similar to spontaneous meningiomas, the optimal management of RIMs is complete surgical resection. However, given their high grade, multiplicity, tendency to invade bone and venous sinuses, and high recurrence rate, this cannot always be accomplished safely. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, have emerged. In the current review, we provide an overview of the historical outcomes achieved for RIMs through radiosurgery and microsurgical resection. Furthermore, we provide a discussion of clinical and radiological parameters that affect the decision-making process with regard to the management of RIMs. We also provide an outline of recent changes in our understanding of RIMs, based on molecular and genetic markers, and how these will change our management perspective. We conclude the review by summarizing some of the current obstacles in the management of RIMs with SRS and how current and future research can address these challenges.
Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review.
Scientists planning research that involves the use of animals are required by international and/or national law to examine the possibilities for the implementation of Replacement, Reduction and/or Refinement (the Three Rs principles of Russell and Burch) in experiments for research, testing, and education. There are two Korean laws legislating humane use of animals and ethical review prior to animal experiments. This report reviews current practice of the literature search by the researchers and protocol review by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees on the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement alternatives in Korea. The promotion and protection of the laboratory animals are one of the core competencies of investigators exploring the ethical conduct of research and good science. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7): 335-337]
The purpose of this study was to analyse the diagnostic value of cerebral CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) examinations in the detection of acute stroke based on a systematic review of the current literature. The review was conducted based on searching of seven databases for articles published between 1993 and 2013. Diagnostic value in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy was analysed from 21 articles which were found to meet selection criteria. The mean sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for CTA were significantly higher than those for CTP with 83.2% (95% CI: 57.9-100.0%), 95.0% (95% CI: 74.4-100%), 84.1% (95% CI: 50.0-100%), 97.1 (95% CI: 94.0-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI: 83.0-99.0) versus 69.9% (95% CI: 20.0-97.0%), 87.4 (95% CI: 61.0-100.0%), 76.4% (95% CI: 48.0-95.4%), 78.2% (95% CI: 55.8-93.9%) and 89.8% (95% CI: 75.7-97.1%), respectively. This analysis shows that CTA has high diagnostic value in detecting high degree of cerebral arterial stenosis (>70%) whereas CTP provides high specificity in the detection of ischemia and infarct tissue of brain.
This systematic review and meta-analysis were designed to compare the analgesic effectiveness and adverse effects with the use of caudal analgesia as compared to noncaudal regional analgesia techniques in children undergoing inguinal surgeries. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Cochrane) databases were searched for randomized control trials published in English language from 1946 up to 2013. Use of rescue analgesia and adverse effects were considered as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Outcomes were pooled using random effects model and reported as risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Out of 3240 hits and 24 reports for final selection, 17 were included in this review. Caudal analgesia was found to be better in both early (RR = 0.81 [0.66, 0.99], P = 0.04) and late (RR = 0.81 [0.69, 0.96], P = 0.01) periods, but with a significant risk of motor block and urinary retention. According to GRADE, the quality of evidence was moderate. Although potentially superior, caudal analgesia increases the chance of motor block and urinary retention. There are limited studies to demonstrate that the technical superiority using ultrasound translates into better clinical success with the inguinal nerve blocks.