Página 35 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.109 segundos

‣ Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article

Barros,Jeison de Nadai; Almeida,Simone Ribeiro Araújo de; Lowen,Marcia Serva; Cunha,Marcelo Carvalho da; Gomes,José Álvaro Pereira
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless...

‣ Cognitive dysfunction in homeless adults: a systematic review

Spence, Sean; Stevens, Richard; Parks, Randolph
Fonte: The Royal Society of Medicine Publicador: The Royal Society of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 Português
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Homelessness is associated with multiple adversities that might impact upon brain function. We performed a review of published work to assess evidence of cognitive dysfunction among adults who are homeless. Despite liberal inclusion criteria only seventeen publications were identified, these describing eighteen samples mainly from the USA. Although the total number of individuals studied is small (about 3300) and the samples are heterogeneous, most studies indicate a considerable burden of cognitive dysfunction among homeless people. Such dysfunction might be expected to impact upon their ability to reintegrate into society, thereby undermining policies of inclusiveness. In clinical practice, assessment of homeless adults should include their cognitive state.

‣ The Sensitivity Of Response Rate To The Rate Of Variable-Interval Reinforcement For Pigeons And Rats: A Review

Shull, Richard L
Fonte: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc. Publicador: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
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The relation between the rate of a response (B) and the rate of its reinforcement (R) is well known to be approximately hyperbolic: B  =  kR/(R + Ro), where k represents the maximum response rate, and Ro indicates the rate of reinforcers that will engender a response rate equal to half its maximum value. A review of data reported in 17 published papers revealed that, under variable-interval schedules of reinforcement, Ro was usually lower when pigeons were the subjects than when rats were the subjects. The value of k, in contrast, did not differ consistently between pigeons and rats. Some accounts interpret Ro as the rate of alternative, unscheduled reinforcers in the situation, expressed in units of the scheduled reinforcer. So interpreted, the difference in Ro implies that less alternative reinforcement (relative to the scheduled reinforcement) typically is available to pigeons in their operant conditioning chambers than it is to rats in theirs. Whether or not that interpretation of Ro is valid, the pigeon–rat difference in Ro ensures that for reinforcer rates above about 10 per hour, response rate will be noticeably less sensitive to changes in reinforcer rate (and presumably to changes in other incentive and motivational operations) with pigeons than with rats as subjects...

‣ Glucose transporter 4: cycling, compartments and controversies: Third in the Cycles Review Series

Dugani, Chandrasagar B; Klip, Amira
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
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Insulin promotes glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissues through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In unstimulated cells, rapid endocytosis, slow exocytosis and dynamic or static retention cause GLUT4 to concentrate in early recycling endosomes, the trans-Golgi network and vesicle-associated protein 2-containing vesicles. The coordinated action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors, protein kinase Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160), regulates the GLUT4 cycle by affecting its translocation, fusion with the plasma membrane, internalization and sorting. We review the evidence that supports such cycling, evaluate current models proposing static or dynamic retention, and highlight how distinct steps of GLUT4 transport are regulated by insulin signals. In particular, fusion seems to be regulated by aPKC (via munc18) and Akt (via syntaxin4-interacting protein (synip)). AS160 participates in GLUT4 intracellular retention, and possibly fusion, through candidate ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rab)2, Rab8, Rab10 and/or Rab14. The localization of the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 compartment and the precise target of insulin-derived signals remain open for future investigation.

‣ Transanal endoscopic micro-surgery (TEMS) for the management of large or sessile rectal adenomas: a review of the technique and indications

Papagrigoriadis, Savvas
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2006 Português
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In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal resection (TAR) and the Kraske sacral operation have been used in the past, during the last twenty years TEMS has become the method of choice for those lesions. TEMS is efficient and minimally invasive. The technique allows the patient to recover rapidly and the incidence of complications is much lower than that of major surgery. In case of recurrence the option of repeat TEMS or major surgery remain available. TEMS has been slow to gain popularity mainly for reasons of cost and steep learning curve but it is now an established procedure and a valuable therapeutic option which is particularly useful for elderly and unfit patients. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the nature and indications of TEMS in order to advise and refer selected patients with rectal adenomas accordingly.

‣ Detection and Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells in Urologic Cancers: A Review

Loberg, Robert D.; Fridman, Yaron; Pienta, Brian A.; Keller, Evan T.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Taichman, Russell S.; Pienta, Kenneth J.
Fonte: Neoplasia Press Inc. Publicador: Neoplasia Press Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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The American Cancer Society has estimated that in 2003, there will be approximately 239,600 new cases of urologic cancer diagnosed and 54,600 urologic cancer-related deaths in the United States. To date, the majority of research and therapy design have focused on the microenvironment of the primary tumor site, as well as the microenvironment of the metastatic or secondary (target) tumor site. Little attention has been placed on the interactions of the circulating tumor cells and the microenvironment of the circulation (i.e., the third microenvironment). The purpose of this review is to present the methods for the detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells and to discuss the importance of circulating tumor cells in the biology and treatment of urologic cancers.

‣ Perfect endings: a review of subtelomeric probes and their use in clinical diagnosis

Knight, S.; Flint, J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
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Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) are emerging as an important cause of human genetic diseases. This review describes the development of first and second generation sets of telomere specific clones, together with advances in fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technology, which have made the prospect of screening for telomeric rearrangements a realistic goal. Initial FISH studies using the telomere specific clones indicate that they will be a valuable diagnostic tool for the investigation of mental retardation, the characterisation of known abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis, spontaneous recurrent miscarriages, infertility, haematological malignancies, and preimplantation diagnosis, as well as other fields of clinical interest. In addition, they may help investigate telomere structure and function and can be used in the identification of dosage sensitive genes involved in human genetic disease.


Keywords: subtelomeric probes; telomeres; FISH

‣ The expanding phenotype of laminin α2 chain (merosin) abnormalities: case series and review

Jones, K.; Morgan, G.; Johnston, H.; Tobias, V.; Ouvrier, R.; Wilkinson, I.; North, K.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
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Initial reports of patients with laminin α2 chain (merosin) deficiency had a relatively homogeneous phenotype, with classical congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) characterised by severe muscle weakness, inability to achieve independent ambulation, markedly raised creatine kinase, and characteristic white matter hypodensity on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. We report a series of five patients with laminin α2 deficiency, only one of whom has this severe classical CMD phenotype, and review published reports to characterise the expanded phenotype of laminin α2 deficiency, as illustrated by this case series. While classical congenital muscular dystrophy with white matter abnormality is the commonest phenotype associated with laminin α2 deficiency, 12% of reported cases have later onset, slowly progressive weakness more accurately designated limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. In addition, the following clinical features are reported with increased frequency: mental retardation (~6%), seizures (~8%), subclinical cardiac involvement (3-35%), and neuronal migration defects (4%). At least 25% of patients achieve independent ambulation. Notably, three patients with laminin α2 deficiency were asymptomatic, 10 patients had normal MRI (four with LAMA2 mutations reported)...

‣ Complex and segmental uniparental disomy (UPD): review and lessons from rare chromosomal complements

Kotzot, D.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE—To review all cases with segmental and/or complex uniparental disomy (UPD), to study aetiology and mechanisms of formation, and to draw conclusions.
DESIGN—Searching published reports in Medline.
RESULTS—The survey found at least nine cases with segmental UPD and a normal karyotype, 22 cases with UPD of a whole chromosome and a simple or a non-homologous Robertsonian translocation, eight cases with UPD and two isochromosomes, one of the short arm and one of the long arm of a non-acrocentric chromosome, 39 cases with UPD and an isochromosome of the long arm of two homologous acrocentric chromosomes, one case of UPD and an isochromosome 8 associated with a homozygous del(8)(p23.3pter), and 21 cases with UPD of a whole or parts of a chromosome associated with a complex karyotype. Segmental UPD is formed by somatic recombination (isodisomy) or by trisomy rescue. In the latter mechanism, a meiosis I error is associated with meiotic recombination and an additional somatic exchange between two non-uniparental chromatids. Subsequently, the chromatid that originated from the disomic gamete is lost (iso- and heterodisomy). In cases of UPD associated with one isochromosome of the short arm and one isochromosome of the long arm of a non-acrocentric chromosome and in cases of UPD associated with a true isochromosome of an acrocentric chromosome...

‣ Diabetes, TZDs, and Bone: A Review of the Clinical Evidence

Schwartz, Ann V.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Evidence from rodent and in vitro models suggests that activation of PPAR-γ by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) causes increased bone marrow adiposity and decreased osteoblastogenesis, resulting in bone loss. TZDs are prescribed for the treatment of diabetes, providing an opportunity to determine whether PPAR-γ activation also impacts bone in humans. In addition, since type 2 diabetes is associated with higher fracture risk, an understanding of the clinical impact of TZDs on bone is needed to guide fracture prevention efforts in this population. This review summarizes current findings regarding type 2 diabetes and increased fracture risk and then considers the available evidence regarding TZD use and bone metabolism in humans.

‣ Review of microdialysis in brain tumors, from concept to application: First Annual Carolyn Frye-Halloran Symposium

Benjamin, Ramsis K.; Hochberg, Fred H.; Fox, Elizabeth; Bungay, Peter M.; Elmquist, William F.; Stewart, Clinton F.; Gallo, James M.; Collins, Jerry M.; Pelletier, Robert P.; de Groot, John F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Cavus, Idil; Grossman, Stuart A.; Colvin,
Fonte: Duke University Press Publicador: Duke University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 Português
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In individuals with brain tumors, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of therapeutic agents have historically used analyses of drug concentrations in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, which unfortunately do not necessarily reflect concentrations within the tumor and adjacent brain. This review article introduces to neurological and medical oncologists, as well as pharmacologists, the application of microdialysis in monitoring drug metabolism and delivery within the fluid of the interstitial space of brain tumor and its surroundings. Microdialysis samples soluble molecules from the extracellular fluid via a semipermeable membrane at the tip of a probe. In the past decade, it has been used predominantly in neurointensive care in the setting of brain trauma, vasospasm, epilepsy, and intracerebral hemorrhage. At the first Carolyn Frye-Halloran Symposium held at Massachusetts General Hospital in March 2002, the concept of microdialysis was extended to specifically address its possible use in treating brain tumor patients. In doing so we provide a rationale for the use of this technology by a National Cancer Institute consortium, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy, to measure levels of drugs in brain tissue as part of phase 1 trials.

‣ Nature and Treatment of Bites of Venomous Snakes in Canada: A Review

Finley, John C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/1964 Português
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A review of literature on snakebites was undertaken to evaluate the various recommended and practised methods of treatment used over the years, and to choose the most effective and least mutilating therapy for snakebite victims. Descriptions and photographs of pit vipers indigenous to Canada are included for identification purposes. The only proved adequate treatment of snakebite was shown to be Antivenin administration. A complete description of the use of this substance, which is prepared from horse serum, is given, as well as precautions to be taken prior to its administration, in the event of sensitivity to the serum. Supporting therapy is described and brief comments are made on less satisfactory means of treatment.

‣ Management of peri-implantitis

Prathapachandran, Jayachandran; Suresh, Neethu
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless the origin is the result of simple mechanical overload. Diagnosis is based on changes of color in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, suppuration, X-ray, and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the detoxification of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone. This review article deals with the various treatment options in the management of peri-implantitis. The article also gives a brief description of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis.

‣ Movement Skill Assessment of Typically Developing Preschool Children: A Review of Seven Movement Skill Assessment Tools

Cools, Wouter; Martelaer, Kristine De; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2009 Português
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The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child’s physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools’ usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.

‣ Applications of teledentistry: A literature review and update

Jampani, N. D.; Nutalapati, R.; Dontula, B. S. K.; Boyapati, R.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Teledentistry is a combination of telecommunications and dentistry involving the exchange of clinical information and images over remote distances for dental consultation and treatment planning. Teledentistry has the ability to improve access to oral healthcare, improve the delivery of oral healthcare, and lower its costs. It also has the potential to eliminate the disparities in oral health care between rural and urban communities. This article reviews the origin, rationale, scope, basis, and requirements for teledentistry, along with the current evidence that exists in the literature. This article also reviews the ethical and legal issues related to the practice of teledentistry and the future of this alternative and innovative method of delivering dental care.

‣ Longevity and compression of morbidity from a neuroscience perspective: Do we have a duty to die by a certain age?

Faria, Miguel A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2015 Português
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The search for longevity, if not for immortality itself, has been as old as recorded history. The great strides made in the standard of living and the advances in scientific medicine, have resulted in unprecedented increases in longevity, concomitant with improved quality of life. Thanks to medical progress senior citizens, particularly octogenarians, have become the fastest growing segment of the population and the number of centenarians is increasing, even though in the last two decades, spurred by the bioethics movement, the priority assigned to the prolongation of lifespan has taken a back seat to the containment of health care costs. This article describes what individuals can do to lead healthy lifestyles and increase longevity, concomitant with preservation of quality of life until the very end of life—as postulated by Dr. James F. Fries’ hypothesis of the compression of morbidity. This review article investigates the contention of bioethicist Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel that Fries’ theory is a “fantasy” and not a realistic possibility. In this context recent advances in neurobiology, epigenetics, and aging are described, and the hypothesis of the compression of morbidity re-examined. We find that people are not only living longer but are remaining healthier. Recent studies suggest that brain plasticity develops and potential neurogenesis occurs in those individuals who continue to be mentally and physically active allowing them to thrive well into old age. Controlled studies as well as Medicare spending data strongly corroborate Fries’ predictions and support my conclusion that compression of morbidity should be upgraded from a hypothesis to a theory. Lastly...

‣ Resurgence of vitamin D: Old wine in new bottle

Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Jahangir, Jabed
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There are early references of it in ancient text and physicians have discussed its importance and features of its deficiency in the past. Vitamin D has again regained interest with recent dramatic rise in the incidence of deficiency in the developing as well as developing world. In this review article, we discuss the biochemical and role of vitamin D in the skeletal system. We also discuss the recommended dietary requirements and features of skeletal deficiency. Extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D deficiency have been a matter of debate lately and it has also been discussed in detail in this article. In conclusion, it would not be wrong to label vitamin D as one of the most important vitamin involved in the metabolism of the musculoskeletal system and any clinician, especially the orthopaedician, should be well versed with its overall mechanism and roles in the human body.

‣ Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era

Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar
Fonte: Korean Association of Anatomists Publicador: Korean Association of Anatomists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful...

‣ Potential role of estrogen in the pathobiology and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Wharton, Whitney; Gleason, Carey E.; Lorenze, Katelin R.; Markgraf, Tamara S.; Ries, Michele L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/01/2009 Português
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Over a decade of converging findings from clinical, observational and basic science research indicate that estrogen administration during the menopausal transition exerts beneficial effects on cognition and decreases a woman's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life. This review article stresses the research focus of AD prevention, and introduces hormone therapy (HT) as a probable catalyst that may achieve this goal. Furthermore, this article outlines 3 mechanisms proposed to mediate estrogen's beneficial effects, discusses the controversy surrounding HT administration, and presents the most promising estrogen related research in AD prevention and treatment. Although controversial, cumulative evidence suggests that the potential of estrogen initiated during perimenopause to prevent AD needs to be systematically evaluated.

‣ Zonisamide: A review of the clinical and experimental evidence for its use in Parkinson's disease

Grover, Neeta D.; Limaye, Ramachandra P.; Gokhale, Dilip V.; Patil, Tatyasaheb R.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The limitations of currently available therapies in addressing the non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have egged on the search for newer options. Zonisamide has been in use for epilepsy and it was serendipitously found to improve the symptoms of PD in a patient who had both epilepsy and PD. Thereafter, various trials were designed to assess the use of zonisamide in PD. The present article investigates the evidence for use of zonisamide in PD from the various clinical trials that were designed to address this issue. Furthermore, the article also summarizes the various mechanisms of its use in PD as described in various animal experiments. A search protocol was designed with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid medline, Cochrane and clinicaltrials.gov. The data thus generated, was fed into a predesigned format. Most of the clinical trials on zonisamide in PD have come from Japan. Most of these trials used the changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score as the endpoints and the most conclusive evidence is for a dose of 25-50 mg, which caused a change in UPDRS part III (motor symptoms). These patients were on levodopa and other drugs used for PD during the trials. One of the clinical trials conducted in Spain investigates the use of zonisamide in impulse control disorders among 15 patients of PD. Among the many mechanisms postulated...