Página 5 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.131 segundos

‣ Immunohistochemistry for Assessment of Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms: A Review and Update

Tan, Dongfeng; Zander, Dani S
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Diagnosis and classification of lung and pleural neoplasms are complex due to diverse histopathology and tumor heterogeneity. A large number of immunohistochemical markers have recently become available to facilitate accurate diagnosis and classification of pulmonary and pleural neoplasms. The purpose of this article is to review the current data available on these markers and to provide a practical approach to evaluate pulmonary and pleural neoplasms immunohistochemically. Current literature of immunohistochemical markers related to pulmonary and pleural neoplasms was collected and reviewed. Literature emphasizing differential diagnosis was selected. Data useful in the diagnosis and classification of pulmonary and pleural neoplasms was collated. This review provides an updated overview and general guideline for the practicing surgical pathologists to resolve some of the common differential diagnostic situations in their daily immunohistochemical assessment of pulmonary and pleural neoplasms.

‣ Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection for Management of Upper Limb Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy: a Literature Review

Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong-wook
Fonte: Yonsei University College of Medicine Publicador: Yonsei University College of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this article was to present a review of the research literature on the outcome of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection for management of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL and PUBMED for all published studies with full-length English text available. For each study, the quality of the methods and the strength of evidence were assessed by 2 independent reviewers based on the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) guidelines. Four studies of level I, 8 studies of level IV and 4 studies of level V were identified. Due to the limited number of studies with high quality evidence and inconsistent results among studies, we were unable to support or refute the usefulness of BTX-A injection for management of upper limb spasticity in children with CP. Moreover, we identified several variables that may affect the outcome of injection, such as timing of age, dosage, dilution volumes, localization techniques of target muscles and participant characteristics. In summary, we have presented a review the literature and a discussion of the considerable uncertainty and variation associated with the clinical use of BTX-A injection for management of upper limb spasticity in children with CP.

‣ Lead levels in Canadian children: Do we have to review the standard?

Tsekrekos, Stephen N; Buka, Irena
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2005 Português
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Research indicates that the blood lead levels that were once considered safe can adversely affect the neurodevelopment of children. The purpose of the present article is to review issues surrounding lead exposure in Canadian children, including sources, chronic low levels of exposure, and recommendations for prevention. Information was obtained through searches of MEDLINE and Web of Science using a combination of: “Canada” or “Canadian” plus “child” or “paediatrics” plus “lead” or “lead poisoning” or “blood lead”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data and American peer-reviewed literature were also used. On-line Health Canada advisories (available since 1995), as well as relevant reports from nongovernmental organization and the media, were reviewed. The present review found that there has been limited surveillance of blood lead levels of Canadian children and, mainly, among high-risk groups. Harmful health effects may occur below the current standards and the threat of lead in consumer products remains. The current regulation seems to be inadequate to protect Canadian children.

‣ A Review of Multi-Responsive Membranous Systems for Rate-Modulated Drug Delivery

Shaikh, Rubina P.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Bawa, Priya; Cooppan, Shivaan
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/03/2010 Português
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Membrane technology is broadly applied in the medical field. The ability of membranous systems to effectively control the movement of chemical entities is pivotal to their significant potential for use in both drug delivery and surgical/medical applications. An alteration in the physical properties of a polymer in response to a change in environmental conditions is a behavior that can be utilized to prepare ‘smart’ drug delivery systems. Stimuli-responsive or ‘smart’ polymers are polymers that upon exposure to small changes in the environment undergo rapid changes in their microstructure. A stimulus, such as a change in pH or temperature, thus serves as a trigger for the release of drug from membranous drug delivery systems that are formulated from stimuli-responsive polymers. This article has sought to review the use of stimuli-responsive polymers that have found application in membranous drug delivery systems. Polymers responsive to pH and temperature have been extensively addressed in this review since they are considered the most important stimuli that may be exploited for use in drug delivery, and biomedical applications such as in tissue engineering. In addition, dual-responsive and glucose-responsive membranes have been also addressed as membranes responsive to diverse stimuli.

‣ Systematic review of the impact of adult drug treatment courts

Brown, Randall T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The U.S. correctional system is overburdened by individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll in individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug court treatment programs (DTCs) are present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes available descriptive information on representative drug treatment court populations, summarizes observational studies of drug court participants, and specifically reviews available experimental effectiveness literature on drug treatment courts. The review concludes by examining limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on drug treatment court interventions. Review of non-experimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of drug treatment courts point toward benefit vs. traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of drug treatment courts are scant (three identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts)...

‣ Pharmacoprophylaxis of alcohol dependence: Review and update Part I: Pharmacology

Grover, Sandeep; Bhateja, Gaurav; Basu, Debasish
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Alcohol dependence is a major problem in India. The pharmacological armamentarium for relapse prevention of alcohol has widened with the addition of new drugs. In this article, we review the pharmacology and efficacy of the four most important such drugs: disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate and topiramate. The first part of this two-part review series concerns the comparative pharmacology and the second part concerns the efficacy studies. Overall, all four of these drugs have modest but clinically significant usefulness as pharmacoprophylactic agents for relapse prevention or minimization of alcohol dependence. Combinations might be helpful, especially for naltrexone and acamprosate. The issue of supervision and compliance remains important, especially for such drugs as disulfiram and naltrexone. Topiramate is a promising new agent and requires further study. Disulfiram, while very effective in compliant patients, presents challenges in terms of patient selection and side effects. For patients with hepatic impairment, acamprosate is a good choice.

‣ Pharmacoprophylaxis of alcohol dependence: Review and update Part II: Efficacy

Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish; Bhateja, Gaurav
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
433.81902%
Alcohol dependence is a major problem in India. The pharmacological armamentarium for relapse prevention of alcohol has widened with the addition of new drugs. In this article, we review the pharmacology and efficacy of the four most important such drugs: disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate and topiramate. The first part of this two-part review series concerns the comparative pharmacology and the second part concerns the efficacy studies. Overall, all four of these drugs have modest but clinically significant usefulness as pharmacoprophylactic agents for relapse prevention or minimization of alcohol dependence. Combinations might be helpful, especially for naltrexone and acamprosate. The issue of supervision and compliance remains important, especially for such drugs as disulfiram and naltrexone. Topiramate is a promising new agent and requires further study. Disulfiram, while very effective in compliant patients, presents challenges in terms of patient selection and side effects. For patients with hepatic impairment, acamprosate is a good choice.

‣ The Founder’s Lecture 2009: advances in imaging of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis

Link, Thomas Marc
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
433.81902%
The objective of this review article is to provide an update on new developments in imaging of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis over the past three decades. A literature review is presented that summarizes the highlights in the development of bone mineral density measurements, bone structure imaging, and vertebral fracture assessment in osteoporosis as well as MR-based semiquantitative assessment of osteoarthritis and quantitative cartilage matrix imaging. This review focuses on techniques that have impacted patient management and therapeutic decision making or that potentially will affect patient care in the near future. Results of pertinent studies are presented and used for illustration. In summary, novel developments have significantly impacted imaging of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis over the past three decades.

‣ Why Avoid the Hippocampus? A Comprehensive Review

Gondi, Vinai; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Mehta, Minesh P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this review article, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the rationale for using modern IMRT techniques to spare the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during cranial irradiation. We review the literature on neurocognitive effects of cranial irradiation; discuss clinical and preclinical data associating damage to neural progrenitor cells located in subgranular zone of the hippocampus with radiation-induced neurocognitive decline, specifically in terms of short-term memory formation and recall; and present a review of our pilot investigations into the feasibility and risks of sparing the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases. We also introduce our phase II cooperative group clinical trial (RTOG 0933) designed to prospectively evaluate the postulated neurocognitive benefit of hippocampal subgranular zone sparing and scheduled to open in 2010.

‣ Trigger Digits and Diabetes Mellitus

Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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The problem of finger in the patient with diabetes mellitus is important consideration in diabetology. Generally, peripheral neuropathy that manifests with finger paresthesia is common. However, some recent reports mention the concern on trigger digits in diabetic patients. In this brief article, the authors focus review and discussion on this specific topic. The searching of standard database, PubMed, on available publication on this area selecting by keywords trigger digits and diabetes mellitus was done and all derived papers were extracted and further synthesized in this review article. Epidemiology and management of the condition are the mainly focused reviewed areas and presented in this article.

‣ Common post-operative complications in children

Pawar, Dilip
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article.

‣ Psychological Preparation of Competitive Judokas – A Review

Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18) on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed – observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a) imagery, (b) motivation, (c) stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d) eating attitudes and weight control, and (e) coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a) there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b) goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c) cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d) weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e) psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed.

‣ Advanced Imaging for the Early Diagnosis of Local Recurrence Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

Panebianco, Valeria; Barchetti, Flavio; Musio, Daniela; De Felice, Francesca; Proietti, Camilla; Indino, Elena Lucia; Megna, Valentina; Schillaci, Orazio; Catalano, Carlo; Tombolini, Vincenzo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Currently the diagnosis of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure which is defined by two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) higher than 0.2 ng/mL. The aim of this paper was to review the current roles of advanced imaging in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of PET/CT in the restaging of PCa after RP; the second part is intended to provide the impact of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the depiction of locoregional recurrence. Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence, while the performance of PET/CT still remains unclear. Moreover Mp-MRI, thanks to functional techniques, allows to distinguish between residual glandular healthy tissue, scar/fibrotic tissue, granulation tissue, and tumour recurrence and it may also be able to assess the aggressiveness of nodule recurrence.

‣ Multiparametric MRI for Recurrent Prostate Cancer Post Radical Prostatectomy and Postradiation Therapy

Barchetti, Flavio; Panebianco, Valeria
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
434.97555%
The clinical suspicion of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and after radiation therapy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure. The aim of this paper was to review the current role of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A systematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed from January 1995 up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of mp-MRI in the detection of PCa local recurrence after RP; the second part provides an insight about the impact of mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence after RT (interstitial or external beam). Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the detection and localization of locally recurrent PCa both after RP and RT which represents an information of paramount importance to perform focal salvage treatments.

‣ Glaucoma clinical trial design: A review of the literature

Stewart, William C.; Stewart, Jeanette A.; Nelson, Lindsay A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The purpose of this article is to review the prior research evaluating design techniques for glaucoma clinical trials to help ophthalmologists and pharmaceutical sponsors better develop literature-based studies that are cost- and time-efficient. We performed this study using known published articles by the authors and literature found on Pub Med. We included 24 articles that analyzed specifically the results of clinical trial methods and/or interpretation. This review found that studies have evaluated glaucoma specific aspects of glaucoma clinical trials including: Predicting the results of later phase clinical trials based on early phase clinical trials and animal studies; protocol design parameters such as intraocular pressure, inclusion criteria, method of pressure measurement, study population, and side effect evaluation; and study planning issues such as number of clinical sites as well as subjects, dropout rates, estimated serious adverse events, and protocol violations. This review suggests that the medical literature supports some aspects of glaucoma clinical trial study design. Additional design features might be derived from government regulations, guidance, as well as agency contacts, consultants, and clinical community standards. Study design decisions that must be made beyond the aforementioned resources should be made carefully...

‣ Options on fibroid morcellation: a literature review

Brölmann, Hans; Tanos, Vasilios; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Ind, Thomas; Philips, Kevin; van den Bosch, Thierry; Sawalhe, Samir; van den Haak, Lukas; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Pijnenborg, Johanna; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara; Wattiez, Arnaud; Campo, Rudi;
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In laparoscopy, specimens have to be removed from the abdominal cavity. If the trocar opening or the vaginal outlet is insufficient to pass the specimen, the specimen needs to be reduced. The power morcellator is an instrument with a fast rotating cylindrical knife which aims to divide the tissue into smaller pieces or fragments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a press release in April 2014 that discouraged the use of these power morcellators. This article has the objective to review the literature related to complications by power morcellation of uterine fibroids in laparoscopy and offer recommendations to laparoscopic surgeons in gynaecology. This project was initiated by the executive board of the European Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy. A steering committee on fibroid morcellation was installed and experienced ESGE members requested to chair an action group to address distinct clinical questions. Clinical questions were formulated with regards to the sarcoma risk in presumed uterine fibroids, diagnosis of sarcoma, complications of morcellation and future research. A literature review on the different subjects was conducted, systematic if appropriate and feasible. It was concluded that the true prevalence of uterine sarcoma in presumed fibroids is not known given the wide range of prevalences (0.45–0.014 %) from meta-analyses mainly based on retrospective trials. Age and certain imaging characteristics such as ‘lacunes’ suggesting necrosis and increased central vascularisation of the tumour are associated with a higher risk of uterine sarcoma...

‣ Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy: a descriptive and comparative review

Merkow, Justin; Paniccia, Alessandro; Edil, Barish H.
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is an extremely challenging surgery. First described in 1994, it has been slow to gain in popularity. Recently, however, we have seen an increase in the number of centers performing this operation, including our own institution, as well as an increase in the quantity of published data. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status of LPD as described in the literature. We performed a literature search in the PubMed database using MeSH terms “laparoscopy” and “pancreaticoduodenectomy”. We then identified articles in the English language with over 20 patients that focused on LPD only. Review articles were excluded and only one article per institution was used for descriptive analysis in order to avoid overlap. There were a total of eight articles meeting review criteria, consisting of 492 patients. On descriptive analysis we found that percent of LPD due to high-grade malignancy averaged 47% over all articles. Average operative time was 452 minutes, blood loss 369 cc’s, pancreatic leak rate 15%, delayed gastric emptying 8.6%, length of hospital stay 9.4 days, and short term mortality 2.3%. Comparison studies between open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) and LPD suggested decreased blood loss...

‣ Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Comprehensive Review

Kyung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hee-June
Fonte: The Korean Knee Society Publicador: The Korean Knee Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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434.97555%
It has been suggested that in the majority of patellar dislocation cases, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is disrupted with a high recurrence rate especially in female patients. Although MPFL tear is not the primary cause of instability, MPFL reconstruction is effective for stabilizing the knee and may alone prevent lateral patellar dislocation. There is limited but growing evidence that MPFL reconstruction for patellofemoral instability leads to excellent functional outcomes. Growing awareness of the biomechanical contribution of the MPFL has led to an upsurge in the publication of techniques and trials dealing with reconstructive techniques, warranting a review that includes the most recent evidence. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literatures concerning MPFL reconstruction and provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques and results.

‣ A review of drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma for non-ophthalmologists

Ah-kee, Elliott Yann; Egong, Eric; Shafi, Ahad; Lim, Lik Thai; Yim, James Li
Fonte: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals Publicador: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2015 Português
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Acute angle closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Several types of drugs have the potential to precipitate acute angle closure glaucoma. These include adrenergic, cholinergic and anticholinergic, antidepressants, anticoagulants and sulfa-based agents. This article provides a basic overview of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in angle closure glaucoma and focuses on drug-induced angle closure glaucoma for the non-ophthalmologist. A PubMed search limited to the English language was conducted to find relevant literature for the purpose of this article. Most attacks occur in subjects unaware that they are at risk due to innately narrow iridocorneal angles. Clinicians should always review medications in patients presenting with symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this article is to bring this ophthalmic condition to the attention of clinicians, particularly those outside the field of ophthalmology who commonly prescribe these medications or see these patients prior to referring to ophthalmologists.

‣ Peer review and journal impact factor: the two pillars of contemporary medical publishing

Triaridis, S; Kyrgidis, A
Fonte: LITHOGRAPHIA Antoniadis I.-Psarras Th. G.P. Publicador: LITHOGRAPHIA Antoniadis I.-Psarras Th. G.P.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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The appraisal of scientific quality is a particularly difficult problem. Editorial boards resort to secondary criteria including crude publication counts, journal prestige, the reputation of authors and institutions, and estimated importance and relevance of the research field, making peer review a controversial rather than a rigorous process. On this background different methods for evaluating research may become required, including citation rates and journal impact factors (IF), which are thought to be more quantitative and objective indicators, directly related to published science. The aim of this review is to go into the two pillars of contemporary medical publishing, that is the peer review process and the IF. Qualified experts' reviewing the publications appears to be the only way for the evaluation of medical publication quality. To improve and standardise the principles, procedures and criteria used in peer review evaluation is of great importance. Standardizing and improving training techniques for peer reviewers, would allow for the magnification of a journal's impact factor. This may be a very important reason that impact factor and peer review need to be analyzed simultaneously. Improving a journal's IF would be difficult without improving peer-review efficiency. Peer-reviewers need to understand the fundamental principles of contemporary medical publishing...