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‣ Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.062495%
There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

‣ A Review on Biodentine, a Contemporary Dentine Replacement and Repair Material

Malkondu, Özlem; Kazandağ, Meriç Karapinar; Kazazoğlu, Ender
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16958%
Biodentine is a calcium-silicate based material that has drawn attention in recent years and has been advocated to be used in various clinical applications, such as root perforations, apexification, resorptions, retrograde fillings, pulp capping procedures, and dentine replacement. There has been considerable research performed on this material since its launching; however, there is scarce number of review articles that collates information and data obtained from these studies. Therefore, this review article was prepared to provide the reader with a general picture regarding the findings about various characteristics of the material. The results of a PubMed search were classified and presented along with some critical comments where necessary. The review initially focuses on various physical properties of the material with subheadings and continues with biocompatibility. Another section includes the review of studies on Biodentine as a vital pulp treatment material and the article is finalized with the summary of some case reports where the material has been used.