Página 1 dos resultados de 22 itens digitais encontrados em 0.029 segundos

‣ Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows

Ametaj,Burim N.; Zebeli,Qendrim; Iqbal,Summera
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition...

‣ The immunology of experimental liver transplantation in the rat.

Kamada, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1985 Português
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In many species, the rejection of liver allografts is milder than that of other organs. This is especially so in the rat where, without immunosuppressive treatment, liver grafts between certain strain combinations are accepted permanently, whereas skin, heart and renal allografts undergo acute rejection. Reliable surgical methods, together with the availability of inbred strains and a rapidly developing knowledge of its MHC and immune system in general, have made the rat a prime species in which to study the immunological events which follow liver grafting. In non-rejector combinations, liver allografts possess remarkable properties of tolerance induction and antigen-specific immunosuppression, leading to a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which grafts of other organs are also accepted. Moreover, liver transplantation can terminate ongoing rejection reactions in other organs and convert an existing state of sensitization against donor antigens into one of unresponsiveness. This review describes recent progress in understanding the immunological mechanisms behind these phenomena. The topics discussed include the rat MHC (RT1) antigens and their distribution in the liver; the genetic control of rejection and non-rejection...

‣ The Confluence of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Tumor Immunology

Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Timmerman, Robert; McBride, William H.; Schaue, Dörthe; Hoffe, Sarah E.; Mantz, Constantine A.; Wilson, George D.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Stereotactic radiation approaches are gaining more popularity for the treatment of intracranial as well as extracranial tumors in organs such as the liver and lung. Technology, rather than biology, is driving the rapid adoption of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), in the clinic due to advances in precise positioning and targeting. Dramatic improvements in tumor control have been demonstrated; however, our knowledge of normal tissue biology response mechanisms to large fraction sizes is lacking. Herein, we will discuss how SABR can induce cellular expression of MHC I, adhesion molecules, costimulatory molecules, heat shock proteins, inflammatory mediators, immunomodulatory cytokines, and death receptors to enhance antitumor immune responses.

‣ Nuclear Antigens and Auto/Alloantibody Responses: Friend or Foe in Transplant Immunology

Nakano, Toshiaki; Chen, Chao-Long; Goto, Shigeru
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In addition to cellular immune responses, humoral immune responses, mediated by natural antibodies, autoantibodies, and alloantibodies, have increasingly been recognized as causes of organ transplant rejection. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated the induction of antinuclear antibodies against histone H1 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), in both experimental and clinical liver transplant tolerance. The active induction of antinuclear antibodies is usually an undesirable phenomenon, but it is often observed after liver transplantation. However, the release of nuclear antigens and its suppression by neutralizing antibodies are proposed to be important in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding of nuclear antigens and corresponding antinuclear regulatory antibodies (Abregs) on infection, injury, inflammation, transplant rejection, and tolerance induction and discuss the significance of nuclear antigens as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

‣ Liver immune-pathogenesis and therapy of human liver tropic virus infection in humanized mouse models

Bility, Moses T; Li, Feng; Cheng, Liang; Su, Lishan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect and replicate primarily in human hepatocytes. Few reliable and easy accessible animal models are available for studying the immune system’s contribution to the liver disease progression during hepatitis virus infection. Humanized mouse models reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been developed to study human immunology, human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, and immunopathogenesis. However, a humanized mouse model engrafted with both human immune and human liver cells is needed to study infection and immunopathogenesis of HBV/HCV infection in vivo. We have recently developed the humanized mouse model with both human immune and human liver cells (AFC8-hu HSC/Hep) to study immunopathogenesis and therapy of HCV infection in vivo. In this review, we summarize the current models of HBV/HCV infection and their limitations in immunopathogenesis. We will then present our recent findings of HCV infection and immunopathogenesis in the AFC8-hu HSC/Hep mouse, which supports HCV infection, human T-cell response and associated liver pathogenesis. Inoculation of humanized mice with primary HCV isolates resulted in long-term HCV infection. HCV infection induced elevated infiltration of human immune cells in the livers of HCV-infected humanized mice. HCV infection also induced HCV-specific T-cell immune response in lymphoid tissues of humanized mice. Additionally...

‣ Mechanisms of Liver Injury in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

Duwaerts, Caroline C.; Maher, Jacquelyn J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disorder marked by alterations in hepatic lipid homeostasis as well as liver injury in the form of cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Research into the pathophysiology of NASH is dynamic. New concepts from the fields of cell biology, microbiology, immunology and genetics are being tested for their applicability to NASH; discoveries in each of these areas are enriching our understanding of this complex disease. This review summarizes how recent developments from the bench and bedside are merging with more traditional concepts to reshape our view of NASH pathogenesis. Highlights include human studies that emphasize the role of de novo lipogenesis in NASH and experimental work uncovering a role for the inflammasome in NASH. Genetic predispositions to NASH are being clarified, and intestinal microbiome is emerging as a determinant of fatty liver. These unique ideas are now taking their place within an integrated picture of NASH pathogenesis.

‣ Gamma Delta T-lymphocytes in Hepatitis C and Chronic Liver Disease

Rajoriya, Neil; Fergusson, Joannah Ruth; Leithead, Joanna A.; Klenerman, Paul
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/08/2014 Português
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Discovered 30 years ago, gamma delta (γδ) T-lymphocytes remain an intriguing and enigmatic T-cell subset. Although in humans they comprise a small fraction of the total circulating T-lymphocyte pool, they represent an important T-cell subset in tissues such as the liver, with roles bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. The associations of γδ T-lymphocytes with chronic liver disease have been explored – however, there remain conflicting data as to whether these T-cells are pathogenic or protective. In patients with some forms of liver disease, their expansion in the periphery and especially in the liver may indeed help pathogen clearance, while in other conditions their presence may, in contrast, contribute to disease progression. γδ T-cells can also express CD161, a C-type lectin, and such cells have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. CD161+ T-cells of diverse subsets are known to be enriched in the livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C. This article serves to provide a review of the γδ T-cell population and its role in hepatitis C and other chronic liver diseases, and also explores a potential role of the CD161+ γδ T-cells in liver diseases.

‣ Liver Immunology

Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context...

‣ Transplantation tolerance

Salisbury, Emma M.; Game, David S.; Lechler, Robert I.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although transplantation has been a standard medical practice for decades, marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs and poor long-term graft survival remain important limitations in the field. Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful, broad-spectrum immunosuppressive regimens that carry with them the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening opportunistic infections, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy, as well as graft toxicity and loss, towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. Reports of “transplant tolerance” in kidney and liver allograft recipients whose immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued for medical or non-compliant reasons, together with results from experimental models of transplantation, provide the proof-of-principle that achieving tolerance in organ transplantation is fundamentally possible. However, translating the reconstitution of immune tolerance into the clinical setting is a daunting challenge fraught with the complexities of multiple interacting mechanisms overlaid on a background of variation in disease. In this article, we explore the basic science underlying mechanisms of tolerance and review the latest clinical advances in the quest for transplantation tolerance.

‣ Immunomodulatory effects of transforming growth factor-β in the liver

Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are potent regulatory cytokines that affect multiple cell types of the immune system mediating pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. In the liver, TGF-β is produced by a multitude of non-parenchymal liver cells including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), Kupffer cells (KCs), and dendritic cells (DCs) as well as natural killer (NK) T cells among other hepatic lymphocytes. The effect of TGF-β on other cells is highly versatile. In concert with other soluble factors, it controls the maturation, differentiation and activity of various T cell subsets that either prevent or actuate infections, graft-versus-host reactions, immune diseases, and cancer formation. During the last decades, it became evident that some TGFB1 polymorphisms are associated with the pathogenesis of hepatic disease and that plasma TGF-β is a suitable biomarker to detect liver lesions. Moreover, since TGF-β has capacity to influence the quantity and quality of T cell subsets as well as their activity, it is obvious that a well-balanced TGF-β activity is essential for liver homeostasis. In the present review, we highlight some pivotal functions of TGF-β in hepatic immunobiology. We discuss its regulatory function on adaptive immunity...

‣ Therapeutic targeting of liver inflammation and fibrosis by nanomedicine

Bartneck, Matthias; Warzecha, Klaudia Theresa; Tacke, Frank
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Nanomedicine constitutes the emerging field of medical applications for nanotechnology such as nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems. This technology may hold exceptional potential for novel therapeutic approaches to liver diseases. The specific and unspecific targeting of macrophages, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), hepatocytes, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) using nanomedicine has been developed and tested in preclinical settings. These four major cell types in the liver are crucially involved in the complex sequence of events that occurs during the initiation and maintenance of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Targeting different cell types can be based on their capacity to ingest surrounding material, endocytosis, and specificity for a single cell type can be achieved by targeting characteristic structures such as receptors, sugar moieties or peptide sequences. Macrophages and especially the liver-resident Kupffer cells are in the focus of nanomedicine due to their highly efficient and unspecific uptake of most nanomaterials as well as due to their critical pathogenic functions during inflammation and fibrogenesis. The mannose receptor enables targeting macrophages in liver disease, but macrophages can also become activated by certain nanomaterials...

‣ Innate immune signaling and gut-liver interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Bieghs, Veerle; Trautwein, Christian
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and covers a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The innate immune response in the liver plays an important role during NAFLD progression. In addition, changes in the intestinal microbial balance and bacterial translocation can further affect disease progression. Immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage or pathogen invasion with intracellular or surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), subsequently initiating signaling cascades that trigger the release of factors promoting the inflammatory response during NAFLD progression. Therefore, mechanisms by which cells of the immune system are activated and recruited into the liver and how these cells cause injury and stress are important for understanding the inflammatory response during NAFLD.

‣ Immune mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure

Krenkel, Oliver; Mossanen, Jana C.; Tacke, Frank
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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An overdose of acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP), also termed paracetamol, can cause severe liver damage, ultimately leading to acute liver failure (ALF) with the need of liver transplantation. APAP is rapidly taken up from the intestine and metabolized in hepatocytes. A small fraction of the metabolized APAP forms cytotoxic mitochondrial protein adducts, leading to hepatocyte necrosis. The course of disease is not only critically influenced by dose of APAP and the initial hepatocyte damage, but also by the inflammatory response following acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). As revealed by mouse models of AILI and corresponding translational studies in ALF patients, necrotic hepatocytes release danger-associated-molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by resident hepatic macrophages, Kupffer cell (KC), and neutrophils, leading to the activation of these cells. Activated hepatic macrophages release various proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α or IL-1β, as well as chemokines (e.g., CCL2) thereby further enhancing inflammation and increasing the influx of immune cells, like bone-marrow derived monocytes and neutrophils. Monocytes are mainly recruited via their receptor CCR2 and aggravate inflammation. Infiltrating monocytes...

‣ Cellular and molecular functions of hepatic stellate cells in inflammatory responses and liver immunology

Weiskirchen, Ralf; Tacke, Frank
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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The liver is a central immunological organ. Liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC), but also sinusoidal endothelial cells, dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells are involved in balancing immunity and tolerance against pathogens, commensals or food antigens. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been primarily characterized as the main effector cells in liver fibrosis, due to their capacity to transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). More recent studies elucidated the fundamental role of HSC in liver immunology. HSC are not only the major storage site for dietary vitamin A (Vit A) (retinol, retinoic acid), which is essential for proper function of the immune system. This pericyte further represents a versatile source of many soluble immunological active factors including cytokines [e.g., interleukin 17 (IL-17)] and chemokines [C-C motif chemokine (ligand) 2 (CCL2)], may act as an antigen presenting cell (APC), and has autophagy activity. Additionally, it responds to many immunological triggers via toll-like receptors (TLR) (e.g., TLR4, TLR9) and transduces signals through pathways and mediators traditionally found in immune cells, including the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway or inflammasome activation. Overall...

‣ Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Canbay, Ali
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells...

‣ The role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory processes during hepatofibrogenesis

Roy, Sanchari; Benz, Fabian; Luedde, Tom; Roderburg, Christoph
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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Liver cirrhosis represents the end stage of most chronic inflammatory liver diseases and is a major global health burden. Despite the enormous relevance of cirrhotic disease, pharmacological strategies for prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis are still limited, underlining the need to establish a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as a new class of RNAs that do not withhold the information to encode for proteins but regulate whole gene expression networks during different physiological and pathological processes. Various authors demonstrated that miRNA species are functionally involved in the regulation of chronic liver damage and development of liver cirrhosis in inflamed livers. Moreover, circulating miRNA patterns were suggested to serve as blood-based biomarkers indicating liver injury and progression to hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. Here we summarize current findings on a potential role of miRNAs in the cascade leading from liver inflammation to liver fibrosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. We compare data from animal models with findings on miRNAs dysregulated in human patients and finally highlight a potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for liver injury...

‣ Contribution of bone marrow-derived fibrocytes to liver fibrosis

Xu, Jun; Cong, Min; Park, Tae Jun; Scholten, David; Brenner, David A.; Kisseleva, Tatiana
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45+ cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchymal and non-parenchymal organs and tissues, fibrocytes remain the most understudied pro-fibrogenic cellular population. In the past years fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis by giving rise to collagen type I producing cells/myofibroblasts. Hence, the role of fibrocytes in fibrosis is not well defined since different studies often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury versus the number of fibrocyte-derived myofibroblasts in the same fibrotic organ. Furthermore, many studies were based on the in vitro characterization of fibrocytes formed after outgrowth of BM and/or peripheral blood cultures. Therefore, the fibrocyte function(s) still remain(s) lack of understanding, mostly due to (I) the lack of mouse models that can provide complimentary in vivo real-time and cell fate mapping studies of the dynamic differentiation of fibrocytes and their progeny into collagen type I producing cells (and/or possibly...

‣ Immunoregulation by lipids during the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Ramadori, Pierluigi; Kroy, Daniela; Streetz, Konrad L.
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common liver disorder in western countries and it is commonly associated with obesity and progression of the metabolic syndrome. Comprehending a wide spectrum of pathologic features, it is currently well recognized that a key point for the integrity of hepatocyte functionality in NAFLD is the progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Indeed, activation of the innate immune system in response to hepatic metabolic stresses represents a central process that determines the evolution and the reversibility of liver damage. Despite of the burden of studies published in recent years, it is still intriguingly unclear how accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes triggers the activation of the inflammatory response leading to the recruitment of infiltrating cells of extra-hepatic origins. In this review we offer a general view on recent advances pointing out how different classes of lipids are able to specifically affect hepatocytes functionality and survival, thus differently influencing the organization of the hepatic immune response. On the other hand, we gathered recent studies intending to illustrate the basic mechanisms through which several non-parenchymal hepatic and extra-hepatic cell populations get activated in response to lipids. Finally...

‣ Hepatitis B virus large surface protein: function and fame

Churin, Yuri; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. HBV life cycle begins with viral attachment to hepatocytes, mediated by the large HBV surface protein (LHBs). Identification of the sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as a HBV receptor has revealed a suitable target for viral entry inhibition. Analysis of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level is a non-invasive diagnostic parameter that improves HBV treatment opportunities. Furthermore, HBsAg plays an important role in manipulation of host immune response by HBV. However, observations in patients with chronic hepatitis B under conditions of immune suppression and in transgenic mouse models of HBV infection suggest, that in absence of adaptive immune responses cellular mechanisms induced by HBV may also lead to the development of liver diseases. Thus, the multifaceted pathological aspects of HBsAg predetermine the design of new therapeutical options modulating associated biological implications.

‣ Percutaneous Cryoablation for Liver Cancer

Niu, Li-Zhi; Li, Jia-Liang; Xu, Ke-Cheng
Fonte: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd Publicador: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Based on the primary tumor site, liver cancer can be divided into two categories: (1) primary liver cancer and (2) metastatic cancer to the liver from a distant primary site. Guided cryoablation via many imaging methods induces iceball formation and tumor necrosisand is an attractive option for treating unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer. There are several advantages to using cryoablation for the treatment of liver cancer: it can be performed percutaneously, intraoperatively, and laparoscopically; iceball formation can be monitored; it has little impact on nearby large blood vessels; and it induces a cryo-immunological response in situ. Clinically, primary research has shown that percutaneous cryoablation of liver cancer is relatively safe and efficient, and it can be combined with other methods, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunology, to control disease. Although research is preliminary, cryosurgery is fast becoming an alternative treatment method for HCC or liver tumors. Here, we review the mechanisms of liver tumor cryoablation, cryoablation program selection, clinical efficiency, and complications following treatment.