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‣ Environmental impact of road transport in Portugal and effects of hydrogen technologies penetration

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: International Workshop,Advances in Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy Publicador: International Workshop,Advances in Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 15/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.872896%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth due to the of vehicle fleets increase and a strong investment in road infrastructure and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs).With introduction, in this sector, of a new renewable fuel, like hydrogen, a reduction of the reported pollutant is foreseen. In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. The software chosen to calculate the emissions associated to road transport is the COPERT program (version IV) since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption.

‣ Penetration of hydrogen technologies: study on the environmental impact of road transport in Portugal

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 24/09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.868%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption. Passenger cars, light duty vehicles and public transport buses are the vehicles categories in which the hydrogen technology is foreseen. The hydrogen penetration rates (moderate and high) are extracted from the European Project HYWAYS. Two trends are then considered, which give penetration rates of 40.0 % and 74.5 % in 2050 for the moderate and high scenarios respectively.

‣ Quantitative Analysis of Road Transport Agreements (QuARTA)

Kunaka, Charles; Tanase, Virginia; Latrille, Pierre; Krausz, Peter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.260215%
Road freight transport is indispensable to international economic cooperation and foreign trade. Across all continents, it is commonly used for short and medium distances and in long distance haulage when minimizing time is important. In all instances governments play a critical role in ensuring the competitive advantage of private sector operators. Countries often have many opportunities to minimize the physical or administrative barriers that increase costs, take measures to enhance the attractiveness and competitiveness of road transport, or generally nurture the integral role of international road freight transport in the global trade logistics industry. Road freight transport is critical to domestic and international trade. It is the dominant mode of transport for overland movement of trade traffic, carrying more than 80 percent of traffic in most regions. Generally, nearly all trade traffic is carried by road at some point. Therefore, the cost and quality of road transport services is of critical importance to trade competitiveness of countries and regions within countries. In fact...

‣ Mainstreaming Gender in Road Transport : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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68.322144%
The paper aims to provide guidance for both transport and gender specialists on how to mainstream gender-related considerations into road transport projects to improve development effectiveness, sustainability and to reduce gender inequality. The paper draws attention to the most basic ways in which gender affects and is affected by transport policies and projects and provides practical approaches to address gender-related problems in road transport projects. Women and men have different travel and transport needs due to their different social and economic roles and activities. Women also face different constraints than men in accessing, using and paying for transport services. Transport can play a significant role in ameliorating or exacerbating the life conditions of women, particularly when poor and living in developing countries, depending on the extent to which gender differences are taken into account. The paper provides examples of entry points for mainstreaming gender into various road project contexts in urban...

‣ Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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58.285146%
Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and improved access to social and economic services is a key factor in raising their living standards. The traditional road appraisal frameworks do not fit well with this trend as they generally ignore the impact of social benefit and poverty reduction. Past attempts to overcome these problems have lacked consistency. Therefore, there is a need to develop a consistent framework to address the poverty and social benefit aspects in a systematic manner. A study into the identification and treatment of social benefits in road transport project appraisal was conducted in 2003-04. The study highlighted the problems of identification...

‣ Road Management Policy

Pinard, Michael Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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58.302373%
Road transport is the most pervasive of all transport modes in Africa and is central to the socioeconomic growth and development of all countries in the region. For it to be effective as a catalyst for development, road provision must be institutionally, economically, financially, socially, and environmentally sustainable. The main objective of the present document is to analyze the commercialized road management (CRM) and publicly available specification (PAS) evaluation approaches for assessing road agency performance in road asset management. The document also considers how the two approaches can be amalgamated to enhance the evaluation of roads agency performance in terms of key benchmarks for good road asset management practice. Finally, the document reflects on indicators that can be incorporated in an appropriate asset management evaluation framework to: (1) measure the progress being made towards commercialization of road administrations; and (2) monitor the performance of roads agencies in terms of the efficiency and effectiveness with which they undertake their responsibilities in the road sub-sector. The report is structured as follows: section one presents the background to the working paper...

‣ The National Road Transport Commission: an experiment in cooperative federalism

McIntyre, Kirsty; Moore, Barry
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 112508 bytes; 364 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.10405%
Introduction: As powers over road transport are not specified in the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, they lie, for the most part, with the States and Territories. The Commonwealth has made limited use of section 92 powers to establish a partial regulatory scheme for vehicles engaged in interstate trade (the Federal Interstate Regulation Scheme), but has not yet attempted to use more recently established powers (eg, corporations powers) in applications relating to road transport operations. However, the Commonwealth has also made use of corporations and foreign trade powers to regulate new motor vehicle safety and environment standards through the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989. These standards are known as the Australian Design Rules. Road transport regulation includes measures covering the registration, operation and charging of vehicles, the licensing of drivers, and measures to ensure compliance with the regulations. Generally, this regulation has been the responsibility of the States and Territories in the Australian federal system. Prior to the establishment of the National Road Transport Commission (NRTC) in 1991, national co-ordination of road transport regulation was undertaken through the Australian Transport Advisory Council...

‣ The legal framework for regulating road transport safety: chains of responsibility, compliance and enforcement

Johnstone, Richard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 389461 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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67.93795%
This paper describes, analyses and compares two regulatory regimes which cover the road transport industry – occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation, and the National Road Transport Commission’s (NRTC) proposed model road transport legislation. The central questions examined in the paper are (i) what obligations do these laws impose, and upon whom (that is, what has to be complied with, and by whom); and (ii) what enforcement tools or mechanisms are provided to enforce the provisions. I begin briefly by describing what I will call the “traditional” approaches taken by Australian governments to OHS and road transport regulation, and then explain and compare current OHS legislation and enforcement tools with existing Dangerous Goods and Driving Hours regulations, and the proposed NRTC model road transport legislation, which includes enforcement mechanisms.; no

‣ Road transport energy consumption in the G7 and BRICS: 1973–2010

Gao, Yi-Xuan; Liao, Hua; Burke, Paul J.; Wei, Yi-Ming
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Road transport will account for a large share of developing countries’ future energy demand. This paper reviews the trends in road transport energy consumption in 12 countries (Group of Seven (G7) and BRICS) over the period 1973–2010. We report several stylised facts: road transport energy use and its share in total energy use have been rising; there were large differences in road transport energy use per capita across countries, resulting from differences in country size, resource endowments, fuel prices and other factors; oil accounts for around 95% of road transport energy in the selected countries except Brazil; oil will likely be the dominant road transport energy source in most countries for some years to come but not in the long run; and the use of alternative road transport energy sources is increasing.; We are thankful for financial support from the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA05150600), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71322306, 71273027 and 71020107026) and Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (No. NCET-13-0040).

‣ Brazil - Improving the Appraisal Framework for Road Transport Infrastructure Investments : Elements for Consideration; Brasil - Aprimoramento do marco de avaliacao de investimentos em infra-estrutura de transportes rodoviarios : elementos a serem considerados

Véron, Adrien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.25986%
The main purpose of an appraisal framework for transport infrastructure projects and programs is to provide an objective and transparent basis for decision-makers to ascertain the feasibility and levels of priority of major transport projects and policies. An appraisal framework also serves a second, more general, purpose: to contribute to upgrading internal management processes aimed at improving the quality of expenditure. An adequate appraisal framework needs to: 1) strike a balance between an objective economic evaluation and a broader multi-criteria evaluation; and 2) provide clear methodologies and norms to guide appraisers, and ensure comparability among project appraisals, when time comes to prioritize the projects. To ensure that an appraisal framework can deliver on the two above-mentioned purposes, it is important to raise public awareness as to the basic principles and objectives of appraisals, and to structure public sector capacity to undertake or lead, as well as review appraisals, to ensure that they are reliable and of adequate quality. Appraisal frameworks are at different stages of development in different countries...

‣ Bhutan : Transport Sector Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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58.27887%
Landlocked Bhutan faces unique challenges, and opportunities as it pursues the development of its transport sector into the 21st century. Bhutan's population growth rate is high, rural-urban migration is accelerating, and, fueled by sustained economic growth, the country is urbanizing rapidly, giving rise to an expanding urban middle class, with rising expectations of well-paid employment, accessible services, and consumption potential. However, accessibility to a large measure depends on availability of reliable, and affordable transportation. Poor rural access is synonymous with rural isolation, and poverty, while high external and domestic transport costs constrain the country's economic and social development. Transportation poses a considerable cost disadvantage to business and commercial undertakings; road transport is slow and regularly disrupted by landslides and flooding; air transport is costly and erratic. Costly transport is a major factor constraining the development of tourism, horticultural exports...

‣ Promoting Policy Reforms for Effective Transport Services in COMESA Countries; Promouvoir les reformes de politique pour les services de transport efficaces dans les pays du COMESA

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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58.24824%
Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) has been promoting reforms to help regional integration for effective transport services. The study indicated the need for better traffic management, in general, and, specifically, to face up to the growing congestion problem in the capital cities. Roads in major cities have been neglected, therefore each country must include maintenance and management of urban roads in its transport strategy. In many of the countries, improved access was a major issue. A high percentage of the study area's population lacks modern road transport. Ethiopia, for example, has one of the lowest road densities in the world. Only 20 percent of its area is within 10 km of an all-weather road, and about 30 percent within the same distance of any kind of rural road. Nearly 90 percent of the population is rural and 85 percent employed in agriculture, but nearly three-quarters of all farms are more than a half-day's walk from an all-weather road. This dearth of roads is clearly a major economic and social constraint.

‣ The Impact of Regional Liberalization and Harmonization in Road Transport Services : A Focus on Zambia and Lessons for Landlocked Ccountries

Raballand, Gaël; Kunaka, Charles; Giersing, Bo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.321%
Based on a detailed empirical study, this paper argues that regional liberalization of trucking services has had an important effect on transport costs and tariffs for Zambia's economy. Zambia is a peculiar example in Southern Africa as it benefits from relatively low transport costs compared with other landlocked countries in Africa. This is mainly because of competition between Zambian and other regional, mainly South African, operators and because of South African investments in Zambia's trucking industry. As a result, the costs of operators registered in Zambia and South Africa are similar. The study also demonstrates that enhancing trucking interoperability in Southern Africa would significantly impact positively the Zambian trucking industry's competitiveness. The main measures to significantly increase trucking competitiveness in the region would more likely derive from reducing fuel costs in Zambia, improving border-post operations, and relaxing South African truck import rules.

‣ Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.29342%
This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

‣ Transport Prices and Costs in Africa : A Review of the International Corridors; Le prix et le cout du transport en Afrique : etude des principaux corridors

Teravaninthorn, Supee; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.294263%
The objective of the study is to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind Africa's high prices for road transport. Such prices are a major obstacle to economic growth in the region, as shown in several studies. For example, Amjadi and Yeats (1995) concluded that transport costs in Africa were a higher trade barrier than were import tariffs and trade restrictions. Other analyses by the World Bank (2007a) demonstrated that Africa's transport prices were high compared to the value of the goods transported and that transport predictability and reliability were low by international standards. This study's findings should help policy makers take actions that will reduce transport costs to domestic and international trade.

‣ India : Road Transport Service Efficiency Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.252476%
This study reviews the long-distance road transport industry in India, in order to identify inefficiencies that could reduce the benefits to be derived from the large investments now being made by the Government in the nation's highway infrastructure. It has been undertaken to assess the present policy regime, and identify measures which may be considered to improve the functioning of road transport, in particular long-distance road transport, and, enhance its already enormous contribution (3.9 percent of GDP) to the workings of the Indian economy. While the road transport sector encompasses a wide variety of activities, this study has focused on three aspects which were considered the most relevant to the investments in highway infrastructure - the trucking industry, inter-city buses, and in view of its very important, but largely unfulfilled role in enhancing road safety, the motor insurance industry. The key findings and recommendations of the study are summarized below. India has achieved a highly competitive, low-cost road freight transport industry for basic services, with highway freight rates among the lowest in the world. In fact, trucking freight rates are so low that the industry is suffering an intense period of low profits...

‣ Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit for On-Road Vehicles : Practitioners' Guide

Rogers, John A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.22393%
Although urbanization is frequently cited as a major cause of greenhouse gas and local air pollution emissions growth, it could be better understood as one of the crucial links between climate and development. Urbanization is a major driver of development, and once in cities, people tend to increase their mobility dramatically, driving an increase in greenhouse gas and other emissions from transport. The demand for transport is not limited only to urban environments. As each economy becomes richer, its demand for passenger and freight mobility increases. This increase in car usage coupled with a tendency to have a lower number of passengers per car, has been sufficient to offset the improvements gained in vehicle fuel efficiency. The increasing transport demand, if not accompanied by adequate growth in infrastructure and facilities, leads to rising congestion, time loss, and air quality deterioration that can stifle economic growth and quality of life. Finding the delicate balance of policy options to achieve long-term improvements in on-road transport and reduce the impact of its externalities is critical and needs to be tailored to each locale. This requires measurements both to design the interventions and evaluate their impacts. This transport activity measurement toolkit (TAMT) has been developed specifically to simplify this measurement process by providing standardized software...

‣ Environmental impact assessment of the penetration of hydrogen technologies in Portugal's road transport

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.868%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption. Passenger cars, light duty vehicles and public transport buses are the vehicles categories in which the hydrogen technology is foreseen. The hydrogen penetration rates (moderate and high) are extracted from the European Project HYWAYS. Two trends are then considered, which give penetration rates of 40.0 % and 74.5 % in 2050 for the moderate and high scenarios respectively.

‣ Informações sobre acidentes com transporte rodoviário de produtos perigosos no Estado de São Paulo: os desafios para a Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental; Informations about road transport of dangerous substances in the State of São Paulo: challenges for environmental health surveillance

Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Leal, Omar Lima
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.72419%
The study of accidents with dangerous products is one of the areas of environmental health surveillance. The risks involved in the road transport of dangerous products are large and they depend on the properties of the involved substances, of the quality of the road network, of the presence of areas densely populated, of passengers in the road, among others, and their consequences can be very severe. One of the basic requirements for the surveillance in environmental health is the existence of appropriate systems of information. This article has as objective to analyze the data of accidents with transport of dangerous products in the State of São Paulo, registered by Cetesb, by the Traffic Police and by the Fire Brigade of the State of São Paulo. The contents of the respective reports of registrations of the occurrences: RAA, RATPP AND RACB were also analyzed and compared. The number of accidents, number of deaths and of persons wounded and the relation death / accident were verified for the period 1996 2003. The results indicated a significant difference, not just in quantitative terms as of representativeness and access easiness. It was also verified that the concepts of type of accident, causes and consequences used by the institutions are quite different. For these reasons...

‣ APLICAÇÃO DO FMECA NO GERENCIAMENTO DE RISCO EM UMA EMPRESA DE TRANSPORTE RODOVIÁRIO DE CARGAS; APPLYING FMECA IN THE RISK MANAGEMENT IN ROAD TRANSPORT

Jaques, Mauricio Pazzelo; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Silva, Wesley Vieira da; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Kato, Heitor Takashi; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Domingues, Isabel Cristina da Costa; Pont
Fonte: UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ - ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT Publicador: UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ - ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.812524%
Este trabalho de pesquisa tem o objetivo de aplicar técnicas de análise de risco buscando avaliar seu uso no gerenciamento de riscos operacionais. Foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma empresa de transporte rodoviário de cargas do Estado de Santa Catarina, para identificação dos fatores que influenciam a atividade de transporte rodoviário de cargas. Na identificação dos modos de falha a que estão sujeitos as atividades relacionadas ao transporte, bem como sua freqüência, gravidade e graus de detecção, foram realizadas entrevistas com questionários semi-estruturados. Na análise dos dados foi utilizada a técnica FMECA que analisa cada um dos componentes de um sistema, verifica as possibilidades de falha e avalia os efeitos destas falhas sobre os demais componentes e sobre o sistema como um todo. Verificou-se a possibilidade de utilização dessa métrica no gerenciamento de risco na organização e foram apontadas as contribuições que esta utilização pode trazer para melhoria do gerenciamento de risco em transporte rodoviário de cargas.; This research work has the objective of applying techniques of risk analysis looking for to evaluate its use in the operational risks management. A case study was accomplished in a road transport company of Santa Catarina's State...