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‣ Rural–Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population

Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural–urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16–25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures—migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes—child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants...

‣ Sexual and Reproductive Health among Unmarried Rural-Urban Female Migrants in Shanghai China: A Comparative Analysis

Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen; Shang,  Meili; Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Ma, Jin; Wang, Jin; Song, Huijiang
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p < 0.001). The analysis showed premarital sex was associated with age, hometown, education, current residential type, knowledge of sexual physiology and safe sex, attitude to SRH and safe sex, and permissive attitude to sex. Unmarried rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority.

‣ Floating Choices: A Generational Perspective on Intentions of Rural-Urban Migrants in China

Yue, Zhongshan; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.; Du, Haifeng
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Using data from a 2005 Survey of rural-urban migrants in Shenzhen, this paper investigates intentions of two groups of migrants. We use the birth years from 1970 to 1980 as a reasonable range of dividing lines to separate the two groups. For each year we divide the sample into those born before that year and those born in or after that year. These are referred to as the old and the new generation, respectively. Three possible development trajectories are considered: settling in cities, returning home to seek a nonagricultural job, and returning home to farm. We find that members of the new generation have stronger desires to do non-farm work, and returning to seek a nonagricultural job has become the most important planned trajectory for this generation. Sharp differences exist between the two generations in the reasons that underlie their intentions. For the old generation, conditions such as age, family responsibility, and type of job are important determinants of intentions, while other conditions such as initial migration motives, social capital, and socioeconomic conditions of origin areas are important for the intentions of the new generation. Thus the new generation is more likely to view migration as a form of investment with the accumulation of human capital and social capital. Those migrants from the old generation who have higher education levels also intend to seek non-farm jobs. However...

‣ Comparison of the status of overweight/obesity among the youth of local Shanghai, young rural-to-urban migrants and immigrant origin areas

Lu, Jin-Kui; Yin, Xiao-Jian; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Liu, Jian-Jun; Watanabe, Takemasa; Tanaka, Toyoho
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2015 Português
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Background: Obesity in adolescents and children has become a global public health problem and lots of factors influence the status of obesity and overweight. The present study aims to compare the health-related factors which could influence the obesity in Chinese children and adolescents in three different groups which including the local developed city group, rural-to-urban migrants group and immigrants origin areas group. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 2457 children and adolescents aged 7-10 years old including 914 rural-to-urban migrants subjects, 795 local Shanghai subjects and 748 from immigrant origin areas. Physique measurements and self-reported information on health-related factors, such as physical activities, dietary habits, socio-economic factors such as family income, sleep habits, etc. were collected by questionnaire. SPSS16.0 was used in the analysis. Results: Mean level of body height, body weight and sitting height were different among the three groups, local youth group was higher in all the indexes than the other two groups. Grip for both hands were higher in local group also, while the heart rate was lowest in rural-to-ruban migrants group. The mean BMI in three groups showed significant difference...

‣ Mobilités de travail et (re)construction des rapports sociaux au sein d’une communauté Hmong de Chine (province du Guizhou)

Carrier, Sébastien
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La mobilité rurale-urbaine est sans contredit l’un des phénomènes les plus marquants que la Chine a connus depuis ses réformes des années 1980. D’une ampleur colossale, elle a constitué un fondement essentiel de sa transition et de son développement économiques. Or, si l’impact social de cette mobilité a été abondamment étudié dans les villes où séjournent les paysans, il demeure peu connu dans leur communauté d’origine, et encore moins en contexte de « nationalité minoritaire ». Reposant sur une enquête de terrain de plus d’une année, cette thèse en géographie sociale examine la (re)construction sociale dans une communauté rurale et minoritaire (c.àd. Hmong ou Miao) de Chine en lien avec le phénomène de la mobilité de travail. D’une intensité croissante, la pratique de la mobilité de travail par les membres de cette communauté est double. Les migrants sont soit des herboristes ambulants dans les villes de l’espace régional, soit des travailleurs salariés dans les villes orientales du pays. L’utilisation d’une approche du changement social intégrant les sphères du réel et de l’imagination et prenant en compte les dimensions territoriale et économique du phénomène migratoire est originale. De même...

‣ From Farm to Firm : Rural-Urban Transition in Developing Countries

Dudwick, Nora; Hull, Katy; Katayama, Roy; Shilpi, Forhad; Simler, Kenneth
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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Around the world, countries are becoming urbanized at an astonishing pace. As countries develop economically, their economies shift from mainly rural and agrarian to increasingly urban and nonagricultural. This rural-urban transformation presents both opportunities and challenges for development. When managed effectively, the transformation spurs growth and reduces poverty. When managed poorly, however, the process can result in stark welfare disparities, the marginalization of entire regions, and poorly functioning cities that fail to realize the potential gains from agglomeration economies. This book investigates the rural-urban transformation underway in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, emphasizing the influence of country conditions as well as the potential of good policies to minimize disparities and ensure that everyone shares in the benefits of urbanization. The first part of this book investigates urbanization and rural-urban welfare inequalities on three geographic scales global, national, and local featuring countries and cities in Sub-Saharan Africa on the national and local levels. The second part of the book sheds light on the texture of transformation in five countries in South Asia...

‣ Ethiopia : Re-Igniting Poverty Reduction in Urban Ethiopia through Inclusive Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Ethiopia in the decade up to 2005 has been characterized by robust growth rates of the urban economy, where a still limited share of the population lives. The urban economy has been estimated to contribute at least half of gross domestic product (GDP) (53 percent in 2002/03) and to explain a significant part of its growth. Only an estimated 12.6 percent of the poor live in urban areas and the overwhelming concentration of poverty in rural areas seem unlikely to be reversed in the medium term. Sustained growth, to be shared among a relatively small part of the population, could have been expected to reduce poverty significantly in urban areas, but this has not been the case. While poverty incidence remains lower in urban than in rural areas, rural areas have made significant progress and the rural-urban gap in poverty incidence is decreasing.

‣ The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival

Brockerhoff, Martin
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 72306 bytes; application/pdf
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Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children’s survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in the late 1970s and 1980s. Results show that, before migration, children of migrant women had similar or slightly higher mortality risks than children of women who remained in the village. In the two-year period surrounding their mother’s migration, their chances of dying increased sharply as a result of accompanying their mothers or being left behind, to levels well above those of rural and urban non-migrant children. Children born after migrants had settled in the urban area, however, gradually experienced much better survival chances than children of rural non-migrants, as well as lower mortality risks than migrants’ children born in rural areas before migration. The study concludes that many disadvantaged urban children would probably have been much worse off had their mothers remained in the village, and that millions of children’s lives may have been saved in the 1980s as a result of mothers moving to urban areas.; no

‣ Causes, consequences and challenges of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh / by Rita Afsar.

Afsar, Rita
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 537513 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 Português
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Attempts to contribute toward greater understanding of the urbanization process in Bangladesh. Focuses particularly on the rural-urban migration process, explaining the causes of mobility and stability and the consequences flowing from that movement for the wellbeing of migrants and their families.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Geography, 1995; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 331-404); xxix, 404 leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm.

‣ Migration of youth to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: determinants of mobility and adjustment experiences.

Nguyen Thi, Hong Xoan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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As a result of the economic reforms that were introduced in Vietnam in 1986, the country has grown economically. However, due to a bias toward development policies which have been mainly concentrated in urban areas, the economic gap between rural and urban areas has rapidly widened over time. More job opportunities and better living conditions in the city, as well as low productivity in agriculture, have caused people to move to the major cities. Consequently, rural to urban migration has become one of the dominant flows of internal migration in the country in recent years. This migration stream not only has increased in scale but also in its complexity. Particularly, the age of the migrants has become younger as many young people, especially females, become involved in this flow. Moreover, this migration flow has become less selective in terms of education as both more and less educated people migrate. Also, not only the rich but the poor take part in this movement. This thesis considers the determinants of moving and the experiences of young migrants to Ho Chi Minh City in terms of their economic, social and cultural adjustment in order to provide deep insights into the lives of young people when they migrate. This thesis has used the migration model of Scharping (1997) as the theoretical framework to investigate the decision to move as well as their living experiences in the city. A multiple method approach has been used to the study as both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. Quantitative data such as secondary data from censuses and data from large-scale surveys at the national and the city levels and primary data from the author’s survey with 300 young migrants were applied. Qualitative data from 25 in-depth interviews with young migrants...

‣ China Urbanizes : Consequences, Strategies, and Policies

Yusuf, Shahid; Saich, Tony
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Rural-urban migration is playing an increasingly important role in shaping the economic and demographic landscape of Chinese cities. Over the past two decades, China has transformed itself from a relatively immobile society to one in which more than 10 percent of the population are migrants. China's mobility rate is still low compared with that of advanced industrial economies, the sheer size of the migrant flows and their dramatic economic and social consequences have already profoundly affected economic growth and urban development. Looking ahead, decision makers at all levels will need to craft policies that address issues of migration and rural-urban migrants issues that are hotly debated among scholars, Chinese policy makers, and others. This report presents recent findings that describe migration patterns and changes since the 1980s.

‣ Labor Market Distortions, Rural-Urban Inequality, and the Opening of China's Economy

Hertel, Thomas; Zhai, Fan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The authors evaluate the impact of two key factor market distortions in China on rural-urban inequality and income distribution. They find that creation of a fully functioning land market has a significant impact on rural-urban inequality. This reform permits agricultural households to focus solely on the differential between farm and non-farm returns to labor in determining whether to work on or off-farm. This gives rise to an additional 10 million people moving out of agriculture by 2007 and lends a significant boost to the incomes of those remaining in agriculture. This off-farm migration also contributes to a significant rise in rural-urban migration, thereby lowering urban wages, particularly for unskilled workers. As a consequence, rural-urban inequality declines significantly. The authors find that reform of the Hukou system has the most significant impact on aggregate economic activity, as well as income distribution. Whereas the land market reform primarily benefits the agricultural households, this reform's primary beneficiaries are the rural households currently sending temporary migrants to the city. By reducing the implicit tax on temporary migrants...

‣ Discrimination against Rural-to-Urban Migrants: The Role of the Hukou System in China

Kuang, Lei; Liu, Li
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/2012 Português
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China's rural-urban dual society system is instituted by its unique hukou system. This system causes inequalities in social status between permanent urban and rural residents, and discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants is thus prevalent. A series of studies, based on system justification theory, sought to address the impact of the hukou system on the discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants. Study 1 showed that the justification of the hukou system could predict discrimination operationalized using a social distance measure. Study 2 found that priming of the proposed abolishment of the current hukou system led to reduced social distance. Study 3, using a recruiting scenario, further demonstrated that priming of the proposed abolishment of the system led to reduced discrimination in salary decision. Consistent with our predictions, discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants could be triggered by justifying the current hukou system, while priming of the abolishment of the system serves to decrease discrimination. The present research thereby sheds light on China's reform of its hukou system to achieve social justice and equality from a psychological perspective.

‣ Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants...

‣ Rural Migrants in the Urban Labor Market in Brazil: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Informal and Formal Sectors; A Inserção do Migrante Rural no Mercado de Trabalho Urbano no Brasil: Uma Análise Empírica da Importância dos Setores Informal e Formal

Ramalho, Hilton Martins de Brito; Neto, Raul da Mota Silveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2012 Português
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This paper provides an empirical analysis of the insertion of the rural-urban migrant into the urban labor market in Brazil. Three different aspects are specifically considered. First, it provides evidence for the importance of human capital to the insertion of Brazilian rural-urban migrants between formal and informal sector. Second, it investigates if the Brazilian informal sector can be considered as a transitory stage for the migrant who intends to work in the formal sector. Finally, it analyses if the observed insertion of Brazilian rural-urban migrant in the labor market reflects his best possible choice given expected returns to his individual characteristics. The results indicate that the migrant human capital is positively associated to the chance of being allocated to formal sector and that there are barriers to entry in some sectors. The set of evidence is also consistent with the idea that urban informal sector represent a temporary stage for the migrant who intends to work in the formal sector.; Este artigo analisa a inserção do migrante rural-urbano no mercado de trabalho urbano no Brasil. Primeiro, fornece evidências sobre a importância do capital humano para a inserção do migrante brasileiro entre setores formal e informal. Em segundo lugar...

‣ Income Inequality in Urban China: A Comparative Analysis between Urban Residents and Rural-Urban Migrants

Zhang, Lewei
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 22/04/2011 Português
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since the economic reform in the late 1970s, China’s economy has experienced consistently rapid growth, with a drastic change of production pattern and income distribution. The increasing income inequality, which is of importance to social justice and economic potential, has raised concerns in China. Because of rapid urbanization, millions of Chinese are flowing into cities from rural areas, so the income inequality within urban areas has received more research attention in recent years. Given the unique household registration system (Hukou) in China, the urban population can be divided into urban residents who are born in cities with urban Hukou and rural-urban migrants who are originally from rural areas with rural Hukou. The two subgroups have quite different characteristics and do not enjoy the same level of social benefits. Previous studies have not given enough focus on the migrant subgroup in terms of income inequality. To better understand income inequality issues in urban China, this study performs a comparative analysis between the two subgroups of urban residents and rural-urban migrants, seeking to answer the following questions: What are the income inequality levels between subgroups of urban residents and rural-urban migrants...

‣ Local understandings of, and responses to, HIV: rural–urban migrants in Tanzania

Coast, Ernestina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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Migration is an important process of change for rural populations in developing countries. Migration is a primary cause of behaviour change – by their very act of migrating, migrants are different from those who do not migrate. The focus of the current study is male rural-urban migration in Tanzania and its interaction with sexual behaviour. The analysis presents results from a comparison with individual-level analyses of two populations, one (composed of recent rural-urban migrants) in an urban area and one in a rural area. Detailed migration histories (n=96 rural-urban migrants) and in-depth interviews (n=96 rural-urban migrants, n=51 rural residents) form the basis of the study. Three key research questions are addressed: How does the sexual behaviour of migrants differ from that of rural residents? How do HIV knowledge levels vary between rural-urban migrants and rural residents? What factors are associated with either intentions of behaviour change or reported behaviour? The results are counter-intuitive: rural-urban migrants – both married and unmarried – are not having sex in town. Despite limited understanding of the nature of HIV, the migrant population studied here regulates its behaviour in a way that reflects local understandings of the disease. This finding it important...

‣ Low-cost urban housing markets: serving the needs of low-wage, rural-urban migrants?

Li, Bingqin; Duda, Mark; Peng, Huamin
Fonte: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Publicador: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2007 Português
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This paper fills some of the gaps regarding housing choice, demand, and quality among China’s rural-to-urban migrants using data from a purpose-designed survey of 800 low-status migrants in Tianjin. Results show that many migrants do not to exercise housing ‘choice’ but, rather, undergo housing ‘sorting’ that follows from occupational choices. Less than half of respondents obtained housing in the private rental market and only a slightly higher share pay any rent. Employment variables (industry sector, employer type) are consistently and strongly significant across our housing choice models and significantly affect housing quality as well. Nonetheless, a low-cost rental sector does exist, serving about two-fifths of migrants in our sample. Within this subset, housing demand is more consistent with theory in the sense that income and life cycle factors are important and employment sector has weaker effects. We read the study’s findings as an indication that the primary policy prescription of the urban China housing choice literature as it pertains to rural-to-urban migrants – the need to eliminate institutional barriers that limit access to certain kinds of housing - is desirable but inadequate and may not respond to the concerns of migrants themselves.

‣ Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study

Creber,Ruth M. Masterson; Smeeth,Liam; Gilman,Robert H; Miranda,J. Jaime
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m²), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). RESULTS: The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.

‣ Domestic violence as a threat to maternal and child well-being in an urban migrant community in Peru

Kohrt,Brieanne K.; Barrueco,Sandra; Pérez,Catalina P.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact that domestic violence (DV) has on hindering the success of urban migrants in Peru and any association with maternal depression, impaired parenting, social capital, and child development. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of structured interviews with 97 mothers and their school-aged children in El Porvenir, a predominantly migrant area of the city of Trujillo, Peru. Data collection occurred in February-June 2011. Proven tools previously validated for use in Spanish were used to assess the following variables: maternal depression, social capital, domestic violence, parenting behaviors, child socioemotional development, and child cognitive development. Correlational, multiple regression, tests of interaction, and indirect/mediator models were used for analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of women reported currently experiencing DV. DV strongly predicted depression (P < 0.001). Women who reported DV were less likely to be employed (P < 0.05), had lower cognitive social capital (P < 0.01), engaged in fewer caregiving activities (P < 0.05), had less maternal energy (P < 0.05), and were less warm (P < 0.05). DV was associated with internalizing behaviors in children (P < 0.01), with impaired parenting partially mediating this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: DV compromises women's mental health and parenting ability. High rates of DV among urban migrants affect the whole community by hindering employment potential and reducing trust among community members. Interventions targeting DV-related variables (e.g....