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‣ Efeitos do conhecimento de resultados autocontrolado na aprendizagem motora; Effects of self-controlled knowledge of results in motor learning

Ferreira, Gabriela Moara; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Alves Ambrósio, Natália Fontes; Bruzi, Alessandro Teodoro; Palhares, Leandro Ribeiro
Fonte: UNIV ESTADUAL PAULISTA-UNESP, INST BIOCIENCIAS; RIO CLARO Publicador: UNIV ESTADUAL PAULISTA-UNESP, INST BIOCIENCIAS; RIO CLARO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.88409%
O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar três diferentes estratégias de fornecer conhecimento de resultados (CR): autocontrolado, yoked pareado por tentativa e yoked pareado pela frequência média total de CR, na prática aleatória. A amostra foi constituída por 45 voluntários universitários, distribuídos em três grupos (n= 15 sujeitos). A tarefa consistiu em pressionar as teclas 2, 4, 8 e 6 do teclado numérico de um computador, em três diferentes tempos alvo (700, 900 e 1100 ms), praticados aleatoriamente. O experimento constou de fase de aquisição e testes de retenção e transferência atrasados. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio da ANOVA e não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve efeito das frequências autocontroladas para a aprendizagem motora quando se utiliza a prática aleatória. Além disso, uma nova possibilidade de parear o grupo autocontrolado foi apresentada.; The purpose of this study was to examine three different strategies to provide knowledge of results (KR), yoked paired by trial and yoked paired by average of total frequency of KR in random practice. The sample was composed by 45 volunteers, distributed into three groups (n=15 subjects). The task consisted of press three keys...

‣ Efeito da meta de aprendizagem na aprendizagem motora autocontrolada; Effect of the learning goal on self-controlled motor learning

Bastos, Flavio Henrique
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.36257%
A meta de aprendizagem, essencial ao processo de aprendizagem autocontrolada, tem sido negligenciada na literatura sobre aprendizagem motora. A questão que fundamentou o presente estudo foi se o fato de dizer aos aprendizes o que os espera após um período de prática, leva-os a elaborar estratégias de aprendizagem que beneficiam a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras. Os participantes receberam instrução para que se preparassem para um teste, no qual os parâmetros controlados por eles seriam aleatórios, e isto se constituiu a meta de aprendizagem. Nos experimentos 1 e 2 a tarefa utilizada consistiu em pressionar a barra de espaço de um teclado de computador simultaneamente à chegada de um objeto a um ponto de contato. A cada tentativa, a velocidade com que o objeto iria atravessar a tela de um monitor de 17 polegadas pôde ser escolhida, dentre três possibilidades, pelos participantes dos grupos com controle da prática. Ambos os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em três etapas: fase de aquisição (90 tentativas), teste de transferência imediato e teste de transferência atrasado (igual ao anterior, porém, realizado após 15 minutos). Os testes de transferência consistiram em quatro tentativas em cada velocidade (24 tentativas)...

‣ Efeitos da demonstração autocontrolada na aprendizagem motora; Effects of self-controlled demonstration on motor learning

Bruzi, Alessandro Teodoro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.07748%
Os efeitos da demonstração na aprendizagem motora tem sido objeto de estudo de longa data. Porém, o efeito da demonstração autocontrolada e das formas de utilização da possibilidade de autocontrolar esse fator ainda são pouco explorados na literatura. Dessa forma, quatro questões de estudo foram formuladas: 1) qual o efeito da demonstração autocontrolada na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora seriada? 2) há diferença na aprendizagem entre aqueles que gastam mais tempo para tomar a decisão sobre pedir a demonstração e aqueles que gastam menos tempo? 3) há diferença na aprendizagem entre aqueles que processam a informação observada de forma mais rápida e aqueles que processam de forma mais lenta? 4) há diferença na aprendizagem entre aqueles que mais demonstrações pedem e aqueles que menos pedem? Para investigar essas questões, quatros estudos foram realizados com a participação de 120 indivíduos voluntários, universitários, de ambos os sexos. A tarefa de aprendizagem foi uma habilidade motora seriada que consistiu em movimentar com o mouse um quadrado vermelho, exibido na tela de um computador, de forma a tocar sequencialmente todos os alvos retangulares apresentados na tela, em um determinado padrão temporal. O Estudo 1 envolveu a formação de dois grupos: Auto (demonstração autocontrolada...

‣ Efeito do conhecimento de performance autocontrolado na aquisição de uma habilidade motora em idosos; Effect of self-controlled knowledge performance in the acquisition of a motor skill in the elderly

Nunes, Marcelo Eduardo de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.6562%
O uso do feedback extrínseco ao longo do processo de aquisição de uma habilidade motora tem sido objeto de estudo e, mais recentemente, tem se investigado se o aprendiz é capaz de gerenciar o fornecimento dessas informações. Contudo, a literatura sobre os efeitos do conhecimento de performance (CP) com populações idosas é incipiente e os resultados não são esclarecedores. Nesse sentido, o objetivo geral desse estudo foi investigar o efeito de um regime de fornecimento de CP autocontrolado na aprendizagem motora de idosos. Foram planejados dois experimentos. O objetivo do Experimento 1 foi investigar o efeito do fornecimento de diferentes tipos de CP (CP descritivo/vídeo-replay e CP prescritivo/verbal) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em idosos. A tarefa utilizada foi a tacada curta do golfe. Participaram deste experimento 36 idosos com média de idade de 65 anos, distribuídos em três grupos experimentais: Presc; Vídeo+Presc; e Vídeo. Os idosos praticaram 120 tacadas a 2,20m do alvo em duas sessões de prática e foram realizados testes de retenção e transferência. A ANOVA encontrou diferenças significantes entre os grupos no desempenho (escore), na amplitude do backswing e forwardswing. O post hoc de Bonferroni mostrou que os grupos Presc e Video+Presc foram superiores ao grupo Vídeo (p<=0...

‣ Self-controlled feedback enhances learning in adults with Down syndrome

Chiviacowsky,Suzete; Wulf,Gabriele; Machado,Camila; Rydberg,Nels
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.715127%
BACKGROUND: One factor that has consistently been shown to enhance learning in typical participants is self-controlled practice. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback found previously in non-disabled adults would also be found in adults with Down syndrome. METHODS: Participants with Down syndrome practiced a linear positioning task. In the self-control group, learners were provided with feedback about the movement outcome at their request. Each participant in the yoked group received the same feedback schedule as their counterpart in the self-control group. RESULTS: Learning was assessed by a retention test, consisting of 10 trials without feedback, one day later. The self-control group demonstrated more effective learning of the task than the yoked group. CONCLUSION: Self-controlled feedback enhanced motor learning in participants with Down syndrome.

‣ Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.78103%
Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure...

‣ Self-Controlled Learning: The Importance of Protecting Perceptions of Competence

Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/11/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.216934%
Recent studies examining the role of self-controlled feedback have shown that learners ask for feedback after what they believe was a “good” rather than “poor” trial. Also, trials on which participants request feedback are often more accurate than those without feedback. The present study examined whether manipulating participants’ perception of “good” performance would have differential effects on learning. All participants practiced a coincident-anticipation timing task with a self-controlled feedback schedule during practice. Specifically, they were able to ask for feedback after 3 trials in each of three 10-trial practice blocks. While one group (Self-30) was told that an error of 30 ms or less would be considered good performance, another group (Self-4) was informed that an error of 4 ms or less would be considered a good trial. A third, self-control group (Self) did not receive any information about what constituted good performance. The results showed that participants of all groups asked for feedback primarily after relatively good trials. At the end of practice, both the Self-30 and Self groups demonstrated greater perceived competence and self-efficacy than the Self-4 group. The Self-30 and Self groups also performed with greater accuracy and less variability in retention and transfer (non-dominant hand) 1 day later. The present findings indicated that the typical learning benefits of self-controlled practice can be thwarted by depriving learners of the opportunity of experiencing competence through good performance. They add to the accumulating evidence of motivational influences on motor learning.

‣ Too Much of a Good Thing: Random Practice Scheduling and Self-Control of Feedback Lead to Unique but Not Additive Learning Benefits

Ali, Asif; Fawver, Bradley; Kim, Jingu; Fairbrother, Jeffrey; Janelle, Christopher M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.952683%
We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants...

‣ Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory

Sanli, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Jae T.; Bray, Steven R.; Lee, Timothy D.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.13035%
The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable...

‣ Efeitos da pr??tica autocontrolada e da percep????o de relacionamento social na aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora aqu??tica; Effects of self-controlled practice and perceived social relatedness on the learning of an aquatic motor skill.

GONZALEZ, Daniela Hollweg
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.76125%
This study investigated the effects of both self-controlled practice and the giving of information that induces a perceived affection (relatedness) on aquatic motor skill learning. Forty recreational swimmers of both sexes participated. They performed a swimming task at different intensities. The swimmers wee divided into four groups. Two groups received a self-controlled knowledge of results (KR), one having a positive feeling of relatedness (SKP) and the other a neutral feeling of relatedness (SKN). The other two groups received an equivalent KR, one having a positive feeling of relatedness (EKP) and the other a neutral feeling of relatedness (EKN). The varied perception of relatedness was also manipulated in the groups. Through the analysis of the data with ANOVA, using the statistical package SPSS, it was concluded that the SKP group obtained better results in all the phases.; O objetivo estudo foi investigar os efeitos da pr??tica autocontrolada e do fornecimento de informa????es induzindo percep????es de relacionamento social na aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora aqu??tica. Espera-se que sujeitos que pratiquem de forma autocontrolada e recebam informa????es induzindo percep????es positivas de afetividade ou relacionamento social apresentem maior aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora aqu??tica do que sujeitos que recebam pr??tica externamente controlada e/ou n??o recebam tais informa????es. Participaram como sujeitos da pesquisa 40 nadadores recreacionais de ambos os g??neros...

‣ Efeitos do uso da assist??ncia f??sica autocontrolada na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora de equil??brio em indiv??duos com comprometimento motor p??s Acidente Vascular Encef??lico; Efeitos do uso da assist??ncia f??sica autocontrolada na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora de equil??brio em indiv??duos com comprometimento motor p??s Acidente Vascular Encef??lico; Effects of self-controlled use of physical assistance in learning motor skill of balance in individuals with motor impairment after Stroke; Effects of self-controlled use of physical assistance in learning motor skill of balance in individuals with motor impairment after Stroke

YUSSEF, Shadia Mussa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.292725%
Recent studies on motor learning have shown the effectiveness of the practice that incorporates some form of self-learning and performance of a motor task (JANELLE, 1997; CHIVIACOWSKY & WULF, 2002). In the present study aims to investigate whether the benefits generated by the typical practice self-control subjects are also found in individuals with motor impairment after stroke.The subjects, 26 adults of both sexes, with injury after stroke for at least 6 months, will be divided into two groups. A group of often self-controlled feedback (self) and a yoked group, which will receive feedback in a controlled externally, similar to a group subject to a self-controlled. The task of balance with demand, is to ride a pedal for some distance in the shortest possible time. All attempts to start with the foot contralateral to hemiparesis. A timer will be used to measure the movement time (MT), ie, the time needed to walk with the pedal to the starting line finish line. The research will consist of an acquisition phase, where participants will conduct 20 trials of practice, and a retention phase, 24 hours after the acquisition phase, in which four attempts to hold practice.The subjects of the group self, will be told they can use to support the upper limb support in attempts in which they find necessary.Yoked to subjects in the group...

‣ FREQU??NCIA AUTO-CONTROLADA DE CONHECIMENTO DE RESULTADOS E TRA??O DE PERSONALIDADE NA APRENDIZAGEM DE UMA HABILIDADE MOTORA SEQ??ENCIAL; Self-controlled frequency of knowledge of results and personality trait in the learning of a sequential Motor task

KAEFER, Angelica
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Educa????o F??sica; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Educa????o F??sica; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.541147%
The relationship between extroversion-introversion personality trait and the selfcontrolled frequency of extrinsic feedback, in the learning of a sequential timing motor skill in adults was investigated in the current study. The subjects answered to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for the personality evaluation of. 56 citizens. University students of both genders had been selected through the EPQ and had then been submitted to a motor task that consisted of pressing computer keyboard keys, with specific space and timing sequence established by the experimenter. The experiment counted on phases of acquisition, retention and transfer. The retention and transfer phases were carried out 24 hours after the acquisition phase. The subjects were distributed in 4 groups, formed by the combination of the trace (extrovers??o/introversion) and frequency of KR (selfcontrolled and externally controlled). The dependent variable used in the study was the partial errors in absolute and relative timing in each block. The results indicated superior learning for the groups that had practiced in a self controlled schedule. Complementary analyses were carried out, evidencing inferior learning for the group of introverts that requested more KR at the beginning of the practice and less at the end...

‣ Effects of age on learning a spatial motor task in younger and older adults individualizing their knowledge of results schedule

Carter, Michael J.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.715127%
Self-controlled KR practice has revealed that providing participants the opportunity to control their KR is superior for motor learning compared to participants replicating the KR schedule of a self-control participant, without the choice (e.g., yoked). The purpose of the present experiment was two-fold. First, to examine the utility of a self-controlled KR schedule for learning a spatial motor task in younger and older adults and second, to determine whether a self-controlled KR schedule facilitates an increased ability to estimate one’s performance in retention and transfer. Twenty younger adults and 20 older adults practiced in either the self-control or yoked condition and were required to push and release a slide along a confined pathway using their non-dominant hand to a target distance. The retention data revealed that as a function of age, a self-controlled KR schedule facilitated superior retention performance and performance estimations in younger adults compared to their yoked counterparts.

‣ Self-care practices of adults with poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

Tan, Ming Yeong
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.84294%
This doctoral portfolio presents two separate but related research study reports on ‘self-care practices of adults with poorly controlled diabetes in Malaysia’. It is comprised of five sections. Section one which is the introduction begins with a general discussion on diabetes mellitus (henceforth referred to as diabetes), a common, growing, serious and costly health problem. The importance of self-care in the management of diabetes and its many disabling long-term complications are emphasised. This is followed by a specific discussion of diabetes in Malaysia - its prevalence, the quality of care, cost and the need for research to uncover new information to improve the care provided to Malaysians with diabetes. Section two is the report on the first research study that investigates the four cornerstones of diabetes self-care practices, namely: dietary intakes, medication adherence, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose in Malaysian adults with poorly controlled diabetes. It also explores the factors that influence these self-care practices. Section three is the report on the second research study that assessed the efficacy of an out-patient diabetes educational program based on a self-efficacy theoretical approach to improve firstly...

‣ A randomized trial to reduce the prevalence of depression and self-harm behavior in older primary care patients

Almeida, O.; Pirkis, J.; Kerse, N.; Sim, M.; Flicker, L.; Snowdon, J.; Draper, B.; Byrne, G.; Goldney, R.; Lautenschlager, N.; Stocks, N.; Alfonso, H.; Pfaff, J.
Fonte: Annals of Family Medicine, Inc. Publicador: Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.764714%
PURPOSE: We wanted to determine whether an educational intervention targeting general practitioners reduces the 2-year prevalence of depression and self-harm behavior among their older patients. METHODS: Our study was a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between July 2005 and June 2008. We recruited 373 Australian general practitioners and 21,762 of their patients aged 60 years or older. The intervention consisted of a practice audit with personalized automated audit feedback, printed educational material, and 6 monthly educational newsletters delivered over a period of 2 years. Control physicians completed a practice audit but did not receive individualized feedback. They also received 6 monthly newsletters describing the progress of the study, but they were not offered access to the educational material about screening, diagnosis and management of depression, and suicide behavior in later life. The primary outcome was a composite measure of clinically signifi cant depression (Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10) or self-harm behavior (suicide thoughts or attempt during the previous 12 months). Information about the outcomes of interest was collected at the baseline assessment and again after 12 and 24 months. We used logistic regression models to estimate the effect of the intervention in a complete case analysis and intention-to-treat analysis by imputed chain equations (primary analysis). RESULTS: Older adults treated by general practitioners assigned to the intervention experienced a 10% (95% CI...

‣ Risk of hospitalization for stroke associated with antipsychotic use in the elderly: A self-controlled case series

Pratt, N.; Roughead, E.; Ramsay, E.; Salter, A.; Ryan, P.
Fonte: Adis International Ltd Publicador: Adis International Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.774434%
Background: Antipsychotics are commonly used in the elderly despite a lack of safety data from randomized trials, particularly for the typical antipsychotics. Observational studies have investigated the association between antipsychotics and stroke but results vary, which may be due to lack of control for unmeasured confounding. Objective: To estimate the risk of hospitalization for stroke in elderly users of antipsychotics. Study Design and Setting: Using the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs administrative claims dataset we utilized a self-controlled case series design to risk-adjust for potential unmeasured confounding. Risk periods prior to antipsychotic initiation were also included to search for evidence of confounding by indication. Unexposed patients were included to adjust for the increasing incidence of hospitalization for stroke with age. Results: There were 10638 patients aged ≥65 years with at least one hospitalization for stroke identified during the 4-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. Of these, 514 patients were initiated on typical anti-psychotics and 564 patients were initiated on atypical antipsychotics. Hospitalization for stroke was increased in the first week after initiation of a typical antipsychotic (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.3; 95% CI 1.3...

‣ Medication prescribing in the elderly and the effect on health related outcomes: an investigation of bias in observational studies using computerised claims databases.

Pratt, Nicole
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.89521%
Background: This thesis explores the effects of medication prescribing on patient outcomes in an ageing population, specifically, the population of Australian veterans. The primary source of data is the computerised administrative claims database maintained by the Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs. This database is a valuable resource yet knowledge about how these data can be analysed and interpreted to study the effects of medicine use in the Australian setting is limited. An important source of bias in observational studies relating medication prescribing to health outcomes arises from confounding by the reason for prescription, or confounding by indication. The extent to which traditional pharmacoepidemiological studies utilising administrative claims databases can deal with confounding is limited as these data sources often lack information on many potentially important confounders, such as clinical information, life style factors and disease severity. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of two methods, developed to overcome possible bias in observational studies due to unmeasured confounding; instrumental variable analysis and the self-controlled case-series design. To illustrate how these techniques may be used to overcome confounding...

‣ General practice based intervention to prevent repeat episodes of deliberate self harm: cluster randomised controlled trial

Bennewith, O.; Stocks, N.; Gunnell, D.; Peters, T.; Evans, M.; Sharp, D.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.985576%
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of an intervention based in general practice on the incidence of repeat episodes of deliberate self harm. Design: Cluster randomised controlled trial in which 98 general practices were assigned in equal numbers to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised a letter from the general practitioner inviting the patient to consult, and guidelines on assessment and management of deliberate self harm for the general practitioner to use in consultations. Control patients received usual general practitioner care. Setting: General practices within Avon, Wiltshire, and Somerset Health Authorities, whose patients lived within the catchment area of four general hospitals in Bristol and Bath. Participants: 1932 patients registered with the study practices who had attended accident and emergency departments at one of the four hospitals after an episode of deliberate self harm. Main outcome measures: Primary outcome was occurrence of a repeat episode of deliberate self harm in the 12 months after the index episode. Secondary outcomes were number of repeat episodes and time to first repeat. Results: The incidence of repeat episodes of deliberate self harm was not significantly different for patients in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio 1.2...

‣ Number of options in a movement sequence affects learners' behavior in a self-controlled practice condition

Bastos, Flavio Henrique; Tani, Go; Araújo, Ulysses Okada de; Walter, Cinthya; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele
Fonte: AMMONS SCIENTIFIC, LTD Publicador: AMMONS SCIENTIFIC, LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.08423%
Self controlling practice implies a process of decision making which suggests that the options in a self controlled practice condition could affect learners The number of task components with no fixed position in a movement sequence may affect the (Nay learners self control their practice A 200 cm coincident timing track with 90 light emitting diodes (LEDs)-the first and the last LEDs being the warning and the target lights respectively was set so that the apparent speed of the light along the track was 1 33 m/sec Participants were required to touch six sensors sequentially the last one coincidently with the lighting of the tar get light (timing task) Group 1 (n=55) had only one constraint and were instructed to touch the sensors in any order except for the last sensor which had to be the one positioned close to the target light Group 2 (n=53) had three constraints the first two and the last sensor to be touched Both groups practiced the task until timing error was less than 30 msec on three consecutive trials There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the number of trials needed to reach the performance criterion but (a) participants in Group 2 created fewer sequences corn pared to Group 1 and (b) were more likely to use the same sequence throughout the learning process The number of options for a movement sequence affected the way learners self-controlled their practice but had no effect on the amount of practice to reach criterion performance.

‣ Effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of ball throwing in rhythmic gymnastics; Efeitos do "feedback" autocontrolado na aprendizagem do lançamento da bola da ginástica rítmica

Lemos, Anielle; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Ávila, Luciana Toaldo Gentilini; Drews, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.80458%
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled frequency of feedback on the learning of ball throwing in rhythmic gymnastics. 24 children, ranging from 7 to 10-years old participated in the study, divided into two groups in relation to the different feedback conditions: self-controlled and externally controlled (yoked). The study consisted of a practice phase and a retention test. The results of a questionnaire showed that the majority of participants of the self-control group requested feedback mainly after good trials, while participants of the yoked group indicated that they had received feedback on the trials they desired. No differences were found regarding performance or learning. We concluded that self-controlled feedback frequencies are as effective as externally controlled feedback frequencies for the learning of rhythmic gymnastics ball throwing in children.; O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos da frequência autocontrolada de "feedback" na aprendizagem do lançamento da bola da ginástica rítmica. A amostra foi constituída de 24 crianças, de sete a 10 anos de idade, distribuídas em dois grupos em relação aos diferentes tipos de condições de "feedback": autocontrolado e externamente controlado. O estudo foi composto de uma fase de prática e um teste de retenção. Os resultados de um questionário revelaram que a maioria dos participantes do grupo autocontrolado solicitou "feedback" principalmente após as boas tentativas de prática...