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‣ Small and Medium Enterprises : A Cross-Country Analysis with a New Data Set

Ardic, Oya Pinar; Mylenko, Nataliya; Saltane, Valentina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, there has been an increased interest in the role of small and medium enterprises in job creation and economic growth. However the lack of consistent indicators at the country level restricts extensive cross-country analyses of lending to small and medium enterprises. This paper introduces a new dataset to fill this gap in the small and medium enterprise data landscape. In addition, it provides the first set of results of analyses with this new dataset, predicting the global small and medium enterprise lending volume to be $10 trillion. The bulk of this volume, 70 percent, is in high-income countries. On average, small and medium enterprise loans constitute 13 percent of gross domestic product in developed countries and 3 percent in developing countries. Note that although a unique small and medium enterprise definition does not exist, differences in definitions across countries are not statistically significant in explaining the differences in small and medium enterprise lending volumes.

‣ Bank Lending to Small and Medium Enterprises : The Republic of Serbia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report presents findings of a study of Bank lending to small and medium enterprises (SME) in Serbia. The study uses methodology developed by the Bank and already used in a number of studies in South America. The study is based on answers to standard questionnaires and detailed on-site interviews with eight banks. The interviewed banks are the most active in SME lending in Serbia and account for about 70 percent of the total market. Banks are currently offering a fairly broad range of both tailored and standardized products and are increasingly flexible with product pricing. This includes checking, savings and time deposit accounts; export and import loans; overdrafts for working capital and investment loans; business credit cards; various types of payment services; Internet and phone banking. The report is organized as follows: section two describes the banking sector and markets in Serbia, reviews definition of SMEs and provides key characteristics of the SME finance market in Serbia. Section three discusses details of SME access to finance. It describes the drivers and obstacles...

‣ Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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121.4168%
This study is to provide the Government of Chile with a review of the portfolio of small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development programs and the institutions that provide them, leading to recommendations to improve the effectiveness of a streamlined portfolio. This emphasis is important for economic reasons, given the sectors role in employment, and the possibility of improving its integration into the national economy and export-oriented production and marketing chains. However, this analysis also identifies areas where SMEs can more effectively leverage government programs to become more productive, efficient, and innovative. The analysis is based on interviews with key policymakers, managers and other staff of the government institutions responsible for most of the programs secondary reports, and discussions with small business managers, business association leaders, academicians and financial intermediaries. The report is organized as follows: The first chapter reviews the evolution of the macroeconomic and business environment in Chile...

‣ Supporting Access to Finance for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises with Partial Credit Guarantees : The Moroccan Experience

Aziz, Teymour Abdel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
120.58646%
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) represent an important pillar of the Moroccan economy. Estimates indicate they account for more than 90 percent of all enterprises and contribute to 21.6 percent of total employment. These numbers only reflect the statistics of the formal economy: Their contribution to the real economy is significantly higher if the economic activity of the informal sector were to be included. Most MSMEs are in the services sector, followed by manufacturing and trade. The Moroccan government has acknowledged the importance of MSMEs for the national economy and has developed a number of initiatives aimed at improving the enabling environment for these firms. A new national strategy aimed at promoting the development of small enterprises was elaborated in 2011, which includes a simplified taxation system, adapted social charges, extended social security coverage, and specific banking products.

‣ Decentralized Energy Services to Fight Poverty : Outcome Driven Engagement of Small and Medium-size Enterprises in the Provision of Energy Services in IDA Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
110.56276%
The Department for International Development (DFID)-Funded Energy Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Program was created to support SMEs by helping countries unblock the factors that prevent their potential in the delivery of energy services. With thirteen energy projects in twelve countries and one regional program in Africa, the implementation of the program started considerably slower than expected but has demonstrated potential to make an impact in a relatively neglected area of delivering energy services to the poor. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy affects as much as 90 percent of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuel-wood and agricultural residues, pose economic, environmental, and health threats. Uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Energy SME program focused on off-grid electrification and biomass use as many communities and households that have yet to be electrified are relatively isolated...

‣ Small and Medium Enterprises, Growth, and Poverty : Cross-Country Evidence

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors explore the relationship between the relative size of the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector, economic growth, and poverty using a new database on the share of SME labor in the total manufacturing labor force. Using a sample of 76 countries, they find a strong association between the importance of SMEs and GDP per capita growth. This relationship, however, is not robust to controlling for simultaneity bias. So, while a large SME sector is characteristic of successful economies, the data fail to support the hypothesis that SMEs exert a causal impact on growth. Furthermore, the authors find no evidence that SMEs reduce poverty. Finally, they find qualified evidence that the overall business environment facing both large and small firms-as measured by the ease of firm entry and exit, sound property rights, and contract enforcement-influences economic growth.

‣ Small and Medium Enterprises across the Globe : A New Database

Ayyagari, Meghana; Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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131.52769%
This paper describes a new cross-country database on the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This database is unique in that it presents consistent and comparable information on the contribution of the SME sector to total employment and GDP across different countries. The dataset improves on existing publicly available datasets on several grounds. First, it extends coverage to a broader set of developing and industrial economies. Second, it provides information on the contribution of the SME sector using a uniform definition of SMEs across different countries, allowing for consistent cross-country comparisons. Third, while we follow the traditional definition of the SME sector as being part of the formal sector, the new database also includes the size of the SME sector relative to the informal sector. This paper describes the sources and the construction of the different indicators, presents descriptive statistics, and explores correlations with other socioeconomic variables.

‣ Closing the Credit Gap for Formal and Informal Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Stein, Peer; Ardic, Oya Pinar; Hommes, Martin
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Job creation and economic growth through private sector development have become primary areas of focus for policy makers around the world in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Recent evidence points to the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in providing employment across countries. In addition to employing the largest number of people in aggregate, SMEs generate the most new jobs. But SMEs also face many challenges in day-to-day operations and to grow. This note is a report back on the state of the credit gap for MSMEs with this new and updated data, while providing additional focus on the sizable informal enterprise sector in the developing world. In addition, this report examines various operational challenges that small and informal firms face, and some formalization obstacles they often cite as the primary reasons for not registering their business. A framework to differentiate the informal sector is offered, with the intention of segmenting the vast landscape of informal firms some of which exist today due to opportunistic behavior...

‣ Access to Credit among Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Alper, Oya; Hommes, Martin
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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In 2010, IFC conducted a study to estimate the number of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the world, and to determine the degree of access to credit and use of deposit accounts for formal and informal MSMEs. The study used primarily data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys (ES). In 2011 the data was revisited as new enterprise surveys became available. The resulting database, IFC Enterprise Finance Gap Database, covers 177 countries. This fact sheet summarizes and highlights the key data points available for the formal micro, formal small and medium enterprises (SME), and the aggregated formal and informal MSME sectors.

‣ Competitive Small and Medium Enterprises : A Diagnostic to Help Design Smart SME Policy

Tewari, Parth S.; Skilling, David; Kumar, Pranav; Wu, Zack
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a lion's share of the enterprises in most economies and are also thought to be an engine of new growth and innovation. The focus of this paper is to take the insights on SME mix and segments to practical implications for developing countries around the world. The paper attempts to do this by providing a diagnostic approach that client countries and regions can use to assess their SME sectors and tease out firms' contribution to the local economy. Guidelines and specific examples of policies based on the insights in the paper have been provided. Lastly, the paper includes some areas of future research that are required on the subject. This paper proceeds in three steps. The first is to better understand the economic contribution of SMEs. This analysis complements the existing policy focus and takes it further to direct attention to a more specific set of growth drivers to enable the firms that matter disproportionately, the competitive SMEs, while remaining inclusive and avoiding market distortion. The second step is to develop a perspective on how best to complement the policy focus on competitive SMEs with that on larger firms. Policy-makers need to structure policy appropriately to develop a healthy eco-system of firms. The third step is to make this analysis actionable by policy-makers. This paper provides an initial SME policy diagnostic. A better understanding of how to encourage SME growth has the potential to make a substantial contribution to national economic performance.

‣ Argentina - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Argentina : A Potential Engine for Economic Growth and Employment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
111.37898%
The convertibility law, and economic liberalization in the early 1990s in Argentina, brought about dramatic changes in economic performance. To adjust to increasing globalization, and a series of external shocks, small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) were confronted with the task of developing business strategies to secure their niches in the new arena. However, such strategies were obstructed by constraints in the legal, and economic framework, weak information and technology aspects, and insufficient access to finance. The report builds on the following issues: 1) the critical aspect of the SME sector to the Argentine economy, both from a growth/efficiency, and equity standpoint; yet on average, SMEs have failed to attain their potential; 2) the highly heterogeneous configuration, particular organizational, and technological characteristics of SMEs; 3) the high degree of institutional rigidity of the country's business environment; 4) the need to develop policy actions to deepen financial markets for SMEs; 5) the significant knowledge constraints - by and large...

‣ SME Solutions Center—Kenya : Developing Alternative Financing Solutions for Small and Medium Enterprises

Maina, Kiragu; Butoyi, Scholastica; Michira, Nkatha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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141.1149%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Africa have been hailed as the engine of economic growth. They are at the heart of developing countries' entrepreneurship, the source of most new employment and productive investment, and the basis for growth and poverty reduction. Despite the economic potential of SMEs, they face severe constraints related to access to resources, finance, and services, as well as procedural barriers all of which limit their potential to invest, innovate, and improve productivity and sustainability. To address these constraints, International Finance Corporation (IFC) developed the SME Solutions Centre (SSC) Pilot Program in Kenya. The SSC value proposition centers on four key pillars: access to finance, access to advisory services/technical assistance (now SME management solutions), access to reliable market information, and support for an enhanced business enabling environment. This smart lesson details the lessons learned from the SSC's experience with the access to finance pillar.

‣ Diretrizes de apoio ao esforço de inovação tecnológica no desenvolvimento de produtos em pequenas e médias empresas industriais.; Guidelines of support for the technological innovation effort in the products development in small and medium industrial enterprises.

Oliveira, Antonio Carlos de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2007 Português
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Este trabalho aborda a gestão do desenvolvimento de produtos e a inovação tecnológica, amplamente aceitos como um meio de assegurar sobrevivência aos negócios. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica identificando os diferentes fatores que os influenciam. Descreve-se uma pesquisa, aplicada em 2004, que avaliou as metodologias de desenvolvimento de produtos utilizadas em pequenas e médias empresas industriais (PME\'s), em uma região específica do estado de São Paulo, pertencentes ao setor metal-mecânico da economia brasileira e que adotou como instrumento de coleta de dados um questionário, dividido por assuntos, projetado e aplicado em entrevistas presenciais em uma amostra de 32 empresas. Este trabalho propõe e ordena um conjunto de diretrizes de apoio ao esforço de inovação tecnológica em PME\'s industriais, evidenciadas em uma ferramenta para o diagnóstico do estágio de amadurecimento, que se fundamentada na categorização das empresas pesquisadas, segundo os fatores de inovação tecnológica abordados por diversos autores. O método foi validado pela análise da implantação de diretrizes, em épocas distintas, em três empresas participantes da pesquisa.; This work approaches the product development management and technological innovation...

‣ Os determinantes na escolha dos auditores nas pequenas e medias empresas

Domingos, Sérgio Cláudio Cruz
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
110.26753%
Mestrado em Contabilidade, Fiscalidade e Finanças Empresariais; A literatura apresenta uma diversidade de estudos que identificam alguns factores determinantes na escolha dos auditores e o papel desempenhado por estes profissionais nas empresas. No entanto, existe uma carência de estudos que adoptem uma perspectiva holística sobre esta matéria, com base em amostras constituídas por Pequenas e Médias Empresas (PME). O presente estudo tem como objectivos identificar quais os factores determinantes para a escolha do auditor nas PME portuguesas e qual o seu papel. Em Portugal, as PME têm um papel de extrema relevância no tecido empresarial, sendo as principais criadoras de emprego, grande maioria do volume de negócios e de valor acrescentado na economia portuguesa. A investigação incidiu sobre uma amostra constituída por 131 PME portuguesas, tendo parte dos dados sido recolhidos através de um inquérito. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que os factores tidos como mais importantes na escolha da empresa de auditoria são o conhecimento da área fiscal, o conhecimento de área de contabilidade e o conhecimento em auditoria. Os inquiridos referem também que a auditoria contribui para a credibilização da informação económico-financeira prestada pelas empresas. Por último...

‣ Do information and communication technology access and innovation increase outsourcing in small and medium enterprises?

Alderete,Maria Veronica
Fonte: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP Publicador: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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In this paper we present an econometric model to determine whether an SME (Small and Medium Sized Enterprise)'s probability of outsourcing depends on their levels of innovation and information and communication technology use. The predictions of the econometric model are tested by means of a LOGIT model using a cross section sample of an Argentinean SME for the year 2006. The model predicts that the level of innovation of an SME will significantly influence its probability of outsourcing. Besides, it stresses the negative incidence of the information and communication technologies (ICT) access on the outsourcing decision.

‣ Do Information and Communication Technology access and innovation increase outsourcing in Small and Medium Enterprises?

Alderete, Maria Veronica
Fonte: TECSI FEA USP Publicador: TECSI FEA USP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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In this paper we present an econometric model to determine whether a SME (Small and Medium Sized Enterprise)'s  probability of outsourcing depends on their levels of innovation and information and communication technology use. The predictions of the econometric model are tested by means of a LOGIT model using a cross section simple of an Argentinean SME for the year 2006. The  model predicts that the level of  innovation of a SME will significantly  influence its probability of  outsourcing. Besides, it stresses the negative incidence of the information and communication technologies (ICT) access on the outsourcing decision.; Fil: Alderete, Maria Veronica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET - Bahia Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina; Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Economia; Argentina;

‣ OPEN INNOVATION AS AN ELEMENT OF ANALYSIS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRIES. CASE ENGINEERING SECTOR DOI:10.5773/rai.v8i2.595; LA INNOVACIÓN ABIERTA COMO ELEMENTO DE ANÁLISIS EN LAS PEQUEÑAS Y MEDIANAS INDUSTRIAS. CASO SECTOR METALMECÁNICO DOI:10.5773/rai.v8i2.595

Teran, Anabel; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Bucci Peluso, Nunziatina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2011 Português
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Open innovation is based on the idea that companies are no longer capable of addressing the whole process of innovation through their own resources. It is a paradigm that assumes that organizations can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas. The objective of this research was to identify management practices in the process of open innovation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in emerging economies. The methodology was based on field research and the data collection technique used was the interview, based on a questionnaire (focusing on the Spanish UNE 166002 standards), whose categories were: managerial commitment, focus on stakeholders, human resources and research, and development and innovation. Thirty companies participated in this study, which concluded that a key element for the incorporation of open innovation is managerial commitment to the industrial sector. This has been shown to improve communication channels with the surroundings, and to strengthen the innovation culture through the promotion of teamwork, motivation and the training of human resources as well as through the consideration of both internal and external sources.; La innovación abierta parte de la idea de que las empresas ya no son capaces de abordar todo el proceso de esta por sus propios medios y es un paradigma que asume que las organizaciones pueden y deben usar ideas externas...

‣ Implementing Environmentally Sustainable Practices at Small and Medium Enterprises

Friedlander, Minna; Meer, Vanessa; Stenclova, Sona
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 1558118 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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North Carolina is challenged to foster economic development while protecting environmental assets under regulatory and legislative mandate. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the major economic drivers in North Carolina, and in the United States as a whole, but existing support networks for small emterprises looking to pursue sustainable practices are insufficient. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to ensure that its regulations do not unreasonably burden SMEs. The EPA is investigating ways that it can assist SMEs that are voluntarily trying to improve their environmental stewardship, specifically looking at the feasibility and appropriateness of using environmental management systems (EMSs) and peer-to-peer mentoring to help small businesses address their corporate practices. This report provides the results of the first phase of work for the EPA. Analysis of qualitative data from SMEs in two North Carolina cities shows that barriers and motivations for sustainable behavior in small organizations are different than those for larger entities. Our analysis and recommendations for tools to help SMEs improve their environmental footprints were aided by identifying and analyzing the motivations that SMEs cite for implementing sustainable practices. SMEs need a simple and flexible framework for developing and implementing EMSs. Introducing SMEs to the newly-developed “EMS Guide for SME” tool may help smaller enterprises at different level of EMS potential incorporate an informal environmental management system into their daily business operations. The EMS Guide for SME separates SMEs into three categories based on their EMS development potential and provides specific guidance for entities across the potential range. This will help organizations customize their environmental analysis and procedures to fit their capabilities...

‣ How Small and Medium Enterprises in North Carolina Respond to Supply Chain Pressure for Sustainable Practices

Fritze, Kevin William
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
119.67744%

More companies are beginning to manage the environmental impacts of their supply chain in addition to their own operations. Supply chain pressure has been shown to be generally effective at increasing practices with lower environmental practices (sustainable practices) in suppliers. However, questions have been raised about exactly how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in supply chains respond to pressure from business customers for sustainable practices and what factors influence their response. This study develops a framework for understanding what factors influence how SMEs respond to a variety of drivers of sustainability, which is then adapted to guide an empirical study of how SMEs respond to supply chain pressure for sustainable practices. A survey of 100 companies across North Carolina found suppliers generally comply with or exceed requirements from business customers. The role of supply chain pressure in suppliers' decisions to exceed requirements needs further research. The study also found evidence that supply chain pressure can act as a ceiling on what practices companies adopt by causing suppliers to abandon practices that exceeded customer requirements and were not recognized or rewarded. Care needs to be taken in designing supply chain management strategies to avoid supply chain pressure being counterproductive at increasing proactive SME sustainability.

; Thesis

‣ Estratégia de pequenas e médias empresas: uma revisão; Estrategia de pequeñas y medianas empresas: una revisión; Small and medium enterprise strategy: a review of literature

Lima, Edmilson
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2010 Português
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Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma revisão de literatura que destaca importantes características da evolução do campo de estudos da estratégia de pequenas e médias empresas (PME), além de identificar necessidades de pesquisa e sugerir temas para novos estudos. A abordagem metodológica utilizada é a bibliográfica. O artigo trata de um conjunto de trabalhos baseados na perspectiva tradicional e normativa (formada pelas abordagens do desenho estratégico, do planejamento formal e do posicionamento) em estratégia de PME, apontando várias de suas contribuições e limitações. Trata, também, da abordagem descritiva, dando ênfase aos trabalhos dessa abordagem que enfocam a aprendizagem e o conceito de visão. Esses trabalhos são particularmente relevantes por contrabalançar e complementar a ênfase nos procedimentos lineares e racionais típicos da perspectiva tradicional, que é dominante. Além da descrição de elementos de destaque da evolução das pesquisas acadêmicas sobre a estratégia de PME, os resultados deste estudo incluem a identificação de necessidades de pesquisa relativas ao estudo descritivo dos processos estratégicos nas PME. É especialmente merecedora de atenção a falta de estudos sobre as equipes de direção em estratégia de PME. Indo além da costumeira discussão sobre processo versus conteúdo em estratégia...