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‣ Avaliação de solventes de extração por ultrassom usando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para a determinação de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em solos contaminados; Evaluation of solvent extraction by ultrasound by using high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils

COTTA, Jussara Aparecida Oliveira; REZENDE, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; LANDGRAF, Maria Diva
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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67.947563%
A method using ultrasonication extraction for the determination of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), selected by the USEPA and NIOSH as "consent decree" priority pollutants, in soil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was studied. Separation and detection were completed in 20 min with a C18 columm, acetonitrile-water gradient elution and ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence detections. The detection limits, for a 10 µL of solution injection, were less than 9,917 ng/g in UV detection and less than 1,866 ng/g in fluorescence detection. Several organic solvents were tested for extraction of the 17 PAHs from soils. Acetone was the best solvent among the three solvents tested, and the order of the extraction efficiencies was: acetone>methanol>acetonitrile. Ultrasonication using acetone as solvent extraction was used to evaluate the biodegradation of those compounds in contaminated soil during a vermicomposting process.

‣ Design, construction and evaluation of a simple pressurized solvent extraction system

PINTO, J. S. S.; LANÇAS, F. M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.068594%
This work describes the construction and testing of a simple pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) system. A mixture of acetone:water (80:20), 80 ºC and 103.5 bar, was used to extract two herbicides (Diuron and Bromacil) from a sample of polluted soil, followed by identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The system was also used to extract soybean oil (70 ºC and 69 bar) using pentane. The extracted oil was weighed and characterized through the fatty acid methyl ester analysis (myristic (< 0.3%), palmitic (16.3%), stearic (2.8%), oleic (24.5%), linoleic (46.3%), linolenic (9.6%), araquidic (0.3%), gadoleic (< 0.3%), and behenic (0.3%) acids) using high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID). PSE results were compared with those obtained using classical procedures: Soxhlet extraction for the soybean oil and solid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SLE-SPE) for the herbicides. The results showed: 21.25 ± 0.36% (m/m) of oil in the soybeans using the PSE system and 21.55 ± 0.65% (m/m) using the soxhlet extraction system; extraction efficiency (recovery) of herbicides Diuron and Bromacil of 88.7 ± 4.5% and 106.6 ± 8.1%...

‣ Effects of the extraction conditions on the yield and composition of rice bran oil extracted with ethanol-A response surface approach

Oliveira, Ramon; Oliveira, Vinicius; Aracava, Keila Kazue; Rodrigues, Christianne Elisabete da Costa
Fonte: INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS; RUGBY Publicador: INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS; RUGBY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Rice bran oil was obtained from rice bran by solvent extraction using ethanol. The influence of process variables, solvent hydration (0-24% of water, on mass basis), temperature (60-90 degrees C), solvent-to-rice bran mass ratio (2.5:1 to 4.5:1) and stirrer speed (100-250 rpm) were analysed using the response surface methodology. The extraction yield was highly affected by the solvent water content, and it varied from 8.56 to 20.05 g of oil/100 g of fresh rice bran (or 42.7-99.9% of the total oil available) depending on the experimental conditions. It was observed that oryzanol and tocols behave in different ways during the extraction process. A larger amount of tocols is extracted from the solid matrix in relation to gamma-oryzanol. It was possible to obtain values from 123 to 271 mg of tocols/kg of fresh rice bran and 1527 to 4164 mg of oryzanol/kg of fresh rice bran, indicating that it is feasible to obtain enriched oil when this renewable solvent is used. No differences in the chemical composition of the extracted oils were observed when compared to the data cited in the literature. (C) 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) [2006/00565-4...

‣ Uso da extração acelerada por solvente (ASE) para determinação cromatográfica de analitos de cocaína e tetraidrocanabinol em amostras de mecônio; Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for chromatographic analysis of cocaine and tetrahydrocannabinol analytes in meconium samples

Mantovani, Cínthia de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2014 Português
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O consumo de drogas de abuso é grave problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo. No Brasil observa-se aumento no número de usuárias em idade fértil, levando a crescente preocupação com relação à exposição fetal. Efeitos deletérios como diminuição do peso e crescimento fetal, parto prematuro, déficits neurológicos e comportamentais estão associados ao uso de cocaína e cannabis durante a gestação. Portanto, é importante obter informações acerca do consumo de drogas durante a gravidez, permitindo intervenções médicas e psicológicas adequadas. Os relatos fornecidos pelas gestantes são relevantes, porém muitas vezes resultam em dados subestimados devido à omissão de informações por medo de ações punitivas. Desta forma, a confirmação por meio de análises toxicológicas em amostras biológicas se faz necessária. O mecônio, primeiras fezes do recém-nascido, tem sido proposto como matriz adequada para avaliação da exposição fetal, pois apresenta coleta não invasiva, fácil obtenção e fornece informações de longo prazo (2º e 3º trimestre de gestação). Entretanto, é uma matriz complexa, exigindo diversas etapas de purificação para posterior análise. No presente trabalho, métodos analíticos foram desenvolvidos visando à detecção dos biomarcadores da exposição fetal à cocaína e ao tetraidrocanabinol em amostras de mecônio por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS). Para ambos os métodos...

‣ Obtenção de saponinas de raízes de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata) por extração dinâmica a baixa pressão assistida por ultrassom; Obtaining saponins from Brazilian ginseng roots (Pfaffia glomerata) by dynamic low-pressure solvent extraction assisted by ultrasound

Renata Vardanega
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.14321%
Espécies do gênero Pfaffia (Amaranthaceae) têm sido comercializadas como substitutas para Panax (ginseng, Araliaceae) e em função da morfologia similar de suas raízes são popularmente conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro. Dentre as espécies de Pfaffia conhecidas, a Pfaffia glomerata é a mais importante, uma vez que esta é a única que possui o composto ?-ecdisona, o qual representa a saponina de maior interesse desta planta, devido a seus efeitos terapêuticos. Atualmente, cápsulas contendo extratos de P. glomerata são comercializadas sob indicação de auxiliar da memória e tônico. Além destas indicações, as raízes desta planta apresentam teores expressivos de saponinas (10-17%), o que faz com que o extrato das raízes de P. glomerata apresente um grande potencial para aplicação como emulsificante/surfactante. Comercialmente, extratos de P. glomerata são obtidos por percolação em leito fixo, no entanto, com baixos rendimentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter um extrato de ginseng brasileiro (P. glomerata) rico em saponinas empregando o processo de extração por percolação a baixa pressão, o qual é um processo de extração já estabelecido comercialmente, sob a assistência do ultrassom, que vem se destacando como uma técnica emergente na melhoria de processos de extração. Deste modo...

‣ Solvent extraction aplied to the recovery of heavy metals from galvanic sludges

Silva, João Eudes da; Paiva, A. P.; Soares, Delfim; Labrincha, J. A.; Castro, F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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In this study, a hydrometallurgical treatment involving the solvent extraction and recovery of some heavy metals from a sulphuric acid leach solution of galvanic sludge, using di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and bis-(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), both diluted in kerosene, has been investigated. The preliminary tests revealed the necessity to remove other metal species than zinc and nickel, contained in the leach solution, and therefore, processes to cement copper and precipitate chromium were then applied to finally obtain a Zn and Ni pregnant solution prior to solvent extraction. For the experimental conditions studied, Cyanex 272 showed a good recovery of Zn after the stripping stage using H2SO4, but D2EHPA effectively promoted a higher Zn extraction than Cyanex 272 did. The dependence of the solvent extraction method on variables such as pH, contact time and concentration of extractant, as well as the effect of different concentrations of sulphuric acid on stripping, are discussed. The discussion also includes the previous conditions developed to separate the main interfering metallic species from the leach solution in order to improve the extraction and recovery of zinc by solvent extraction. The final objective has been to achieve a solution as pure as possible to recover nickel sulphate.; Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de um processo metalúrgico para a extracção de metais a partir de lamas galvânicas...

‣ The solvent extraction performance of N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dibutylmalonamide towards platinum and palladium in chloride media

Paiva, A. P.; Carvalho, G. I.; Costa, M. Clara; Costa, Ana M. Rosa da; Nogueira, C. A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The solvent extraction performance of N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dibutylmalonamide (DMDBMA) in 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) towards platinum(IV) and palladium(II) in hydrochloric acid media was systematically evaluated. Pt(IV) extraction (%E) increases with the HCl concentration in the aqueous phases, being always higher than 72%, whereas Pd(II) extraction decreases from 65% at 1 M HCl to 22% at 8 M HCl. Several stripping agents for the two metals were tested: Pt(IV) is successfully recovered by a 1 M sodium thiosulfate solution, whereas the best result for Pd(II) was achieved with 0.1Mthiourea in 1MHCl. The loading capacity of DMDBMA for Pt(IV) is high, and data obtained from successive extraction-stripping cycles suggest a good DMDBMA stability pattern. Attempts to replace 1,2-DCE by more environmentally-friendly diluents showed, in general, worse %E for Pt(IV). The dependence of Pt(IV) distribution coefficients on DMDBMA and chloride ion concentrations, as well as on acidity, are the basis of a proposal for the composition of Pt(IV) extracted species.

‣ Design, construction and evaluation of a simple pressurized solvent extraction system

Pinto,J. S. S.; Lanças,F. M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.068594%
This work describes the construction and testing of a simple pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) system. A mixture of acetone:water (80:20), 80 ºC and 103.5 bar, was used to extract two herbicides (Diuron and Bromacil) from a sample of polluted soil, followed by identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The system was also used to extract soybean oil (70 ºC and 69 bar) using pentane. The extracted oil was weighed and characterized through the fatty acid methyl ester analysis (myristic (< 0.3%), palmitic (16.3%), stearic (2.8%), oleic (24.5%), linoleic (46.3%), linolenic (9.6%), araquidic (0.3%), gadoleic (< 0.3%), and behenic (0.3%) acids) using high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID). PSE results were compared with those obtained using classical procedures: Soxhlet extraction for the soybean oil and solid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SLE-SPE) for the herbicides. The results showed: 21.25 ± 0.36% (m/m) of oil in the soybeans using the PSE system and 21.55 ± 0.65% (m/m) using the soxhlet extraction system; extraction efficiency (recovery) of herbicides Diuron and Bromacil of 88.7 ± 4.5% and 106.6 ± 8.1%...

‣ Multivariate optimization of pressurized solvent extraction of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates from biosolids

Maricán,Adolfo; Ahumada,Inés; Richter,Pablo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
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In this study, a methodology for pressurized solvent extraction of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) from biosolids was optimized by utilizing a biosolid natively containing these compounds at a high concentration level. Optimization of the extraction was carried out through a multivariate analysis experimental design with a central composite design (CCD) producing the following optimum values for the variables: temperature of 129 ºC, extraction time per cycle of 34 min in two cycles and acetone as extraction solvent. Upon comparison with Soxhlet extraction, this methodology turned out to be more efficient for the extraction of APEOs and of similar efficiency for APs. On the other hand, the methodology is considerably faster than Soxhlet and uses a smaller amount of extraction solvent. Concentrations of 204 ± 20 and 1053 ± 23 mg kg-1 for nonylphenol and nonylphenol-ethoxylate, respectively, were determined in the biosolid sample assayed.

‣ Integrated pressurized solvent extraction-cleanup for the rapid determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in meat samples

Toledo-Neira,Carla; Enríquez,Pedro; Richter,Pablo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2013 Português
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68.15354%
A rapid and efficient method based on the integration of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) with solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography system with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Six indicators and twelve dioxin-like PCBs were selected as analytes. This method is based on the integration of solvent extraction and cleanup processes inside a pressurized stainless steel cell. The optimum extraction conditions were 6 min of extraction at 70 °C and two cycles of extraction using hexane/methylene chloride (1:1, v/v) as the extraction solvent. Silica gel acidified with sulfuric acid was used for integrated cleanup of the organic extract. This method allows a significant reduction in extraction time and solvent consumption. Repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 3 to 6%, and recoveries for concentration of 20 ng g-1 was ranged between 71 to 104% .The limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.03 to 0.29 ng g-1 and 0.1 to 0.97 ng g-1 respectively. The linear range was between 5 and 100 ng g-1 . Finally this new method was applied to samples of chicken and pork.

‣ Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

Fortes,M.C.B.; Martins,A.H.; Benedetto,J.S.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
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This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

‣ Liquid-liquid extraction and adsorption on solid surfaces applied to used lubricant oils recovery

Assunção Filho,J. L.; Moura,L. G. M.; Ramos,A. C. S.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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57.87488%
In this work, the recovery of base oils from waste lubricants following the steps of solvent extraction, adsorption on solids and solvent removal by evaporation was evaluated. In the step of solvent extraction, the most efficient was 1-butanol, followed by tert-butanol, 2-propanol and ethanol; for the step of adsorption, activated carbon was the most effective solid for PAH removal, confirming the similarity of these compounds with petroleum aromatic fractions. Thus, the optimum solvent-adsorbent pair for the recovery of used lubricant oils through the proposed methodology was 1-butanol/activated carbon. At the end of the process, it was possible to establish a set of steps that permit the recovery of lubricant base oils with lower content of contaminants.

‣ Solvent extraction for metal and water recovery from industrial wastes and effluents

Mansur,Marcelo Borges
Fonte: Escola de Minas Publicador: Escola de Minas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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The use of solvent extraction to recover metals and water from industrial residues is highlighted in this work. The method was applied (1) to selectively concentrate Zn from effluents generated by the zinc industry, (2) to separate Zn and Fe from spent pickling effluents produced by the hot-dip galvanizing industry, and (3) to recover Co and Ni from spent batteries. Batch and pilot scale data was used to point out solvent extraction as a feasible method to reuse both metals and water thus resulting in energy savings with reducing environmental impacts, minimizing costs required to transport hazardous materials to waste sites, to replace the discharged wastewater and to produce the raw material that would be previously discharged as wastes.

‣ Solvent Extraction Studies for Separation of Zn(II) and Mn(II) from Spent Batteries Leach Solutions

Falco, Lorena; Quina, Margarida J.; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M.; Thomas, Horacio Jorge; Curutchet, Gustavo Andres
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This study aims to assess the possibility of using solvent extraction processes for separating zn(ii) and mn(ii) dissolved in aqueous solutions obtained by acid bioleaching of spent alkaline and zn-c batteries. in this context, cyanex 272 and dehpa were tested as extractant agents, and the former was shown to have better performance. hence, the effect of four factors (equilibrium ph, extractant concentration, a/o ratio and temperature) into three response variables (extraction efficiency of zn, yzn; extraction efficiency of mn, ymn; separation factor, β) were tested according to a full factorial design (24) with two replicated centre points. our study revealed that yzn depends mainly on the extractant concentration, ymn on the equilibrium ph and β on the equilibrium ph, extractant concentration and a/o ratio as well as on second and third order interactions. one extraction step is sufficient to reach high extraction of zinc in synthetic solutions, but two stages were required for real leaching liquor. the extraction kinetics is fast (less than 15 min) for both metals, even when real liquor was tested. the organic solvent can beefficiently recovered using a stripping solution of h2so4 1 m and thus the process can be considered environmentally sustainable.; Fil: Falco...

‣ Integrated Pressurized Solvent Extraction-Cleanup for the Rapid Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meat Samples

Enríquez, Pedro; Richter Duk, Pablo Roberto; Toledo Neira, Carla
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.1385%
Artículo de publicación ISI; A rapid and efficient method based on the integration of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) with solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography system with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Six indicators and twelve dioxin-like PCBs were selected as analytes. This method is based on the integration of solvent extraction and cleanup processes inside a pressurized stainless steel cell. The optimum extraction conditions were 6 min of extraction at 70 °C and two cycles of extraction using hexane/methylene chloride (1:1, v/v) as the extraction solvent. Silica gel acidified with sulfuric acid was used for integrated cleanup of the organic extract. This method allows a significant reduction in extraction time and solvent consumption. Repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 3 to 6%, and recoveries for concentration of 20 ng g−1 was ranged between 71 to 104% .The limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.03 to 0.29 ng g−1 and 0.1 to 0.97 ng g−1 respectively. The linear range was between 5 and 100 ng g−1 . Finally this new method was applied to samples of chicken and pork.

‣ Ultrasound-assisted pressurized solvent extraction for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils

Jiménez, Marcela; Maricán Riquelme, Adolfo Andrés; Salazar, Ricardo; Richter D., Pablo
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.12534%
In the present work the efficiency of extraction of aliphatic diesel range organics (DROs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil was assessed by using dynamic modes of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE), and ultrasound-assisted pressurized solvent extraction (US-PSE). Optimization studies were carried out using a blank soil (Non-Polluted Soil#1, CLN-1, RTC) and a real soil which was previously spiked with the analyte mixture and aged for 90 days. A laboratory-made manifold with controlled temperature and pressure was used to carry out the leaching processes. The extraction cell was inserted into an oven for PSE and into an ultrasound bath for US-PSE. The following variables were studied in each case, keeping the pressure at about 1800 psi: extraction temperature, time of static and dynamic extraction and solvent flow rate. In addition, the time of ultrasound application was also studied in US-PSE. For PSE with dichloromethane (DCM) the recoveries were about 90-95% for both the families of analytes, using extraction times of 20 min. Analyte extraction was quantitative by using US-PSE with DCM for 10 min. In all cases, after the extraction process, the analytes were determined by GC-MS. Application of the method to a natural contaminated sample suggests that either the extraction time used in US-PSE should be increased to 20 min or the solvent (DCM) should be replaced by a mixture of DCM:acetone (1: 1)...

‣ Multivariate Optimization of Pressurized Solvent Extraction of Alkylphenols and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates from Biosolids

Ahumada, Inés; Richter, Pablo; Maricán Riquelme, Adolfo Andrés
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.068594%
Artículo de publicación ISI; In this study, a methodology for pressurized solvent extraction of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) from biosolids was optimized by utilizing a biosolid natively containing these compounds at a high concentration level. Optimization of the extraction was carried out through a multivariate analysis experimental design with a central composite design (CCD) producing the following optimum values for the variables: temperature of 129 ºC, extraction time per cycle of 34 min in two cycles and acetone as extraction solvent. Upon comparison with Soxhlet extraction, this methodology turned out to be more efficient for the extraction of APEOs and of similar efficiency for APs. On the other hand, the methodology is considerably faster than Soxhlet and uses a smaller amount of extraction solvent. Concentrations of 204 ± 20 and 1053 ± 23 mg kg-1 for nonylphenol and nonylphenol-ethoxylate, respectively, were determined in the biosolid sample assayed.; Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT, projects 1070616 and 1080357) and assistance provided by Instituto de Salud Pública (ISP) for the use of GC-MS.

‣ Treatment of Cu-bearing liquid effluents by non-dispersive solvent extraction with strip dispersion membrane technology

Alguacil, Francisco José; Alonso Gámez, Manuel; López Gómez, Félix Antonio; Padilla, Isabel; López-Delgado, Aurora
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 57310 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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En: 1st Spanish National Conference on Advances in Materials Recycling and Eco – Energy Madrid, 12-13 November 2009.-- Editors: F. A. López, F. Puertas, F. J. Alguacil and A. Guerrero.-- 3 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables.; The removal of copper (II) from acidic liquid effluents had been investigated using non-dispersive solvent extraction with strip dispersion (NDSXSD) membrane technology and oxime derivative Acorga M5640 as ionophore. Several variables which influenced the transport of the metal had been studied.; Acknowledgements to the CSIC (Spain) for support.; Peer reviewed

‣ Calcium and magnesium rejection from sulphate solutions in lateritic nickel solvent extraction using Versatic 10 acid-LIX®84-IC system

Ndlovu,B.; Mahlangu,T.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.7606%
The world mineral industry has over the years experienced growth in the production of nickel (Ni) due to its use not only in the catalytic industry but mainly also to its demand in the stainless steel production industry. Hence there is a need to produce more pure and marketable grades of Ni through the use of efficient purification routes such as solvent extraction. The V10-LIX®84-IC system resulted in nickel (Ni) extraction isotherm shifting to lower pH levels. The pH window of opportunity for the extraction of Ni subsequently increased in solution containing magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) even though the system also resulted in slight shifts to less positive pH values for Mg and Ca curves. Results showed a synergistic effect of LIX®84-IC when added to V10 for all elements, Ni, Mg and Ca. The pH50 values for elements Ni, Mg and Ca in the V10-LIX®84-IC system were 2.95, 8.10 and 7.70 respectively. Comparing results obtained when using V10 alone produced ApH50for Ni, Mg and Ca being 3.35, 0.15 and 0.70 respectively, which was a confirmation of the synergistic shifts for all the elements. The ΔpH50(Mg-Ni) value was 1.95 with no synergism and 5.15 with synergism and that for ΔpH50(Ca-Ni)was 2.10 with no synergism and 4.75 with synergism. This showed that the Ni-Mg separation factor was relatively larger than the Ni-Ca. Improved loading and stripping kinetics were also observed.

‣ Skorpion zinc solvent extraction: The upset conditions

Musadaidzwa,J.M.; Tshiningayamwe,E.I.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Skorpion Zinc is located 25 km north-west of the small settlement of Rosh Pinah in southern Namibia. Commissioned in early 2003, Skorpion Zinc became the first mine-to-metal operation to commercially apply a purely hydrometallurgical process route to exploit a zinc oxide orebody. The novel technology, known as The Modified ZincexTM Process patented by Tecnicas Reunidas, comprises sulphuric acid atmospheric leaching, zinc solvent extraction (SX) and electrowinning (EW) to produce London metal exchange (LME) Special high grade (SHG) zinc. Forming the core of the process, the SX step has thrived in its role as a barrier to impurities and also in the upgrading of the pregnant liquor solution (PLS), converting it into a loaded electrolyte (LE) sufficiently rich and pure for EW. Against this successful run, a number of challenges have, however, been encountered in SX due the emergence of upset conditions largely emanating from upstream processes. This paper outlines some of the major deviations that have beset the SX process in its first five years of continuous operation. Impurity excursions, temperature depressions, changes in phase continuity, excess aqueous entrainment, the effect of colloidal silica and the accumulation of rare earth elements on the organic phase will be discussed in detail.