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‣ O espaço visual e proprioceptivo no caminhar de crianças e adolescentes; Visual and proprioceptive space on walking of children and adolescents.

Consolo, Patricia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.23205%
As pessoas interagem diariamente com seu ambiente e, embora possa parecer simples, esta interação recruta diferentes fontes de informações visuais e não visuais que podem ser usadas no processamento da distância durante a locomoção. Baseado nisto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de crianças e adolescentes em tarefas envolvendo distância e orientação espacial durante o caminhar de rotas retilíneas e triangulares, na ausência de informações visuais e auditivas. Para tanto, grupos de voluntários de ambos os sexos, G1 (7-8 anos), G2 (9-10 anos) e G3 (12-16 anos), realizaram três tarefas em ambientes naturais. A tarefa I consistiu em caminhar diretamente a um alvo, com a visão ocluída, após vê-lo brevemente. A tarefa II consistiu em caminhar distâncias em linha reta, com a visão ocluída, pelo guiar de um condutor, e subsequentemente, ao girar em sentido horário ou anti-horário, retornar sozinho à origem do percurso. A tarefa III foi similar a tarefa II, mas com rotas triangulares; o participante, com a visão ocluída, caminhou as duas primeiras arestas do triângulo guiadas por um condutor, e a aresta complementar, percorrida sozinho retornando à origem do percurso. Em cada tarefa foram mensuradas as distâncias caminhadas e os desvios de orientação...

‣ Mapas cognitivos de primatas: análise de movimentos e rotas de Cebus nigritus apoiada por sistemas de informação geográfica; Primates cognitive maps: analysis of movements and routes of Cebus nigritus based on geographic information system

Presotto, Andréa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Os macacos-prego são primatas bastante flexíveis quanto à sua alimentação, ocupando ambientes com características diversas e, por isso, possuindo a mais ampla distribuição geográfica entre os primatas do Novo Mundo. Possuem habilidades como o uso de ferramentas e reconhecimento espacial de sua área de uso na busca por alimentos, utilizando sistemas de orientação egocêntrico e alocêntrico. No entanto, estudos sobre o sistema de orientação desses animais em vida livre, com observação naturalística, são raros. Pelas similaridades filogenéticas e convergências adaptativas com humanos, principalmente no que se refere à variabilidade comportamental associada à diversidade dos ambientes ocupados, pesquisas sobre cognição espacial de Cebus nigritus são necessárias e importantes para investigar se a flexibilidade comportamental desse primata observa-se também quanto às capacidades de orientação espacial. O objetivo desse estudo foi contribuir para o entendimento dos sistemas de orientação que podem estar envolvidos quando os macacos-pregos constroem suas rotas. Os sujeitos desse estudo são macacos-pregos (Cebus nigritus) selvagens, vivendo na Mata Atlântica, no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB), porção sul do Estado de São Paulo. Os macacosprego foram seguidos durante dias consecutivos em um total de 100 dias (2006...

‣ Influência da orientação espacial e do controle postural na locomoção de idosos; The influence of spatial orientation and postural control during elderly locomotion

Cosme, Renata Garrido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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No andar, o risco de quedas em idosos é maior. O objetivo é estudar o risco de quedas na locomoção sem visão e a relação entre orientação espacial, veering e controle postural. Participaram 27 adultos (25,2±4,5 anos, 1,68±0,10m, 63,8±10,3kg); 27 idosos AF (72,1±4,3 anos, 1,60±0,09m, 68,5±13kg); 12 idosos RQ (72,3±6 anos, 1,57±0,08m, 67,4±10,9kg). Eles caminharam 15m sem visão com um acelerômetro fixo entre L1 e L2. Variáveis: grupo; variabilidade do desvio; erro absoluto e variável; DFA; Tc; HST; DLT. O idoso RQ teve maior variabilidade do desvio (F(2,63)=4,6, p=0,01), erro absoluto (F(2,63)=16,64, p<0,0001) e variável (F(2,63)=4,5, p=0,01). Grupo (F(2,652)=48,9, p<0,0001) e direção (F(1,652)=444,5, p<0,0001) afetaram o DFA, e foi maior nos idosos e em AP (p<0,0001). O grupo (F(2,652)=29,3, p<0,0001) e direção (F(1,652)=605, p<0,0001) afetaram o HST, no idoso RQ e na ML (p<0,0001). O grupo (F(2,652)=30,8, p<0,0001) e direção (F(1,652)=178, p<0,0001) afetaram HLT,que foi maior nos idosos e em ML (p<0,0001). A forma como o indivíduo caminha nas direções ML e AP são diferentes. O controle da oscilação é anti-persistente na direção ML e persistente na AP. Os idosos dependem mais da visão na estabilização ML na locomoção. Os idosos RQ apresentam maior veering...

‣ A aplicação do conceito do desenho universal no ensino de arquitetura : o uso de mapa tatil como leitura de projeto; An application of the concept of Universal Design to architectural education and the use of tactile maps as a design instrument

Nubia Bernardi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta pesquisa aborda a aplicação do conceito do Desenho Universal no ensino do projeto de arquitetura. O objetivo geral do trabalho é aplicar uma metodologia de ensino de projeto arquitetônico que remeta a projetos qualitativos na questão da inclusão espacial. A revisão da literatura concentra-se em métodos de projeto, experiências de ensino em arquitetura e meios de comunicação apropriados para um processo de projeto participativo. Esta pesquisa adota como metodologia os preceitos da simulação/modelagem combinada com um estudo de caso. A modelagem foi feita em mapas táteis, construídos em escala e passíveis de manipulação, tendo sido investigados como instrumentos de leitura de projeto e apresentados de maneira inovadora no processo de ensino. É dada ênfase à interação entre alunos e voluntários com baixa visão através das possibilidades, potencialidades e dificuldades de participação durante o processo. Os voluntários foram divididos em grupos com diferentes afinidades visuais e fizeram análises de projetos arquitetônicos através da manipulação destes mapas (desenvolvidos por alunos de arquitetura e engenharia civil). Questionam-se também as formas tradicionais de comunicação (desenhos, maquetes...

‣ Computational Approaches to Spatial Orientation: From Transfer Functions to Dynamic Bayesian Inference

MacNeilage, Paul R.; Ganesan, Narayan; Angelaki, Dora E.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Spatial orientation is the sense of body orientation and self-motion relative to the stationary environment, fundamental to normal waking behavior and control of everyday motor actions including eye movements, postural control, and locomotion. The brain achieves spatial orientation by integrating visual, vestibular, and somatosensory signals. Over the past years, considerable progress has been made toward understanding how these signals are processed by the brain using multiple computational approaches that include frequency domain analysis, the concept of internal models, observer theory, Bayesian theory, and Kalman filtering. Here we put these approaches in context by examining the specific questions that can be addressed by each technique and some of the scientific insights that have resulted. We conclude with a recent application of particle filtering, a probabilistic simulation technique that aims to generate the most likely state estimates by incorporating internal models of sensor dynamics and physical laws and noise associated with sensory processing as well as prior knowledge or experience. In this framework, priors for low angular velocity and linear acceleration can explain the phenomena of velocity storage and frequency segregation...

‣ The shape of human navigation: How environmental geometry is used in maintenance of spatial orientation

Kelly, Jonathan W.; McNamara, Timothy P.; Bodenheimer, Bobby; Carr, Thomas H.; Rieser, John J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The role of environmental geometry in maintaining spatial orientation was measured in immersive virtual reality using a spatial updating task (requiring maintenance of orientation during locomotion) within rooms varying in rotational symmetry (the number of room orientations providing the same perspective). Spatial updating was equally good in trapezoidal, rectangular and square rooms (1-fold, two-fold and four-fold rotationally symmetric, respectively) but worse in a circular room (∞-fold rotationally symmetric). This contrasts with reorientation performance, which was incrementally impaired by increasing rotational symmetry. Spatial updating performance in a shape-changing room (containing visible corners and flat surfaces, but changing its shape over time) was no better than performance in a circular room, indicating that superior spatial updating performance in angular environments was due to remembered room shape, rather than improved self-motion perception in the presence of visible corners and flat surfaces.

‣ Individual differences in using geometric and featural cues to maintain spatial orientation: Cue quantity and cue ambiguity are more important than cue type

Kelly, Jonathan W.; McNamara, Timothy P.; Bodenheimer, Bobby; Carr, Thomas H.; Rieser, John J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Two experiments explored the role of environmental cues in maintaining spatial orientation (sense of self-location and direction) during locomotion. Of particular interest was the importance of geometric cues (provided by environmental surfaces) and featural cues (non-geometric properties provided by striped walls) in maintaining spatial orientation. Participants performed a spatial updating task within virtual environments containing geometric or featural cues that were ambiguous or unambiguous indicators of self-location and direction. Cue type (geometric or featural) did not affect performance, but the number of environmental cues and the ambiguity of those cues did affect performance. Gender differences, which are interpreted as a proxy for individual differences in spatial ability and/or experience, highlight the interaction between cue quantity and ambiguity. When environmental cues were ambiguous, men stayed oriented with either one or two cues, whereas women only stayed oriented with two. When environmental cues were unambiguous, women stayed oriented with one cue.

‣ Functional Neuroanatomy of Spatial Orientation Processing in Turner Syndrome

Kesler, Shelli R.; Haberecht, Michael F.; Menon, Vinod; Warsofsky, Ilana S.; Dyer-Friedman, Jenny; Neely, E. Kirk; Reiss, Allan L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Turner syndrome (TS), a neurogenetic disorder characterized by the absence of one X chromosome in a phenotypic female, is frequently associated with visuospatial impairments. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying deficits in spatial orientation processing in TS. Thirteen subjects with TS and 13 age-matched typically developing controls underwent neuropsychological assessments and were scanned using functional MRI while they performed easy and difficult versions of a judgment of line orientation (JLO) task. Controls and subjects with TS activated parietal-occipital regions involved in spatial orientation during the JLO task. However, activation was significantly less in the TS group. Control subjects responded to increased task difficulty by recruiting executive frontal areas whereas subjects with TS did not activate alternate brain regions to meet increased task demands. Subjects with TS demonstrate activation deficits in parietal-occipital and frontal areas during the JLO task. Activation, and possibly deactivation, deficits in these areas may be responsible for the visuospatial deficits observed in females with TS.

‣ Spatial Orientation in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

Ruploh, Tim; Kazek, Agnieszka; Bischof, Hans-Joachim
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.60163%
Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain...

‣ The computational worm: spatial orientation and its neuronal basis in C. elegans

Lockery, Shawn R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Spatial orientation behaviors in animals are fundamental for survival but poorly understood at the neuronal level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans orients to wide range of stimuli and has a numerically small and well-described nervous system making it advantageous for investigation the mechanisms of spatial orientation. Recent work by the C. elegans research community has identified essential computational elements of the neural circuits underlying two orientation strategies that operate in five different sensory modalities. Analysis of these circuits reveals novel motifs including simple circuits for computing temporal derivatives of sensory input and for integrating sensory input with behavioral state to generate adaptive behavior. These motifs constitute hypotheses concerning the identity and functionality of circuits controlling spatial orientation in higher organisms.

‣ Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity

Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.31303%
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity...

‣ Spatial orientation and navigation in microgravity

Oman, Charles M.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.51451%
This chapter summarizes the spatial disorientation problems and navigation difficulties described by astronauts and cosmonauts, and relates them to research findings on orientation and navigation in humans and animals. Spacecraft crew are uniquely free to float in any relative orientation with respect to the cabin, and experience no vestibular and haptic cues that directly indicate the direction of “down”. They frequently traverse areas with inconsistently aligned visual vertical cues. As a result, most experience “Visual Reorientation Illusions” (VRIs) where the spacecraft floors, walls and ceiling surfaces exchange subjective identities. The illusion apparently results from a sudden reorientation of the observer’s allocentric reference frame. Normally this frame realigns to local interior surfaces, but in some cases it can jump to the Earth beyond, as with “Inversion Illusions” and EVA height vertigo. These perceptual illusions make it difficult for crew to maintain a veridical perception of orientation and place within the spacecraft, make them more reliant upon landmark and route strategies for 3D navigation, and can trigger space motion sickness. This chapter distinguishes VRIs and Inversion Illusions, based on firsthand descriptions from Vostok...

‣ How far can we get with just visual information? Path integration and spatial updating studies in Virtual Reality; Wie weit kommt man mit visueller Information allein? Pfadintegrations- und spatial updating Studien in Virtueller Realität

Riecke, Bernhard E.
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.78483%
How do we find our way around in everyday life? In real world situations, it typically takes a considerable amount of time to get completely lost. In most Virtual Reality (VR) applications, however, users are quickly lost after only a few simulated turns. This happens even though many recent VR applications are already quite compelling and look convincing at first glance. So what is missing in those simulated spaces? That is, what sensory information is essential for accurate, effortless, and robust spatial orientation? In this thesis, these and related questions were approached by performing a series of spatial orientation experiments in various VR setups as well as in the real world. A first series of experiments (part II) investigated the usability of purely visual cues, with particular focus on optic flow, for basic navigation and spatial orientation tasks. Participants had to execute turns, reproduce distances or perform triangle completion tasks. Most experiments were performed in a simulated 3D field of blobs, thus restricting navigation strategies to path integration based on optic flow. For our experimental setup (half-cylindrical 180x50 deg. projection screen), optic flow information alone proved to be sufficient for untrained participants to perform turns and reproduce distances with negligible systematic errors...

‣ Spatial orientation and familiarity in a small-scale real environment using PC-based virtual environment technology

Molmer, Matthew.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 49 p. : col. ill. ;
Português
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Conducting training in a new or unfamiliar environment requires a certain amount of time to acquire the necessary spatial orientation and familiarity to that environment's physical layout. This thesis explores the effects of exposing individuals to a PC-based virtual replication of a small-scale real world training environment to determine if such exposure has any effect on an individual's ability to acquire the necessary spatial orientation and familiarity of the real world environment. In this thesis individual spatial orientation and familiarity to the layout of the real world environment will be measured using a set of retrieval tasks conducted in the real environment and by development of a sketched map of that environment. Establishing a link between an individual's ability to gain an acceptable level of spatial orientation and familiarity with a real world environment by first exposing them to a PC-based virtual replication of that environment is vital to the future of video game development and virtual simulation technologies used for training in the military.

‣ THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM: ITS ROLE IN POSTURAL CONTROL AND ITS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING SPATIAL ORIENTATION

Zhang, FANG
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.52006%
The vestibular system plays a role in postural control and spatial orientation. Ageing adversely affects vestibular function, postural control and the ability to maintain accurate spatial orientation. Study I investigated the interaction of vestibular input with lower limb somatosensory and visual inputs for head and trunk control during normal walking (NW) and narrow-based walking (NBW) and the effect of age on these interactions. The association of clinically measured functions of the vestibular system, lower limb somatosensation and vision with head/trunk control in the frontal plane during NW and NBW, and the impact of age were also examined. Study II evaluated the inter-trial reliability of three tools which can be used to screen for vestibular dysfunction via assessing spatial orientation, in young and older participants, and their sensitivity of these tools to age-related difference in vestibular function. In Study I, 15 young [25.40(3.56) years, 7 females and 8 males] and 15 older [72.60(5.33) years, 8 females and 7 males] were asked to perform NW and NBW. Vestibular, lower limb somatosensory and visual information was manipulated using galvanic vestibular stimulation, medium density foam and blurring goggles respectively; either concurrently or individually. The variables representing head control were more affected by visual and vestibular manipulation. The variables representing trunk control were more affected by lower limb somatosensory manipulation. Further...

‣ Orientação espacial e características urbanas

Locatelli, Luciana
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.604062%
Essa pesquisa investiga a influência das variáveis físico-espaciais associadas à orientação nos espaços urbanos, a partir da percepção de grupos que diferem quanto ao gênero e grau de familiaridade com o espaço. O objetivo central é fornecer subsídios teóricos que possam auxiliar nas diretrizes de desenho urbano, de modo a garantir a maior facilidade na orientação espacial nos espaços urbanos, além de contribuir para um ambiente urbano de maior qualidade. Adotase a cidade de Santa Maria (RS) como objeto de estudo por constituir, principalmente, uma área onde a concentração de indivíduos com diferentes níveis de familiaridade com o espaço é significativa. Da mesma forma, por possuir espaços heterogêneos em termos das variáveis associadas aos aspectos físico-espaciais que tornam pertinente a comparação entre eles. Os métodos de coleta e análise de dados fazem parte dos utilizados na área de pesquisa Ambiente e Comportamento. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de duas etapas: (1) levantamento de arquivo, entrevistas e mapas mentais, e (2) levantamento físico, questionário e mapas mentais, sendo esta etapa precedida de uma tarefa envolvendo orientação espacial isto é, a realização de um percurso no Centro da cidade. Os resultados dessa investigação demonstram que existem relações evidentes entre os níveis de facilidade de orientação e as variáveis físico-espaciais associadas às características urbanas dos espaços. Primeiramente...

‣ Fractionating dead reckoning: role of the compass, odometer, logbook, and home base establishment in spatial orientation

Wallace, Douglas G.; Martin, Megan M.; Winter, Shawn S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.23205%
Rats use multiple sources of information to maintain spatial orientation. Although previous work has focused on rats' use of environmental cues, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that rats also use self-movement cues to organize navigation. This review examines the extent that kinematic analysis of naturally occurring behavior has provided insight into processes that mediate dead-reckoning-based navigation. This work supports a role for separate systems in processing self-movement cues that converge on the hippocampus. The compass system is involved in deriving directional information from self-movement cues; whereas, the odometer system is involved in deriving distance information from self-movement cues. The hippocampus functions similar to a logbook in that outward path unique information from the compass and odometer is used to derive the direction and distance of a path to the point at which movement was initiated. Finally, home base establishment may function to reset this system after each excursion and anchor environmental cues to self-movement cues. The combination of natural behaviors and kinematic analysis has proven to be a robust paradigm to investigate the neural basis of spatial orientation.

‣ Comparing the effect of humanoid and human face for the spatial orientation of attention

Chaminade, Thierry; Okka, Maria M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The current study was designed to investigate how the automatic spatial orientation of attention induced by the perception of another agent's orientation of attention is modulated by the social nature of the other agent. Modified versions of the Posner task, using a real or schematic face with eyes or head looking toward the left or the right before a to-be-detected target appears on one side of the screen have been used to demonstrate a reduction of reaction time (RT) for target detection when the gaze is directed toward the target, even though the cue is not informative. We compared the effect of two agents, the humanoid robotic platform Nao and a real human, using head turn to cue the spatial orientation of attention. Our results reproduced the typical Posner effect, with reduced RT to valid compared to invalid spatial cues. RT increased when no spatial information was provided, interpreted as an increased difficulty to disengage from a direct gaze. RT was also increased when the robot was used instead of the human face and when the eyes of the stimuli were blacked out. Both effects were interpreted as resulting from an increased difficulty to disengage attention from the central stimulus because of its novelty. In all experiments...

‣ Gender effects in spatial orientation: cognitive profiles and mental strategies

Bosco, Andrea; Longoni, Anna M; Vecchi, Tomaso
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Publicador: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Experimental evidence and meta-analyses offer some support for gender-related differences in visuo-spatial ability. However, few studies addressed this issue in an ecological context and/or in everyday tasks implying spatial abilities, such as geographical orientation. Moreover, the relation of specific strategies and gender is still unclear. In the present investigation, we compared men and women in a newly designed battery of spatial orientation tasks in which landmark, route and survey knowledge were considered. In addition, four visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) tasks were presented. Significant differences favouring men in VSWM tasks were reported, supporting existing evidence. However, men and women did not significantly differ in orientation tasks performance. The patterns of correlation between working memory and spatial orientation tasks indicated that men and women used somewhat different strategies in carrying out the orientation tasks. In particular, active processes seem to play a greater role in females' performance, thus confirming the importance of this variable in interpreting gender effect in VSWM tasks. Altogether, results indicate that gender effects could well result from differences in cognitive strategies and support data indicating that adequate training could reduce or eliminate them. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons...

‣ A new spatial orientation memory test: Evaluation in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and in patients with operated and unoperated mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

Tuon,Lisiane; Portuguez,Mirna; Izquierdo,Iván; Costa da Costa,Jaderson
Fonte: The European Journal of Psychiatry Publicador: The European Journal of Psychiatry
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background and objectives: Spatial orientation and spatial learning depend on the medial temporal lobe. A new test of spatial memory in humans is described, and applied to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), with presumable damage of that region, and to patients with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) submitted or not to treatment by selective surgical amygdala-hippocampectomy (SAH). Methods: Subjects were asked to go to each of four objects hanging from the wall of a room: a cylinder, a square, a ball and a triangle (trial 1). In trial 2 they repeated this blindfolded; all figures except the cylinder were removed; once the subjects reached the cylinder they had to say what figures should be at the left, right and back. In trial 3, all figures were withdrawn and the subjects, again blindfolded, were instructed first to go to the front, right, left and back, and then to go to the former positions occupied by the cylinder, the ball, the square and the triangle. Results: Experiment 1 studied 10 patients with mild AD and 10 controls matched by age, gender and schooling. Performance was 46% lower in AD patients relative to controls (p < 0.001). Experiment 2 studied 23 patients with MTS, 20 patients submitted to SAH, and 23 healthy volunteers with similar levels of age...