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‣ Perfil epidemiológico de doadores de sangue com diagnóstico sorológico de sífilis e HIV; Epidemiological profile of blood donors with serologic diagnosis of syphilis and HIV

Almeida Neto, Cesar de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2008 Português
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O estudo do perfil de doadores de sangue com sorologias alteradas é essencial para direcionar a triagem clínica e sorológica nos serviços de hemoterapia e as políticas de sangue que, em última análise, vão se refletir na segurança do sangue disponível para nossa comunidade. O perfil dos doadores de sangue com diagnóstico sorológico de sífilis foi avaliado através de um estudo transversal no qual doadores de sangue com sífilis recente (n=278) foram comparados com doadores com sífilis pregressa (n=2 161). O perfil de doadores de sangue portadores do HIV foi avaliado através de um estudo caso-controle, no qual doadores de sangue confirmadamente positivos para o HIV (n=272) foram comparados com um grupo controle de doadores com resultado falso-positivo no teste de triagem para HIV (n=468). Ambos os estudos foram realizados entre janeiro de 1999 e dezembro de 2003. Os dados demográficos, categorias de doação, número de doações prévias, potenciais fatores de risco para as infecções estudadas, comportamento sexual e associação com os demais marcadores de triagem sorológica foram avaliados em entrevistas pós-doação, por ocasião da notificação dos doadores acerca de seu status sorológico. Os fatores de risco para HIV que deveriam ter gerado a recusa dos doadores foram relatados por 48...

‣ Diagnóstico de sífilis em lesões orais. Estudo comparativo utilizando-se as técnicas histoquímica e imuno-histoquímica; Diagnosis of syphilis in oral lesions. A comparative study using techniques of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry

Siqueira, Carla Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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A sífilis é uma doença infecciosa, cujo agente etiológico é o Treponema pallidum. Pode ser transmitida sexualmente ou verticalmente, via placenta. Seus estágios variam entre sífilis primária, sífilis secundária, sífilis latente e sífilis congênita. Dentre os diagnósticos mais eficazes, encontram-se os testes sorológicos, porém os falsos positivos e falsos negativos no estágio primário levam à procura de uma forma mais eficaz de se determinar, precocemente, a doença. Além disso, por várias razões, nem sempre o profissional clínico suspeita das lesões presentes na mucosa oral, cogitando de outras hipóteses diagnósticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar imuno-histoquimicamente e histoquimicamente lesões bucais biopsiadas cujo aspecto histológico levou à suspeita de sífilis, buscando identificar os microorganismos, bem como correlacionar o quadro sorológico quando positivo. Para o estudo foram incluídas 34 lesões suspeitas de sífilis, que foram submetidas à reação imuno-histoquímica com o anticorpo anti-treponema e técnica histoquímica de coloração pela prata. Dos 34 casos avaliados 13 foram positivos para o anticorpo anti-treponema, todos posteriormente diagnosticados como sífilis secundária...

‣ A sífilis em população vulnerável : epidemiologia e fatores associados à reinfecção e coinfecção com HIV em Campinas, São Paulo; Syphilis in vulnerable population : epidemiology and factors associated with reinfection and coinfection with HIV in Campinas, Sao Paulo

Valéria Correia de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/02/2014 Português
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A sífilis, causada pela bactéria Treponema pallidum, é responsável por uma doença multisistêmica, transmitida sexualmente por meio do contato direto com lesões altamente infectantes. Quando adquirida no período gestacional é uma importante causa de abortos, mortalidade neonatal e malformações no recém nascido. A Organização Mundial de Saúde, em seus dados mais recentes, estimou uma prevalência de 10,6 milhões de casos de sífilis no ano de 2008. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado um aumento no número de casos de sífilis nos últimos anos, em especial em populações específicas mais vulneráveis. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar e analisar, de forma retrospectiva, os fatores associados à aquisição de repetidos episódios de sífilis e à coinfecção sífilis-HIV entre indivíduos atendidos nos serviços de referência em doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST) do município de Campinas, São Paulo, entre 2004 e 2012. Neste período foram identificados 3106 episódios de DST, sendo que 1009 (32,5%) foram episódios de sífilis. Entre os episódios de sífilis, 117 indivíduos apresentaram mais de um e 743 apenas um episódio da doença, totalizando-se, desta forma, 860 indivíduos que apresentaram ao menos um episódio de sífilis. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (90...

‣ Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

Domingues,Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald,Celia Landmann; Souza Junior,Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal,Maria do Carmo
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast...

‣ Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage

Soeiro,Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda,Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni,Valeria; Santos,Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari,Sinesio; Ferreira,Luiz Carlos de Lima
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management.

‣ Syphilis and HIV-1 among parturient women in Salvador, Brazil: low prevalence of syphilis and high rate of loss to follow-up in HIV-infected women

Nóbrega,Isabella; Dantas,Paula; Rocha,Priscila; Rios,Isabela; Abraão,Marcos; M. Netto,Eduardo; Brites,Carlos
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
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BACKGROUND: The occurrence of syphilis and HIV-1 infections during pregnancy are major risks to the fetus due to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). OBJECTIVES: To determine peripartum seroprevalence and risk factors of syphilis and HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in Salvador, Brazil, and the rate of HIV-1 MTCT. METHODS:Cross-sectional study of pregnant women who were admitted for delivery in a reference maternity hospital between May 2008 and March 2009 was conducted. Women were screened for HIV-1 infection and syphilis, and interviewed regarding demographic, behavioral and obstetric data. Newborns to HIV-infected mothers were tested by b-DNA and DNA-PCR to detect HIV-1. RESULTS: A total 3300/8516 women were evaluated. Mean age was 25.8 ± 7.3 years. HIV-1 and syphilis seroprevalence rates were 0.84% (28/3300) and 0.51% (17/3300), respectively. HIV-1 infection was associated with: low education (p = 0.04), having a partner with known HIV infection (p < 0.0001) or with previous sexually transmitted infection (p < 0.0001), blood transfusion (p = 0.003), or accidental exposure to blood (p = 0.003). Syphilis was associated with being Caucasian (p = 0.02), having no steady partner (p = 0.02), being a housewife (p = 0.01), having an intravenous drug user (IVDU) sexual partner (p = 0.04) or a sexual partner with previous STI (p < 0.001). Higher education (p = 0.04) was protective against HIV-infection. Attending a prenatal care program was protective against syphilis (p = 0.008) and HIV-1 (p = 0.02). No case of HIV-1 MTCT was detected...

‣ Prevalence of Syphilis and associated factors in homeless people of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a Rapid Test

Pinto,Valdir Monteiro; Tancredi,Mariza Vono; Alencar,Herculano Duarte Ramos De; Camolesi,Elisabeth; Holcman,Márcia Moreira; Grecco,João Paulo; Grangeiro,Alexandre; Grecco,Elisabete Taeko Onaga
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Introduction: Homeless people are a vulnerable group to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) with high prevalence of syphilis and hepatitis. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis infection and its association with risky behaviors for STDs in a sample of homeless people, and to assess the feasibility of the use of rapid syphilis test (RST) in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in a convenience sample of homeless people assisted in social support services of São Paulo, between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was applied and RST was performed. In addition, a blood sample for syphilis detection was also collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the RST was estimated using conventional laboratory diagnosis (VDRL + TPHA) as reference. Results: 1,405 volunteers were included in the study. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 7.0%, and was associated with homosexual practices (ORadj 4.9; 95%CI 2.6 - 9.4), prior history of STD (ORadj 2.6; 95%CI 1.7 - 4.0) and with self-referred non-white race (ORadj 1.9; 95%CI 1.1 - 3.4). The sensitivity and specificity of the RST for syphilis were, respectively, 81.4 and 92.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of syphilis infection among homeless people shows the need for actions for its control and the utilization of RST that can be considered an efficient strategy due to its sensitivity and specificity. Public Health policymakers must strengthen actions for syphilis control...

‣ Syphilis Predicts HIV Incidence Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men in a Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial

Solomon, Marc M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert Y.; McMahan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Fernandez, Telmo; Grant, Robert M.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Buchbinder, Susan; Casapia, Martin; Guanira, Juan; Kallas, Esper;
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Syphilis infection may potentiate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the extent to which HIV acquisition was associated with syphilis infection within an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial and whether emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) modified that association. Methods. The Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) study randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM) to receive oral daily FTC/TDF or placebo. Syphilis prevalence at screening and incidence during follow-up were measured. Hazard ratios for the effect of incident syphilis on HIV acquisition were calculated. The effect of FTC/TDF on incident syphilis and HIV acquisition was assessed. Results. Of 2499 individuals, 360 (14.4%) had a positive rapid plasma reagin test at screening; 333 (92.5%) had a positive confirmatory test, which did not differ between the arms (FTC/TDF vs placebo, P = .81). The overall syphilis incidence during the trial was 7.3 cases per 100 person-years. There was no difference in syphilis incidence between the study arms (7.8 cases per 100 person-years for FTC/TDF vs 6.8 cases per 100 person-years for placebo, P = .304). HIV incidence varied by incident syphilis (2.8 cases per 100 person-years for no syphilis vs 8.0 cases per 100 person-years for incident syphilis)...

‣ Prenatal Transmission of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: Achieving Regional Targets for Elimination

Cerda, Rodrigo; Perez, Freddy; Domingues, Rosa Maria S.M.; Luz, Paula M.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Caffe, Sonja; Francke, Jordan A.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Ciaranello, Andrea L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. The Pan-American Health Organization has called for reducing (1) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) to ≤0.30 infections/1000 live births (LB), (2) HIV MTCT risk to ≤2.0%, and (3) congenital syphilis (CS) incidence to ≤0.50/1000 LB in the Americas by 2015. Methods. Using published Brazilian data in a mathematical model, we simulated a cohort of pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) through birth. We investigated 2 scenarios: “current access” (89.1% receive one ANC syphilis test and 41.1% receive 2; 81.7% receive one ANC HIV test and 18.9% receive birth testing; if diagnosed, 81.0% are treated for syphilis and 87.5% are treated for HIV) and “ideal access” (95% of women undergo 2 HIV and syphilis screenings; 95% receive appropriate treatment). We conducted univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses on key inputs. Results. With current access, we projected 2.95 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.29 HIV infections/1000 LB, 7.1% HIV MTCT risk, and 11.11 intrauterine fetal demises (IUFD)/1000 pregnancies, with significant regional variation. With ideal access, we projected improved outcomes: 1.00 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.10 HIV infections/1000 LB, HIV MTCT risk of 2.4%, and 10.65 IUFD/1000 pregnancies. Increased testing drove the greatest improvements. Even with ideal access...

‣ Evaluation of preventative and control measures for congenital syphilis in State of Mato Grosso

Oliveira,Leila Regina de; Costa,Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto,Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira,Susan Martins; Dourado,Inês; Teixeira,Maria Glória
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Introduction Congenital syphilis is an important health problem in Brazil. This study assessed measures aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis in the State of Mato Grosso and its capital, Cuiabá. Methods A descriptive study cross-sectional and of time trends assessing the congenital syphilis was performed in Cuiabá and Mato Grosso between 2001 and 2011. We compared maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization related to cases of congenital syphilis during the periods from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2011. We assessed the temporal trends in this disease's incidence using a simple linear regression. Results Between 2001 and 2006 in Mato Grosso, 86.8% of the mothers who had live births with congenital syphilis received prenatal care, 90.6% presented with a nontreponemal test reagent at delivery, 96.2% had no information regarding a treponemal confirmatory test at delivery, and 77.6% received inadequate treatment for syphilis; additionally, 75.8% of their partners were not treated. There was a statistically significant reduction in prenatal visits (p = 0.004) and an increase in the proportion of mothers reactive to nontreponemal tests at delivery (p = 0.031) between the two periods. No other variables were found to differ significantly between the periods. In Cuiabá...

‣ Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage

Soeiro,Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda,Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni,Valeria; Santos,Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari,Sinesio; Ferreira,Luiz Carlos de Lima
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13108%
This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management.

‣ Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors

Southwick,Karen L.; Blanco,Stanley; Santander,Ana; Estenssoro,Miguel; Torrico,Faustino; Seoane,Guillermo; Brady,William; Fears,Martha; Lewis,Joel; Pope,Victoria; Guarner,Jeannette; Levine,William C.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery - all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in Bolivia. METHODS: All women delivering either live-born or stillborn infants in the seven participating hospitals in and around La Paz, El Alto, and Cochabamba between June and November 1996 were eligible for enrolment in the study. FINDINGS: A total of 61 out of 1428 mothers (4.3%) of live-born infants and 11 out of 43 mothers (26%) of stillborn infants were found to have syphilis at delivery. Multivariate analysis showed that women with live-born infants who had less than secondary-level education, who did not watch television during the week before delivery (this was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status), who had a previous history of syphilis, or who had more than one partner during the pregnancy were at increased risk of syphilis. While 76% of the study population had received prenatal care...

‣ Maternal and congenital syphilis in rural Haiti

Lomotey,Chaylah J.; Lewis,Judy; Gebrian,Bette; Bourdeau,Royneld; Dieckhaus,Kevin; Salazar,Juan C.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maternal syphilis and estimate the rate of congenital syphilis in five rural villages surrounding Jeremie, Haiti. METHODS: This research was a retrospective observational study. Data were extracted from the Haitian Health Foundation's public health database and verified through original clinical paper records, death certificates, midwife reports, and discussions with community health workers. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and two-tailed t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: Of the 410 women tested for syphilis, 31 (7.6%) were sero-reactive. Average gestation at time of testing was 25 weeks, which correlated with entry into prenatal care at an average of 23 weeks. Women who tested positive during pregnancy were more likely to have had a negative pregnancy outcome than those who did not (chi square = 16.4; P < 0.0001). The estimated rate of congenital syphilis in the region was 767 per 100,000 live births. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal syphilis is prevalent in rural Haiti. This prevalence combined with late entry into prenatal care contributes to adverse pregnancy outcomes and a high estimated rate of congenital syphilis. More research is needed on congenital syphilis and prenatal-care-seeking practices of rural Haitian women in order to understand the impact of maternal syphilis in the region and improve pregnancy outcomes.

‣ Prevalence of Syphilis and associated factors in homeless people of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a Rapid Test

Pinto,Valdir Monteiro; Tancredi,Mariza Vono; Alencar,Herculano Duarte Ramos De; Camolesi,Elisabeth; Holcman,Márcia Moreira; Grecco,João Paulo; Grangeiro,Alexandre; Grecco,Elisabete Taeko Onaga
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Introduction: Homeless people are a vulnerable group to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) with high prevalence of syphilis and hepatitis. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis infection and its association with risky behaviors for STDs in a sample of homeless people, and to assess the feasibility of the use of rapid syphilis test (RST) in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in a convenience sample of homeless people assisted in social support services of São Paulo, between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was applied and RST was performed. In addition, a blood sample for syphilis detection was also collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the RST was estimated using conventional laboratory diagnosis (VDRL + TPHA) as reference. Results: 1,405 volunteers were included in the study. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 7.0%, and was associated with homosexual practices (ORadj 4.9; 95%CI 2.6 - 9.4), prior history of STD (ORadj 2.6; 95%CI 1.7 - 4.0) and with self-referred non-white race (ORadj 1.9; 95%CI 1.1 - 3.4). The sensitivity and specificity of the RST for syphilis were, respectively, 81.4 and 92.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of syphilis infection among homeless people shows the need for actions for its control and the utilization of RST that can be considered an efficient strategy due to its sensitivity and specificity. Public Health policymakers must strengthen actions for syphilis control...

‣ Economic and programmatic aspects of congenital syphilis prevention

Schmid,George
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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A review of the economic and programmatic aspects of congenital syphilis was conducted and recommendations made for improvement of its prevention. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease and the tools to prevent it have been available for decades. In both industrialized and developing countries, but particularly the latter, the prevention of congenital syphilis by antenatal screening is cost-effective and may be cost-saving. Yet, globally, there are probably >500 000 fetal deaths a year from congenital syphilis, a figure rivalling that from mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which receives far greater attention. The reasons that congenital syphilis persists vary, with international and national under-appreciation of the burden of congenital syphilis and insufficient political will to provide effective antenatal screening programmes probably being the main reasons. All causes are amenable to effective intervention programmes. The prevention of congenital syphilis should be a global priority; international agencies and national programmes should be committed to improving antenatal care (ANC) services including syphilis detection and prevention.

‣ The prevention and management of congenital syphilis: an overview and recommendations

Saloojee,Haroon; Velaphi,Sithembiso; Goga,Yasmin; Afadapa,Nike; Steen,Richard; Lincetto,Ornella
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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The continued occurrence of congenital syphilis is an indictment of the inadequate antenatal care services and poor quality of programmes to control sexually transmitted infections. More than 1 million infants are born with congenital syphilis each year. Despite national policies on antenatal testing and the widespread use of antenatal services, syphilis screening is still implemented only sporadically in many countries, leaving the disease undetected and untreated among many pregnant women. The weak organization of services and the costs of screening are the principal obstacles facing programmes. Decentralization of antenatal syphilis screening programmes, on-site testing and immediate treatment can reduce the number of cases of congenital syphilis. Antenatal syphilis screening and treatment programmes are as cost effective as many existing public health programmes, e.g. measles immunization. Diagnosis of congenital syphilis is problematic since more than half of all infants are asymptomatic, and signs in symptomatic infants may be subtle and nonspecific. Newer diagnostic tests such as enzyme immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting have made diagnosis more sensitive and specific but are largely unavailable in the settings where they are most needed. Guidelines developed for better-resourced settings are conservative and err on the side of overtreatment. They are difficult to implement in...

‣ Maternal syphilis: pathophysiology and treatment

Berman,Stuart M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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Despite the long history of medical interest in syphilis and its effects on pregnancy outcome, many fundamental questions about the pathophysiology and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy remain unanswered. However, understanding has been advanced by recent scientific reports such as those which delineate the complete sequence of the genome of the syphilis spirochaete, provide a more precise description of fetal and neonate infection by use of rabbit infectivity tests and describe the gestational age distribution of fetal death secondary to syphilis. It appears that fetal syphilitic involvement progresses in a rather predictable fashion, and although there is disagreement about the optimal prenatal treatment regimen, programmatic efforts to prevent fetal death must provide seropositive pregnant women with a recommended treatment early in pregnancy, and certainly before the third trimester.

‣ Diagnostic tools for preventing and managing maternal and congenital syphilis: an overview

Peeling,Rosanna W.; Ye,Htun
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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Syphilis is a major cause of adverse outcomes in pregnancy in developing countries. Fetal death and morbidity due to congenital syphilis are preventable if infected mothers are identified and treated appropriately by the middle of the second trimester. Most pregnant women with syphilis are asymptomatic and can only be identified through serological screening. Non-treponemal tests, such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, are sensitive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. However, they have often not been available at primary health-care settings because they required cold storage for reagents and electricity to operate a rotator. Additionally, as many as 28% of positive RPR results in pregnant women are biological false positives. Confirmatory assays are usually available only in reference laboratories. Technological advances have resulted in improved serodiagnostic tools for syphilis. New enzyme immunoassays are available for surveillance and for large-scale screening programmes. Decentralized antenatal screening with on-site confirmation is now possible since new RPR reagents that are stable at room temperature have become commercially available, as have solar-powered rotators and simple, rapid point-of-care treponemal tests that use whole blood and do not require electricity or equipment. These will be valuable tools for preventing or eliminating congenital syphilis. The development of a non-invasive rapid treponemal test that distinguishes between active and past infections remains a high priority in areas where syphilis is endemic.

‣ Can the Perinatal Information System in Peru be used to measure the proportion of adverse birth outcomes attributable to maternal syphilis infection?

Bradley,Heather; Tapia,Vilma; Kamb,Mary L.; Newman,Lori M.; Garcia,Patricia J.; Serruya,Suzanne J.; Fort,Alfredo L.; Broutet,Nathalie; Nelson,Robert; Kirkcaldy,Robert D.; Gonzales,Gustavo F.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To describe the capacity of Peru's Perinatal Information System (Sistema Informático Perinatal, SIP) to provide estimates for monitoring the proportion of stillbirths and other adverse birth outcomes attributable to maternal syphilis. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted to assess the quality and completeness of SIP data from six Peruvian public hospitals that used the SIP continuously from 2000 - 2010 and had maternal syphilis prevalence of at least 0.5% during that period. In-depth interviews were conducted with Peruvian stakeholders about their experiences using the SIP. RESULTS: Information was found on 123 575 births from 2000 - 2010 and syphilis test results were available for 99 840 births. Among those 99 840 births, there were 1 075 maternal syphilis infections (1.1%) and 619 stillbirths (0.62%). Among women with syphilis infection in pregnancy, 1.7% had a stillbirth, compared to 0.6% of women without syphilis infection. Much of the information needed to estimate the proportion of stillbirths attributable to maternal syphilis was available in the SIP, with the exception of syphilis treatment information, which was not collected. However, SIP data collection is complex and time-consuming for clinicians. Data were unlinked across hospitals and not routinely used or quality-checked. Despite these limitations...

‣ Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

Domingues,Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald,Celia Landmann; Souza Junior,Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal,Maria do Carmo
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast...