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‣ Modeling and analyzing cost, schedule, and performance in complex system product development

Browning, Tyson R
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 299 p.; 41178912 bytes; 41178669 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Tyson Rodgers Browning.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Technology, Management, and Policy Program, February 1999.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ Liberalizing development : effects of telecommunication liberalization in Thailand and the Philippines; Effects of telecommunication liberalization in Thailand and the Philippines

Krairit, Donyaprueth
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 158 leaves; 13573865 bytes; 13573625 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis hypothesized that extensive telecommunications liberalization would not increase the penetration rate of the fixed telephone service better than other, less competition-oriented, policy alternatives. The hypothesis was validated in the case of Thailand and the Philippines. However, for the cellular mobile telephone and Internet services, extensive telecommunications liberalization could increase the penetration rates better than other, less competition-oriented, policy alternatives. Thus, the thesis demonstrates that past research has not paid sufficient attention to this issue and has assumed that the more extensive reform could lead to the faster and the better telecommunications development of all telecommunication services. The thesis suggested that less-developed countries (LDCs) should realize that they do not have to fully implement liberalization reforms, but should instead specifically tailor their telecommunications reform policies to their own pace and needs. This study found that extensive liberalization reforms or extensive opening of the market does not necessarily increase penetration rates of services better than other less competition-oriented policy alternatives under the following conditions: Assuming that the services have not yet reached their saturation levels based on the S-curve...

‣ Bringing policy into space systems conceptual design : qualitative and quantitative methods

Weigel, Annalisa L. (Annalisa Lynn), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168 p.; 15537090 bytes; 15536849 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A change in government policy can send waves of crippling impacts through the design and development of publicly funded complex engineering systems. Thus it is important for system architects and designers to understand the interaction of policy with their systems, and to strive for policy robustness in their systems. To be policy robust is to successfully pass through policy changes that might arise during the course of system development in order to bring the system into operational use. The goal of this thesis research is to enable the creation of policy robust system architectures and designs through making policy an active consideration in the engineering systems architecting and design process. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are brought to bear on the problem using space systems as the application domain, and a process is set down through which policy can become an active consideration instead of a static constraint. Unique contributions of this thesis in the qualitative analysis of policy robust systems include new heuristics describing the interaction of policy and publicly funded engineering systems, as well as impact flow path diagrams for tracing policy interactions with technical engineering system parameters. Quantitative contributions include general relationships for the behavior of engineering system architecture sets under downward annual budget policy pressure...

‣ Product development process design : improving development response to market, technical, and regulatory risks

Unger, Darian W. (Darian William), 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 205 leaves; 20296846 bytes; 20296607 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Engineering companies frequently face product development challenges. Competitive pressures, industrial or societal innovations, and government regulations are some of the many factors that drive the need for new or better products. Companies respond to these drivers and changing needs by developing new products and employing product development processes (PDPs) to coherently manage the risks inherent in their development. Well-designed PDPs reduce development time, create better products, generate profit, and increase market share. In contrast, poorly-designed PDPs can severely harm both product lines and the companies that manufacture them. Many companies seek guidance in making important PDP design decisions. This thesis introduces PDPs as risk management frameworks. The research investigates the relationship between PDPs and risk management and seeks to help companies improve PDP design. It begins by discussing the drivers and risks of product development and then describes different PDPs. The traditional stage gate process is compared with the modified waterfall process, evolutionary prototyping, evolutionary delivery, design to schedule/budget process, the spiral process, and several other PDP variations. The research then proposes several iteration- and review-based metrics by which PDPs can be more effectively identified and compared. Ten company case studies exemplify a wide variety of actual PDPs...

‣ Networking technology adoption : system dynamics modeling of fiber-to-the-home

Kelic, Andjelka, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 244 p.; 1009164 bytes; 1008946 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A system dynamics model is developed and run to study the adoption of fiber-to-the-home as a residential broadband technology. Communities that currently do not have broadband in the United States are modeled. This case is of particular interest to U.S. policymakers, but also relevant to other regions concerned with economic development in rural areas. The model is used to explore the effects of government policy on fiber-to-the-home deployment and on the telecommunications supply chain. The research finds that government policy relating to broadband deployment has been based on a weak understanding of the dynamics involved, resulting in trial and error policy making that has unintended consequences. The thesis shows that the current monitoring of broadband deployment by the Federal Communications Commission is inadequate to contribute to the formation of reasoned policy decisions. The model is used to explore the consequences that different regulatory scenarios have on fiber-to-the-home deployment. Among the policy choices considered are: resale of fiber-to-the-home lines to competitive providers; low cost government loans for commercial deployments; rapid deployment to all communities currently without service; and a ban on municipal deployments. The current Rural Utilities Service loan program is also included in the model and its effects are analyzed. The model is used to examine the consequences for the optoelectronics industry of different deployment scenarios. It shows that the interests of consumers...

‣ Engineering and policy analysis of strategic and tactical options for future aerospace traffic management

Falker, John M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 7238178 bytes; 7237987 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Current space launch/landing events are conducted only within Special Use Airspace (SUA), separate from air traffic. This is a strategic traffic management policy because SUA size and duration are set well in advance. It forces space operations to disrupt aviation, which could become costly with growth in air or space transportation. This was investigated through integrated engineering/policy analysis of strategic and tactical options. Total annual disruption cost was calculated using the number of conflicts per SUA event, the annual SUA events, the average disruption per conflict, and the cost per unit disruption. The conflict count was identified as most important, and an analytical airspace conflict model was developed to predict the number of conflicts associated with restricting an arbitrary region of airspace for a given duration. This approach was used to investigate the sensitivity of disruption cost to SUA radius, SUA active duration, air traffic density, relative velocity, annual SUA events, and conflict resolution distance. The current annual cost is under $1 million, but the expected ranges of all factors comprise a plausible range of $100 to $8 million. This cost was most sensitive to SUA radius: on average, doubling the radius multiplies the cost by 49...

‣ Stakeholder-assisted modeling and policy design for engineering systems

Mostashari, Ali, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 462 p.; 32174640 bytes; 32238043 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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There is a growing realization that stakeholder involvement in decision-making for large- scale engineering systems is necessary and crucial, both from an ethical perspective, as well as for improving the chances of success for an engineering systems project. Traditionally however, stakeholders have only been involved after decision-makers and experts have completed the initial decision-making process with little or no input from stakeholders. This has resulted in conflict and delays for engineering systems with brilliant technical designs that do not address the larger context of the broader social goals. One of the fears of experts is that the involvement of stakeholders will result in technical solutions that are of poor quality. The hypothesis of this research is that an effective involvement of stakeholders in the decision-making process for engineering systems from the problem definition stage through the system representation can produce a system representation that is superior to representations produced in an expert-centered process. This dissertation proposes a Stakeholder-Assisted Modeling and Policy Design (SAM-PD) process for effectively involving stakeholders in engineering systems with wide-ranging social and environmental impact. The SAM-PD process is designed based on insights from existing engineering systems methodologies and alternative dispute resolution literature. Starting with a comprehensive analysis of engineering systems methodologies...

‣ Local content requirements and industrial development : economic analysis and cost modeling of the automotive supply chain; Making sense of domestic content decisions : strategies and policies of local sourcing in the automotive industry

Veloso, Francisco, 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 216 leaves; 11574921 bytes; 11574729 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation addresses the issue of performance standards in developing nations, focusing on the role of local content requirements. It proposes a theoretical framework to understand the impact of this policy on the decisions of firms and the welfare of the domestic economy, and offers a methodology to apply the analysis to the context of the automotive supply chain. The central conclusion of the thesis relates to the existence of a gap between private and social opportunity returns and costs, an aspect that has been overlooked by previous literature. In a developing country, resources employed by foreign investors and their local suppliers often generate spillovers and learning effects that are not accounted for in the valuations of private economic agents. This creates an externality-from-entry, whereby positive economic effects of new domestic suppliers are overlooked in the sourcing decision of the foreign firm. This dissertation proposes a model to illustrate how this gap between social and private valuations justifies the enactment of domestic content requirements, which become welfare enhancing. The analysis also reveals that content requirements are a preferable policy to tariffs and subsidies as a means to increase domestic purchases and discusses the use of subsidies and requirements as incentive mechanisms to align firm decisions with government objectives. A case study of the automotive industry...

‣ Technology and policy options for reducing industrial air pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

Vijay, Samudra, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.; 14451916 bytes; 14485152 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Technology plays an important role in dealing with air pollution and other environmental problems faced by developing and developed societies. This research examines if technological solutions alone, such as end-of-pipe and process control technologies, can achieve substantial and sustained emissions reduction from the industrial sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Environmental standards for most of the criteria pollutants have frequently been violated in the MCMA. Severe air pollution in the MCMA, and the roles of point and area sources, particularly industrial sector, are the prime motivating factors for this research. Industrial sources of air pollution play a significant role in aggravating the air pollution problem in the MCMA. This research focuses on a 25-year horizon for socio-economic growth of the MCMA, and its implications on industrial energy demand, and pollutant emissions. I develop a simulation model to estimate industrial energy demand and emissions from the MCMA industrial sector. The model incorporates industrial growth rate, changes in the structure of industry and energy intensity, pollution control technologies, fuel-switching, technological progress, etc. I find that the level of industrial activity...

‣ Effective information integration and reutilization : solutions to technological deficiency and legal uncertainty

Zhu, Hongwei
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159 p.; 11804398 bytes; 11811052 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The amount of electronically accessible information has been growing exponentially. How to effectively use this information has become a significant challenge. A post 9/11 study indicated that the deficiency of semantic interoperability technology hindered the ability to integrate information from disparate sources in a meaningful and timely fashion to allow for preventive precautions. Meanwhile, organizations that provided useful services by combining and reusing information from publicly accessible sources have been legally challenged. The Database Directive has been introduced in the European Union and six legislative proposals have been made in the U.S. to provide legal protection for non-copyrightable database contents, but the Directive and the proposals have differing and sometimes conflicting scope and strength, which creates legal uncertainty for valued-added data reuse practices. The need for clearer data reuse policy will become more acute as information integration technology improves to make integration much easier. This Thesis takes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing both the technology and the policy challenges, identified above, in the effective use and reuse of information from disparate sources.; (cont.) The technology component builds upon the existing Context Interchange (COIN) framework for large-scale semantic interoperability. We focus on the problem of temporal semantic heterogeneity where data sources and receivers make time-varying assumptions about data semantics. A collection of time-varying assumptions are called a temporal context. We extend the existing COIN representation formalism to explicitly represent temporal contexts...

‣ Guardians at the Gates of Hell : estimating the risk of nuclear theft and terrorism -- and identifying the highest-priority risks of nuclear theft

Bunn, Matthew
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 466 p.
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Methods are presented to assess the global risk of nuclear theft and nuclear terrorism, to identify the nuclear facilities and transport legs that pose the highest-priority risks of nuclear theft, and to evaluate policy approaches to strengthening security and accounting for nuclear stockpiles worldwide. First, a qualitative assessment outlines the demand for black-market nuclear weapons and materials; the plausibility of terrorist construction of an improvised nuclear device; the global stocks and flows of nuclear weapons, plutonium, and highly enriched uranium (HEU), with the global distribution of facilities where they exist; and the widely varying standards of physical protection, control, and accounting in place to prevent theft. Particular dangers of nuclear theft in Russia, Pakistan, and from HEU-fueled research reactors are highlighted. Second, a mathematical model of the global risk of nuclear terrorism is presented, with detailed assessments of what is known about the values of each of the parameters, and of policies that could change each of the parameters to reduce risk.; (cont.) Third, a methodology for identifying the nuclear facilities and transport legs posing the highest risks of nuclear terrorism is presented, combining the security levels for each facility or transport leg...

‣ Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet

Bandivadekar, Anup P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles. Previous work in this domain has compared individual vehicle or fuel alternatives. The aim of this research was to deepen the understanding of the likely scale and timing of the fleet-wide impact of emerging technologies. A model of the light-duty vehicle fleet showed that fuel consumption of mainstream gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) technology vehicles will determine the trajectory of fleet fuel use and GHG emissions over the next two decades. Using vehicle simulations and historical data, the trade-off between vehicle performance, size and fuel consumption was quantified. It was shown that up to 26 percent reduction in future LDV fuel use is possible with mainstream gasoline ICE vehicles alone if emphasis of vehicle technology is on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving performance. Addressing this vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers. By considering both supply and demand side constraints on building up vehicle production rates...

‣ Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

Martin, Katherine C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 227 p.
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Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs require stationary sources in the Eastern U.S. to reduce emissions without reference to timing or location. This work is part of a larger study on whether a NOx cap-and-trade program that differentiates across emissions by time and location could reduce ozone concentrations more cost-effectively than simple aggregate reductions in the NOx cap in the Eastern United States. To gauge possible gains relative to existing regulations, this work examines compliance data from coal power plants in 2002 and 2005 to estimate the effectiveness of existing un-differentiated regulations. It finds that some plant operators chose to remain under aggregated caps by emitting less NOx during early summer months when effects on ozone formation are low and emitting more NOx during late summer months when effects on ozone formation are great. This behavior was at once individually rational, environmentally damaging, and perfectly legal. To evaluate potential challenges to implementation, the study assesses the technical feasibility and the distributional effects of spatially and temporally differentiated regulatory systems. * Are power plants in the Eastern U.S. technically capable of reducing NOx emissions in response to incentives that changed in time and by location given network constraints? To address these questions...

‣ Induced technical change in computable general equilibrium models for climate-change policy analysis

Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 352 p.; 2925925 bytes; 2925680 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Policies to avert the threat of dangerous climate change focus on stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations by drastically reducing anthropogenic emissions of carbon. Such reductions require limiting the use of fossil fuels-which supply the bulk of energy to economic activity, and for which substitutes are lacking-which is feared will cause large energy price increases and reductions in economic welfare. However, a key determinant of the cost of emissions limits is technological change-especially innovation induced by the price changes that stem from carbon abatement itself, about which little is understood.This thesis investigates the inducement of technological change by limits on carbon emissions, and the effects of such change on the macroeconomic cost of undertaking further reductions. The analysis is conducted using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy-a numerical simulation that determines aggregate welfare based on the interaction of prices with the demands for and supplies of commodities and factors across different markets. Within the model induced technical change (ITC) is represented by the effect of emissions limits on the accumulation of the economy's stock of knowledge, and by the reallocation of the intangible services generated by the stock...

‣ Infrastructure investment and policy management of water resources for small-scale irrigated agriculture

Amornvivat, Sutapa, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 167 leaves; 2997579 bytes; 2997334 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We investigate the options for enhancing the welfare of small farmers in Thailand through subsidies of irrigation infrastructure. Enhanced water storage and irrigation can significantly improve yield and the welfare of the farm community by providing a more reliable water supply during growing periods. Generally speaking, such enhancements require subsidies from the government or other organizations since farmers are not able or willing to finance infrastructure development themselves. In order to maximize the effectiveness of such subsidies it is important to understand how farmers will react to alternative policies. We develop a two-tier approach to this problem. First, we use a government-level optimization model to identify the set of subsidies and water pricing policies that maximizes a stated measure of aggregate social welfare. This government-level model relies on a farm-level model that determines how individual small farmers will react to the policy alternatives. The farm-level model combines hydrologic, economic, and agronomic features since it considers how hydrologic variability affects crop yield, which in turn affects the farmer's utility. Policy decision variables considered in the government subsidy/pricing model include 1) water price and the number of farms served by public storage facilities (i. e. a water supply reservoir and enhanced in-stream storage)...

‣ Attribution principles for data integration : technology and policy perspectives; Principles of attribution for data integration : technology and policy perspectives

Lee, Thomas Y. (Thomas Yupoo)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 250 p.; 14265560 bytes; 14265360 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis addresses problems of attribution that arise from the data integration that is exemplified by data re-use and re-distribution on the Web. We present two different perspectives. We begin with a simple definition of attribution, asking what data are we interested in and where does it come from? A formal model and its properties are defined, implementation in an extended relational algebra is described, and application to semistructured data on the Web is discussed. However, because the problem is more than simply what and where, we then expand the scope of our analysis. From the perspective of intellectual property policies, we adopt a broader view of the attribution problem space. A policy analysis that surveys the status quo policy landscape and stakeholder interests is followed by specific policy recommendations. Informed by our technology perspective, we offer two new arguments to support misappropriation as a policy approach to the attribution problem space. Our formal model of attribution is developed in the established foundation of the Domain Relational Calculus (DRC). Three distinct types of attribution are identified: comprehensive, source, and relevant. For each type, we consider the attribution of equivalent DRC expressions...

‣ Uncertainty and learning in sequential decision-making : the case of climate policy

Webster, Mort David
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 240 p.; 21779590 bytes; 21779345 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The debate over a policy response to global climate change has been and continues to be deadlocked between 1) the view that the impacts of climate change are too uncertain and so any policy response should be delayed until we learn more, and 2) the view that we cannot wait to resolve the uncertainty because climate change is irreversible so we must take precautionary measures now. The objective of this dissertation is to sort out the role of waiting for better information in choosing an appropriate level of emissions abatement activities today under uncertainty. In this dissertation, we construct two-period sequential decision models to represent the choice of a level of emissions abatement over the next decade and another choice for the remainder of this century, both empirical models based on a climate model of intermediate complexity, and analytical dynamic programming models. Using the analytical models, we will show that for learning to have an influence on the decision before the learning occurs, an interaction must be present between strategies in the two decision periods. We define an "interaction" as the dependence of the marginal cost or marginal damage of the future decision on today's decision. When an interaction is present and is uncertain...

‣ Probabilistic risk analysis of restructured electric power systems : implications for reliability analysis and policies

Felder, Frank Andrew
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 209 p.; 18265282 bytes; 18265037 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Modem society requires reliable and safe operation of its infrastructure. Policymakers believe that, in many industries, competitive markets and regulatory incentives will result in system performance superior to that under command-and-control regulation. Analytical techniques to evaluate the reliability and safety of complex engineering systems, however, do not explicitly account for responses to market and regulatory incentives. In addition, determining which combination of market and regulatory incentives to use is difficult because policy analysts' understanding of complex systems often depends on uncertain data and limited models that reflect incomplete knowledge. This thesis confronts the problem of evaluating the reliability of a complex engineering system that responds to the behavior of decentralized economic agents. Using the example of restructured and partially deregulated electric power systems, it argues that existing engineering-based reliability tools are insufficient to evaluate the reliability of restructured power systems. This research finds that electricity spot markets are not perfectly reliable, that is, they do not always result in sufficient supply to meet demand. General conclusions regarding the reliability of restructured power systems that some economic analysts suggest should be the basis of reliability policies are either verified or demonstrated to be true only when applied to extremely simple and unrealistic models. New generation unit and transmission component availability models are proposed that incorporate dependent failure modes and capture the behavior of economic agents...

‣ Linking modularity and cost : a methodology to assess cost implications of product architecture differences to support product design

Fixson, Sebastian K. (Sebastian Klaus), 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 255 p.; 11993975 bytes; 11993774 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Reaching saturation levels, many markets in modem industrial societies tend to fracture into smaller 'niche' markets, and create a need for greater variety. At the same time, increasing product variety in non-growing markets results in decreasing production volumes per model, which tends to increase costs. Modularity as a design concept has been suggested to be able reconciling these opposing effects. Most descriptions of modularity characterize products through idealized extremes, such as 'modular' versus 'integral.' While conceptually powerful, this notion is very difficult to operationalize. Consequently, it has been very problematic to determine the economic consequences of modularity. This thesis presents a methodology to overcome this problem. The development of the methodology is split into three parts: what is modularity, what costs are considered, and how can the link between the two be established? First, to operationalize modularity, an in-depth analysis of the phenomenon was conducted and an alternative framework developed. The multi-disciplinary analysis revealed that modularity is a bundle of product characteristics rather than an individual feature, and that different disciplines and viewpoints emphasize different elements of this bundle. Consequently...

‣ Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions; Environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 343 p.
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Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological progress, which helps form a basis for future standards. Because of differences in each firm's technological capability and environmental performance, regulations affect the competitive position of firms. Firms with advanced technologies stand to gain competitive benefit from more stringent environmental regulations, and may therefore choose to introduce a more costly but cleaner technology ahead of regulation. Such a competitive regulatory strategy has the potential to bring competitive benefits to the lead firm(s) and environmental benefits to the public. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel vehicle and fuel industry. Growing public concern about the health effects of diesel exhaust has led countries to implement several cycles of increasingly stringent emission and fuel regulations over the past two decades.; (cont.) Taking a comparative case study approach, this work studies multiple regulatory cycles for light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines...