O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar e comparar custos de produção para a soja, visando as análises comparativas de custos incorridos entre a cultura trasngênica e convencional e entre os custos contidos nas planilhas disponibilizadas pelos órgãos públicos no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos. Para tanto foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo, no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, para levantamento, através de entrevistas a produtores, de dados primários referentes a safra 2004/05 que compuseram o banco de dados necessário para a formação das planilhas de custo de produção. O comparativo entre as duas modalidades de cultivo, viabilizado através de revisão bibliográfica dos conceitos envolvidos em uma planilha típica de custo de produção, revelou que o custo da soja transgênica foi aproximadamente 14,8 % menor do que o da soja convencional. A análise mostrou que os produtores que adotaram a nova tecnologia tiveram um custo inferior com herbicida e mão-de-obra quando comparado ao custo da convencional. Para o comparativo entre as planilhas obtidas a luz das metodologias dos órgãos públicos, coube a revisão bibliográfica das metodologias utilizadas pela Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB) para o Brasil e pelo Departamento de Agricultura (USDA) para os Estados Unidos. A partir de dados comuns...
by Shaw-er Judy Wang Chiang.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil Engineering, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING; Bibliography: leaves 180-184.
This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the "commercialization" of new energy technologies; these programs
are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by
the private sector. The "commercial demonstration" is the principal tool used
in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focussed on R&D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively
little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application.
The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R,D&D
within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined.
The issue or "prices versus gaps" is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system.
Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy
technologies is then examined for possible sources of misaligment or social
and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments.
Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of
commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it
are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which
such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion
stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political...
Since the late 1970s, the US electric power industry has been undergoing major changes. The electric utility industry had mainly consisted of highly regulated, vertically integrated, local monopolies, providing customers with all electric services at rates determined by the state regulatory agency. Deregulation and restructuring in the power industry triggered a transition towards competition in electricity generation, due to the formation of competitive markets at the wholesale level - in some states, at the retail level as well. Since utilities can no longer price at cost-of-service rates, investors in electric generation capacity, like nuclear power, will face a different set of financial risks. Moreover, the economic context of volatile coal and gas prices, increasingly stringent NOx, S02 and mercury regulations, and growing support for C02 regulations will likely positively impact the value of nuclear capacity. Conversely, unresolved issues in the nuclear industry inherent to radioactive waste disposal, decommissioning and public opposition related to security concerns will likely penalize the building of new nuclear capacity. More importantly, regulatory delays in construction, mainly caused by the plant approval process by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...
Emergency responders have suffered from a lack of cross-agency radio communications for the past three decades. After numerous firefighters died in the terrorist attacks of September 11, partially due to a lack of interoperability with police officers on the scene, the federal government began implementing policies, programs, and funding to improve interoperability amongst state and local first responders. This thesis explores the scope and the effectiveness of many of the federal efforts towards interoperability that have occurred between 2001 and 2006. Since 2001, the federal government has made progress in a number of areas relating to the national interoperability of first responders. These include: creating and reorganizing interoperability programs, such as SAFECOM within DHS; promoting open standards for equipment manufacturers; freeing radio spectrum for first responder use; and partially funding the purchase of new, interoperable communication equipment through grant programs and national initiatives. However, these efforts were slow to start, with the majority of progress only occurring within the past two years. Furthermore, the government has not set broad interoperability goals, and there are continuing questions about the amount of financial support that the government has offered and will continue to offer towards the problem.; (cont.) The European Union and the U.S. military have both dealt with interoperability as well...
In the United States, the construction industry accounts for almost 75% of total raw material used. This is an obvious drain on natural resources and has a major impact on the surrounding environment. Construction materials are also responsible for a relatively large portion of the global CO2 emissions. The commercial construction industry is dominated by the use of steel and in-situ concrete as building materials. It is intuitive then, to state that these two materials and their respective production flows have a significant impact on the environment, simply because of the amount of material being produced and consumed in the building industry today. In addition, due to drastic increases in energy prices and potential shortages in the future, the amount of energy consumed in the production of construction materials (embodied energy) and the amount of energy used over a projected life span (operational energy) are becoming increasingly more important to builders, designers, and owners of buildings. The growing trend in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, is towards eco-friendly design. In the last several years, the concrete and steel industries have spent significant resources to promote their material as the optimum solution for sustainable building design.; (cont.) Because natural resource consumption...
The significant rise in the prison population in the United States has resulted in a severe shock to the correctional system. Specifically, from 1980 to 2004, the population of offenders incarcerated in state and federal prisons has increased almost five-fold from 315,974 to 1,494,216. As a result, 650,000 prisoners are released back into society each year, placing additional stress on already distressed communities. The ability of released prisoners, or ex-offenders, to successfully reintegrate into society depends to a large degree on the programming made available to them prior to and after their release. However, the cadre of programming offered by prison systems is constrained by the frames that policymakers use to talk about the issue of prisoner reentry. Understanding the frames that people construct are the key to grasping the philosophical foundations underlying current legislation as well as to proffering new policy solutions that are relevant to all stakeholders. This thesis documents both the historical and current frames surrounding the issue of prisoner reentry in Illinois corrections policy, particularly as it relates to the city of Chicago, which takes in 20,000 ex-offenders each year from the Illinois prison system.; (cont.) The dominant policy discourse in Illinois is moving away from the crime control frame...
Industrial ecology offers models for hybridizing technology and natural processes, human desires and the capacities of ecosystems in an effort to reconcile the expanding conflicts among them. Industrial symbiosis applies this thinking to the scale of the city and its supporting industrial operations. Case studies of industrial symbiosis, which is the changing of linear, open-loop production to closed-loop systems through the reuse and exchange of waste materials, energy, and knowledge, showcase advantages in waste and energy use reduction within the United States. What are the major limits holding back the widespread development of industrial symbiosis in this country and how can they be overcome? Secondly, what tools can foster its large-scale implementation once the constraints are overcome? Methodologically, the successful study of the future capacity of industrial symbiosis within the American context must address the future consequences of resources that are no longer cheap nor abundant, as well as the current state of their production, distribution, and consumption.; (cont.) The major constraints facing industrial symbiosis in America are: current extremely high subsidies in transport and resource costs, low symbiosis visibility...
Lean enterprise transformation entails a complementary set of initiatives and efforts executed over a substantial period of time, in a consistent and coordinated manner, at all levels of the enterprise. It builds upon ordinary organizational change in that a broader set of people and functions will be affected, and non-traditional approaches and mental models will continue to be exercised. I have developed and proposed a set of capabilities that must be possessed by any enterprise in order for that enterprise to successfully transform and sustain a new way of doing business. These capabilities have been drawn and compiled from a combination of organizational change literature and models, as well as personal experience and observations. Between 2003 and the present, three US Air Force Air Logistics Centers (ALCs) initiated lean enterprise transformation efforts. This notion was beyond the activities these sites pursued in the past, as the ALCs were challenged to see their enterprises as a system that needed to be optimized. I have used the capabilities developed to assess each ALC and make suggestions regarding their future needs in executing lean enterprise changes.; (cont.) In particular, I have focused on two of the twelve capabilities (a leadership team with a shared mental model and a balanced and cascading system of metrics)...
Geothermal district heating experience in the U.S. is reviewed and evaluated to explore the potential impact of utilizing this frequently undervalued renewable energy resource for space and hot water heating. Although the first U.S. geothermal district heating system (GDHS) was constructed in the 1890s in Boise, Idaho, growth in the sector has been slow. Currently there are only twenty-one operating GDHS in the U.S. with a capacity of about 100 MW thermal. In this study the main barriers and enablers to the growth of district heating were identified and investigated. Initially a literature review and interviews with current U.S. district heating operators were used to collect data on various aspects of the systems and their development. Based on analysis of the data and the current structure of the geothermal district heating regulatory and market environment in the U.S. recommendations on how to advance geothermal district heating in the U.S. are developed. Technical feasibility of increasing the geothermal district heating capacity to 10,000 MWt was established by identifying the available resource and technology for utilization. Furthermore, the opportunity presented by Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) was briefly explored. Social feasibility was analyzed and the need for geothermal energy education and expanded resource exploration was recognized. Furthermore...
xii, 463 p. : ill., music ; 28 cm.; Scholars in the social sciences have devoted considerable research to the relationship between the United States and Mexico, underscoring its crucial importance to the economic, political, social and cultural development of both countries. However, academics in the humanities and arts are just beginning to write the history of binational cultural relations. This study examines the musical nationalisms of both countries in the context of the binational relationship. A comparative analysis of Mexican and American musical nationalisms shows significant, yet largely unexplored, connections and parallels, elucidating the mechanisms through which foreign policy, culture, and music interact to create and mediate national and transnational identities.
The definition of a national identity and the development of cultural and political nationalism dominated much of the musical discourse of early twentieth century American and Mexican art music, as well as of popular music in the late part of the century. Intertwined with the discourse of musical nationalism in both countries are aesthetic and cultural issues emerging from two dichotomies that came to dominate the music of the twentieth century: the split between modernism and the Classical tradition...
This is a study of Japan and Taiwan's different responses to the expansion of the global drug industry. The thesis focuses on the problematic of "voicing," of how a state can make its interests heard in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH is a unique project that facilitates the formation of a single global market by creating universal standards for clinical trials and drug approvals. Tracing, through "slow motion" ethnography, step by step, why Japan claims a racial difference requires additional local clinical trials with "Asian bodies," this thesis rejects conventional interpretations of protectionism for Japan's resistance to globalization. It argues that more than protectionism is involved, and that a rich ethnographic understanding of Japan's medical infrastructure is required to understand the claim of biological, cultural, and national differences, as well as biostatistical arguments about the ambiguities of "extrapolation" of clinical data from one place to another.; (cont.) The inherent ambiguities of efforts to create "bridging" studies as a temporary solution to these problematics created a deadlock in the ICH, and provided an opening for Taiwan...
There are currently about 120 airport rail links existing or proposed to be constructed around the world. The growth in the number of airport rail links reflects the almost relentless growth in air travel and the associated worsening congestion and delays on both landside and airside of airports. Rail-Air Passenger Intermodal Development (RAPID) in the United States has lagged behind the world trend, especially in comparison with Europe and Japan. This paper consists of two tasks: to examine technical priorities for the competitiveness of rail a s a feeder to a irports, a nd to i dentify key b arriers a nd recommend changes for RAPID development in this nation. Having an effective intermodal connection has proved to be the prerequisite for the successfulness of RAPID. When such a connection is available, enhancing intermodal cooperation is likely to be more effective than operating high speed rail in terms of the competitiveness of railfor airport trips. The speed of trains only needs to be high enough to ensure door-to-door trip time advantages over highways and flights in short- to mid- distance corridors. All the necessary technical options for RAPID have been widely applied in the world for decades. Even without technical challenges...
This document describes measurable learning outcomes for American Sign Language (ASL) levels 1 – 4. A history of ASL provides
the background and foundation for the document and includes an overview of teaching and learning ASL in the United States. The
processes leading to the creation of the outcomes for ASL levels 1 – 4 are discussed and incorporate the development of ASL
outcomes for college-level courses. Information about how the outcomes were adapted was taken, with permission, from the American
Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). The key premise of ACTFL’s “5 Cs” are: Communication, Cultures,
Connections, Comparisons, and Communities and are highlighted in the document. Recommendations by the American Sign
Language Teachers Association (ASLTA) and stakeholders in New York State are included, along with the number and content of
instructional contact hours in a supervised language laboratory. The measurable learning outcomes following ACTFL’s 5 Cs make up
the majority of the document. Regardless of teaching style, and acknowledging that each teacher is unique and has his or her own
teaching style, the goals and objectives for measuring student progress must be met. References, a resource section...
Such was the extent of the United States’ dominance in the arena of military capability over
the last two decades that discussion of others’ capacity to rival it largely disappeared from
mainstream discussion. Though the US was probably the world’s foremost military power even
during the Cold War, there was still scope for anxious public debate in the 1950s and 1970s of
imagined ‘missile gaps’, i.e. a Soviet advantage in advanced delivery technology for nuclear
weapons. In 1990-91, however, two events occurred in quick succession which inaugurated an
era of total American pre-eminence. First, the United States trounced Iraq, previously considered
a military force of at least credible middle-ranking standing, in the Gulf War, displaying in
the process the fruits of many years of investment in advanced battlefield technology. Then
Communism stumbled and the Soviet Union fell apart, ushering in a wave of economic
dysfunction and military wastage from which the Russian state has never fully recovered.