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‣ Conflitos no período pós-privatização das telecomunicações: um estudo de caso ; Conflicts on the brazilian telecommunications sector after privatization : a case study

Paula, Verônica Angélica Freitas de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2003 Português
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RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo é verificar questões relacionadas à solução de conflitos no setor de telecomunicações no período pós-privatização, analisando de forma detalhada um conflito ocorrido entre a Embratel e a Telefônica, com base nos conceitos de negociação, concorrência e solução de conflitos. Inicialmente são apresentados conceitos sobre a forma de organização do Estado e a tendência mundial de flexibilização de monopólios, culminando com a privatização de setores essenciais da economia, como o de telecomunicações; a criação de uma agência nacional para regular o setor e garantir o modelo de competição e universalização; concorrência e competitividade; e as formas de solução de conflitos, com destaque para o setor de telecomunicações no Brasil. Para o estudo de caso, são coletadas informações em fontes secundárias e são realizadas entrevistas na Telefônica e na ANATEL e contato com pessoa indicada pelo CADE. Com os dados coletados é possível analisar o conflito ocorrido após o cumprimento antecipado de metas da Telefônica, o que possibilitou a essa empresa atuar na Região de concessão da Embratel, e a posição dos agentes envolvidos sobre o contexto atual do setor privatizado. ; ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to verify some issues related to conflict resolution in the telecommunications sector on the period after the privatization...

‣ Implementing ABC in the telecommunications sector: a case study

Major, M.
Fonte: OMICS Pubshing Group Publicador: OMICS Pubshing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Profound changes have affected the European telecommunications sector in the last 15 years. With its liberalization at the end of 1990s many telecommunications companies, such as ‘International Telecom’ had to adopt advanced managerial accounting systems that could provide them with detailed and accurate cost accounting information. To this respect Activity-based Costing revealed crucial to aid International Telecom to face fierce competition coming out from the new operators that came into market and to respond to regulatory demands.

‣ Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

‣ Price Structure and Network Externalities in the Telecommunications Industry : Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Many developing countries have experienced significant developments in their telecommunications network. Countries in Africa are no exception to this. The paper examines what factor facilitates most network expansion using micro data from 45 fixed-line and mobile telephone operators in 18 African countries. In theory the telecommunications sector has two sector-specific characteristics: network externalities and discriminatory pricing. It finds that many telephone operators in the region use peak and off-peak prices and termination-based price discrimination, but are less likely to rely on strategic fee schedules such as tie-in arrangements. The estimated demand function based on a discreet consumer choice model indicates that termination-based discriminatory pricing can facilitate network expansion. It also shows that the implied price-cost margins are significantly high. Thus, price liberalization could be conducive to development of the telecommunications network led by the private sector. Some countries in Africa are still imposing certain price restrictions. But more important...

‣ Extending Telecommunications beyond the Market : Toward Universal Service in Competitive Environments

Wellenius, Bjorn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Competitive markets go a long way toward making telecommunications services available throughout the population. But governments often seek to extend access to services beyond what the private sector will provide on its own. To widen access, governments must remove obstacles that prevent the market from working well, and must let users decide what they need and can afford. Market mechanisms must be allowed to determine who will extend service beyond the market, how much will be invested, and where. As governments adopt such measures, they must make some critical decisions: Which services to extend? To what population groups? At what cost? Who should provide the additional service? Who should pay? The answers vary widely among countries and over time. This Note outlines options and best practices, emphasizing those relevant to emerging economies.

‣ Private Participation in Telecommunications : Recent Trends

Izaguirre, Ada Karina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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More than ninety developing economies opened their telecommunications sector to private participation between 1990 and 1998. These countries transferred to the private sector the operating or construction risk, or both, of more than 500 projects, attracting investment commitments of US$214 billion. Two-thirds of that amount has been invested in expanding and modernizing networks; the other third has gone to governments as divestiture revenues or license fees. The investment shows three main trends: Latin America is in the lead. Private participation takes place in increasingly competitive market structures. And divestitures and greenfield projects outnumber operations and management contracts.

‣ Djibouti - Telecommunications and ICT Diagnosis and Advocacy Policy Note : Mitigating the Opportunity Cost of Status Quo

Bezzina, Jérôme
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This diagnosis and advocacy policy note highlights key issues in the Djiboutian telecommunications sector and suggests possible recommendations for policy and regulatory reform. In Djibouti the sector is fully vertically integrated and the monopolistic position of Djibouti Telecom on the whole market drives the telecommunication sector to global inefficiencies, impacting the whole social welfare. The note identifies the key operational, regulatory and policy challenges and argues that, in persisting with those identified bottlenecks the country would simply trigger a fiscal and economic opportunity cost expected to dramatically impede the development of the sector, and jeopardize the expected developmental impacts of major infrastructure projects currently initiated. Strategic and Policy recommendations to mitigate the opportunity cost of status quo are eventually proposed. Among the reforms proposed were proposing choices the reform could take, reinforcing the regulatory body of the Ministry of Communication...

‣ Telecommunications Regulation Handbook

Intven, Hank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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In recognition of the fundamental importance of an appropriate regulatory environment to accelerate connectivity, and access to information services, this handbook provides a practical reference source, on the methods used to regulate the telecommunications sector around the world, emphasizing best practices. The focus is on practices that promote the efficient supply of telecommunications services in a competitive marketplace. It offers a useful compilation of descriptions, and analyses of regulatory practices, and approaches applied in a wide range of countries. The handbook outlines the various factors that motivated the liberalization of telecommunications markets, i.e., increased growth, and fast innovations for better services; the need to expand and upgrade telecommunications networks with new services; growth of the Internet; of mobile and other wireless services; and, of international trade in telecommunications services. These factors compelled regulatory objectives to foster competitive markets to promote efficient supply of telecommunications...

‣ Telecommunications Reform in Malawi

Clarke, George R.G.; Gebreab, Frew A.; Mgombelo, Henry R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In 1998 the Government of Malawi decided to reform its telecommunications sector. Although the reform was ambitious in some ways, it was modest when compared with the most ambitious reforms adopted elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. The two main accomplishments were splitting the incumbent fixed line monopoly, the Malawi Post and Telecommunications Corporation, into two companies-Malawi Telecommunications Limited (MTL) and Malawi Post Corporation (MPC)-and issuing two new cellular licenses to two new private entrants. In addition, the Government also established a new regulator which was separate from, but heavily dependent on, the Ministry of Information and liberalized entry in value-added and Internet services. However, the Government had neither privatized the fixed-line telecommunications operator nor introduced competition in fixed-line services by the end of 2002. Clarke, Gebreab, and Mgombelo discuss sector performance before reform, details of the reform, the political motivation for reform, and events in the five years following the reform. The reform yielded mixed results. Although cellular penetration and Internet use expanded dramatically following reform...

‣ Liberalizing Basic Telecommunications : The Asian Experience

Fink, Carsten; Mattoo, Aaditya; Rathindran, Randeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors examine the liberalization of the basic telecommunications sector in Asian countries with a view to identifying good policy and determining how multilateral negotiations can promote it. They find that most Asian governments, despite the move away from traditional public monopolies, are still unwilling to allow unrestricted entry, eliminate limits on private and foreign ownership, and establish strong, independent regulators. But where comprehensive reform has been undertaken-including privatization, competition, and regulation-the availability of main lines, the quality of service, and the productivity of labor are significantly higher. Somewhat surprisingly, little unilateral liberalization has occurred since the last round of telecommunications negotiations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The new round therefore faces the challenge of not merely harvesting unilateral liberalization, as in the past, but of negotiating away existing restrictions. Since quantitative restrictions on the number of telecommunications service suppliers are pervasive...

‣ ICT Sector Policy Note for Panama : Enabling Inclusive Development through Information and Communications Technologies

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The Government of Panama and the private sector recognize the importance of information and communications technology (ICT) as an enabler of national development. This ICT sector policy note seeks to identify opportunities and challenges for growth of the ICT sector in Panama, particularly on rural access to broadband services and on cybersecurity, and potential for spillover impacts across other sectors. It provides a brief overview of the ICT sector in Panama and outlines a series of strategic actions and recommendations aimed at leveraging ICT as an engine of growth by targeting connectivity infrastructure, policies, regulation, e-Services, public data, and skills. The report is organized as follows: section one presents ICT sector in the economy. Section two deals with offer for connectivity. Section three presents demand. Section four describes the sector status from the cybersecurity point of view. Based on these analyses, section five identifies challenges that are hindering the growth of the industry, and section six presents policy options to overcome them. Finally...

‣ A Sector Assessment : Accelerating Growth of High-Speed Internet Services in Azerbaijan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Azerbaijan s development at the beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the great success story of its petroleum industry, which has propelled Azerbaijan to the level of the most rapidly growing economies in Europe and Central Asia. While oil and gas reserves are finite and their extraction and transportation is largely impacted by exogenous factors the Government of Azerbaijan has recently focused its policies on economic diversification, which, among others, prioritizes public investment spending to boost the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. It is envisaged that by 2020 Azerbaijan s ICT sector should become one of the main contributors to the non-oil GDP and should facilitate country s transition into the knowledge economy. Telecommunications liberalization, modernization and extension of the national telecom infrastructure, implementation of e-government, and other sector-specific policies have helped stimulate the growth of the local ICT sector which since 2005 has been expanding at an average rate of 25-30 percent. The telecom industry...

‣ Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

‣ Telecommunications Reform in Cote d'Ivoire

Laffont, Jean-Jacques; N'Guessan, Tchetche
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper analyzes Cote d'Ivoire's experience with telecommunications liberalization and privatization. Cote d'Ivoire privatized its incumbent operator in 1997, and granted the newly privatized firm seven years of fixed-line exclusivity while introducing "managed competition" in the cellular market and free competition in value-added services (VAS). By March 2001, three cellular operators and a number of VAS providers had entered the market. Reform has thus significantly changed the landscape of Cote d'Ivoire's telecommunications sector and has brought with it tremendous improvement in sector performance. Between 1997 and 2001, fixed-line telephone penetration grew from 1.03 to 1.80 per hundred people, while mobile penetration skyrocketed from 0.26 to 4.46. But it is still too early to assess the validity of granting exclusivity to the incumbent operator. While penetration increased, the operator did not meet objectives regarding rural telephony and service quality. Moreover, fixed-line penetration increased in areas where the operator faced competition from mobile providers.

‣ Telecommunications Sector Reforms in Senegal

Azam, Jean-Paul; Dia, Magueye; N'Guessan, Tchetche
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper analyzes Senegal's experience with telecommunications liberalization and privatization. Senegal privatized its incumbent operator in 1997, and granted the newly privatized firm seven years of fixed-line exclusivity while introducing "managed competition" in the cellular market and free competition in value-added services (VAS). By May 2001, two cellular operators, a number of VAS providers, and thousands of retailers operating telecenters had entered the market. Reform has thus significantly changed the landscape of Senegal's telecommunications sector and has brought with it tremendous improvement in sector performance. Between 1997 and 2001, fixed-line telephone penetration grew from 1.32 to 2.45 per hundred people, while mobile penetration skyrocketed from 0.08 to 4.04. But it is still too early to assess the validity of granting fixed-line exclusivity to the incumbent operator. While penetration increased, the operator did not meet objectives regarding rural telephony. Moreover, fixed-line penetration increased in areas where the operator faced competition from a mobile provider.

‣ Telecommunications Reform in Uganda

Shirley, Mary M.; Tusubira, F.F.; Gebreab, Frew; Haggarty, Luke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The paper documents the case of Uganda's telecommunications reform. Uganda is one of only two countries in Africa that decided to privatize telecommunications in a competitive framework by selling a second national operator license. The authors find that Uganda did not sacrifice significant sales proceeds by choosing competition, but instead gained tremendously in both the speed and scale of investment from its early focus on competition.

‣ Mauritania - Enhanced National Capacity in Telecommunications Sector Reforms; Mauritanie : Capacites nationales renforcees en matiere de reformes du Secteur des Telecommunications

Govindan G. Nair
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Mauritania's 1998-2001 telecommunications reforms resemble many World Bank supported reform programs where overcoming capacity constraints can determine success in achieving development outcomes. Overcoming capacity constraints enabled this desert nation of over 2 million largely nomadic inhabitants to attain unanticipated levels of outcomes in three years of telecommunications reforms. New private investment of US$ 100 million in telecommunications was attracted over two years, equivalent to 10 percent of GDP; telephone line access multiplied twenty-fold; 6,000 new telecommunications-related jobs were created in the informal sector in the capital city (Noukachott) alone; and a multisector regulatory agency was established which is now regarded as a model in Africa. From lacking critical skills at the outset of these reforms, Mauritania became a source of lessons for neighboring countries on how to competitively tender utility licenses, effectively regulate utilities in a competitive setting, and privatize a telecommunications operator. Support for this capacity enhancement came from relatively modest external assistance with an estimated cost of slightly over one million dollars (World Bank Group staff time as well as consultancy support).

‣ Connecting Sub-Saharan Africa : A World Bank Group Strategy for Information and Communication Technology Sector Development

Guislain, Pierre; Ampah, Mavis A.; Besançon, Laurent; Niang, Cécile; Sérot, Alexandre
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The strategy builds on the earlier reform agenda in the sector by leveraging the achievements to date of Sub-Saharan African countries to advance the essential goal of increasing the continent's connectivity. It provides strategies for developing and enhancing the capacity of Africa's information and communication technology sector (ICT) institutions-including regulators, ministries, and regional bodies-to lead the development of an interconnected region and implement sustainable regional strategies for integration and knowledge sharing. Of particular concern is the ability to bring rural areas into the national, regional, and global economies, thus creating new opportunities for the world's poorest citizens.

‣ A Policy Note on Telecommunications Reform in Algeria

Noumba, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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By the end of the 1990s, most industrial and many developing countries had liberalized their telecommunications markets to improve service accessibility and affordability for both businesses and households. In contrast, Algeria still managed its telecommunications sector as public property. The Ministry of Post and Telecommunications set the policy, enforced regulation, and was in charge of service provision. The sector suffered from huge supply shortages, the waiting list lengthened, the quality of service deteriorated and unbalanced the overall fiscal situation. In 1999, a new government appointed in the aftermath of President Bouteflika's election decided to change the situation and launched a comprehensive sector reform. Um reviews progress made in implementing this reform, discusses its preliminary impact, and comments on the main lessons learned. The author shows that by restraining arbitrary administrative action during the reform implementation, the government of Algeria laid the foundation for sustainable growth in the telecommunications sector.

‣ Measuring Services Trade Liberalization and Its Impact on Economic Growth : An Illustration

Mattoo, Aaditya; Rathindran, Randeep; Subramanian, Arvind
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The authors explain how the output growth effect from liberalizing the service sectors differs from the effect from liberalizing trade in goods. They also suggest using a policy-based rather than outcome-based measure of the openness of a country's service regime. They construct such openness measures for two key service sectors' basic telecommunications and financial services. Finally, the authors provide some econometric evidence--relatively strong for the financial sector and less strong, but nevertheless statistically significant, for the telecommunications sector--that openness in services influences long-run growth performance. Their estimates suggest that growth rates in countries with fully open telecommunications and financial services sectors are up to 1.5 percentage points higher than those in other countries.