Página 2 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

‣ City design and social exclusion : Abuja, Nigeria in review

Ebo, Ifeoma Nkemdilim
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 p.
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This thesis investigation explores the relationship between city design and social exclusion, and more specifically, how modernist principles of urban design and development policy have contributed to social exclusion in Abuja - the capital city of Nigeria. This study is facilitated through reading the city and its unique and common characteristics. Based on my experiences in the city over a three month period, I use my understanding of urban development, and relevant documents to examine the nature of exclusion in the Abuja plan and process of development. Front the results of this analysis the presence of exclusion in Abuja is enhanced by the use of colonial policies and selective use of modernist planning/processes of development. Furthermore, the relationship between social exclusion and city design in Abuja is the continuation of a legacy of colonial urban development and divisive urban form in traditional Nigerian cities.; by Ifeoma N. Ebo.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-62).

‣ The spatial and temporal dynamics of commuting : examining the impacts of urban growth patterns, 1980-2000

Yang, Jiawen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 218 p.
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The dissertation is broadly concerned with the issues of urban transportation and urban spatial structure change. The focus of the research is to interpret the increase in commuting time and distance in the last two decades. The major hypothesis is that a significant proportion of commuting length increase can be explained by land development patterns, particularly the spatial relationship between workplace and residence. The biggest challenge to address the above problem is to design a method that characterizes job-housing proximity and correlates commuting with job-housing proximity consistently across space, over time and among different regions. A thorough evaluation of existing measures, including ratios of jobs to employed residents, gravity type accessibility and minimum required commuting, shows that all have serious problems. The dissertation presents a new approach - the commuting spectrum - for measuring and interpreting the commuting impacts of metropolitan changes in terms of job-housing distribution. This method is then used to explain commuting in two sizable but contrasting regions, Boston and Atlanta. Journey-to-work data from Census Transportation Planning Packages (CTPP) over three decades (1980, 1990 and 1990) are utilized.; (cont.) Results indicate that the configuration of commuting spectrums mirror the changes in urban spatial structure in terms of job-housing proximity. In addition...

‣ Metropolitan governance and local land use planning in Boston, Denver, and Portland

Rosan, Christina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 310 p.
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Metropolitan areas across the U.S. are characterized by sprawling development which uses larger amounts of open space than necessary, leads to the inefficient use of energy and water, increases social inequality, and causes a variety of other negative externalities. One way to prevent this type of development is to promote coordinated land use planning at the metropolitan scale. Metropolitan coordination is a challenge, however, in a country where most land use decisions are made at the local level and most states have not encouraged regional planning. This dissertation examines several different models of metropolitan coordination - or what I call metropolitan governance - and asks how they compare in term of their relative effectiveness. Given the growing interest in voluntary forms of governance, I explore whether regional planning agencies without authority are as effective at influencing local land use planning as regional planning agencies with greater authority. My research focuses on regional planning agencies in Boston, Denver, and Portland because each agency has a different level of authority over land use planning and a different level of control over certain financial tools. My hypothesis is that regional planning agencies with more tools at their disposal (such as state-mandated planning authority and the power to allocate transportation improvement funds) will be more successful at influencing local land use planning so that it meets regional goals. I find that agencies with financial and regulatory incentives are better able to engage local stakeholders and influence local land use planning.; by Christina Davis Rosan.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Participation as an end versus a means : understanding a recurring dilemma in urban upgrading

Fallavier, Pierre
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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Since the 1920s, participatory approaches to urban upgrading in developing nations have demonstrated that involving the urban poor in the physical, social, and economic development of their settlements could improve their living conditions. These housing policies and projects have since been central to urban poverty reduction. Yet, while participatory upgrading is still used on a limited scale, it has failed to become a mainstream component of urban development. This dissertation analyzes some reasons for that failure by investigating the trajectory of an urban poverty reduction program that had much potential for success in Cambodia, but whose results yet surprisingly fell short of expectations. It connects the results to a critical analysis of international experience with policies and programs for urban poverty reduction. It explores the issue in two steps: First it analyzes the historical evolution of the policies and practices of urban poverty reduction in developing nations. This highlights the apparently weak link between lessons from experience, international policy recommendations, and the programs actually implemented by governments. Second, it presents a narrative analysis of how a participatory urban poverty reduction policy originated...

‣ Old standbys, new standards : evaluating LEED-ND through existing models of green urbanism; Evaluating Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Developments through existing models of green urbanism

Martin, Sophie C. (Sophie Christina)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 152 p.
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The U.S. Green Building Council, the Congress for the New Urbanism, and the Natural Resources Defense Council are currently developing a rating system aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of new neighborhood developments. The system, known as LEEDND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Developments), will be the first comprehensive set of planning and design standards that has the potential for widespread adoption by the development industry. In the absence of a set of standards like these, planners and developers have traditionally looked to older communities that exhibit well-regarded environmental design as models. Because LEED-ND has the potential to supplant these example as a model for guiding future environmental planning and design endeavors, the extent to which LEED-ND captures the values manifested in earlier models should be evaluated. This thesis applies the LEED-ND standards retroactively to three existing communities that the planning and development professions have held up as good examples of environmentally sensitive design. Rather than using the new rating system to evaluate the developments, the developments themselves are used to evaluate LEED-ND and the degree to which it reflects the goals of traditional ecological planning. While the case studies each score high enough to be considered "LEED Certified" (on a modified version of the LEED-ND standards)...

‣ Wasted opportunities : inequality and fragmentation in the 2010 South Africa World Cup; Inequality and fragmentation in the 2010 South Africa World Cup

Wood, Astrid
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 166, [1] p.
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(cont.) This thesis will examine the possibilities for cities to use the 2010 World Cup to hasten city development. The first chapter will detail the 2010 World Cup plan and the local stakeholders as well as the lessons learned from previous World Cups. The next chapter will examine the obstacles South Africa faces as it prepares for the 2010 World Cup and characteristics that make this host country different from previous World Cup hosts. Chapter three will describe the development strategy and explain how World Cup infrastructure can change the city. The next chapter will illustrate the World Cup conflict resulting from these development decisions. The final chapter will explain the reasons why local organizers are wasting this opportunity, instead exacerbating inequality and fragmentation, and conclude with suggestions for future World Cup planners.; Planning and preparations for the 2010 South Africa FIFA World Cup are well underway and there is little doubt that South Africa will impress sports fans and spectators with the modern stadiums and tourist facilities. The 2010 World Cup is an opportunity to hasten social, cultural, environmental, economic, and physical growth. South African cities should use 2010 to improve the public realm and create new economic opportunities for South Africans.Megaevents like the 2010 World Cup can generate economic investment and build an international image...

‣ Institutional perspectives on road pricing : essays on implementation, response, and adaptation

Mahendra, Anjali, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168 p.
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Road pricing involves charging road users a fee for the external social costs of using private vehicles. These costs typically remain unaccounted for in routine road transport operations and benefit-cost analyses. They include the costs of travel delays for other road users due to congestion, the costs of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and the health costs resulting from exposure to pollutants and road accidents. In spite of strong theoretical foundations dating back to the 1920s, road pricing remains politically difficult to implement for several reasons. These include concerns about equity impacts and the lack of alternatives to the use of private vehicles, lack of public acceptance for the idea of paying a charge for personal mobility, the administrative complexity of implementation, and the uncertain long term economic impacts of the policy. My dissertation focuses on the institutional challenges to implementation of road pricing that have not received adequate attention in literature, through three papers on the following topics. 1) Vehicle Restrictions in Four Latin American Cities: Is Congestion Pricing Possible? 2) Potential Impacts of Road Pricing on Businesses and Freight Transport: The Case of the Netherlands 3) Implications of the London Congestion Charge for Firms in Key Economic Sectors: Influencing Factors...

‣ Building green infrastructure through urban land conservation : the social and ecological value of dispersed open space in the Boston urban wilds

Kinzer, Kirsten (Kirsten Lee)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.
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Through an analysis of the thirty-year history of the Boston Urban Wilds, this thesis investigates the ability of distributed urban open spaces to provide social and ecological value to the surrounding community. The capacity of the Urban Wilds to act as system to provide simultaneously ecosystem services, public space and wildlife habitat is examined. The evolving understanding of green infrastructure is used as a lens through which to understand the elements of the Urban Wilds model applicable to other communities. Through this lens, the ability of the Urban Wilds to provide social and ecological value greater than the sum of its individual parts is considered. Reflecting on the tools that have been used to enact Urban Wilds conservation, the tools best suited to preserving the Urban Wilds' social and ecological value are assessed. Drawing from the evolution of the Boston Urban Wilds over the past three decades, this thesis concludes with designation, preservation and stewardship recommendations for other cities and towns considering a similar system of distributed open spaces.; by Kirsten Kinzer.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 118-123).

‣ Understanding place after Katrina : predatory planning and cultural resistance in New Orleans Tremé Neighborhood

Nagel, Kiara L
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 99 p.
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The fate of New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina is uncertain. The rebuilding of the Gulf Coast presents the nation with the most massive redevelopment project in a single location ever. Reminiscent of the Urban Renewal changes between the late 1940s and early 1970s. Urban Renewal redevelopment projects were touted as being beneficial to the city by providing easier access to downtown and the construction of new housing. However, hindsight and scholarship coupled with the experience of thousands of residents, has taught us that the lasting effects of urban renewal included displacement of residents, disruption of community ties, and extensive psychological traumas associated with these shocks. In New Orleans, for example, the heart of the black business district along Claiborne Avenue in the Treme neighborhood, one of the oldest African American neighborhoods in the country, was cleared for the construction of the I-10 Expressway. The Storyville section, arguably the birthplace of jazz, was broken apart to make room for the Iberville Housing Projects. The fight against Armstrong Park continued for several decades, eventually ending in defeat with the displacement of over 400 families.; (cont.) Now, Hurricane Katrina has uprooted hundreds of low-income residents...

‣ Waterfront views : defining a new planning process for Brooklyn's post-industrial waterfronts

Grassi, Carrie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
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The study of waterfront planning largely focuses on the physical reconnection of the post-industrial, downtown waterfront with the spatial fabric of the city. Attention is given to the need for clarity of regulations, strong leadership, and citizen support. Little focus is given to less visible, residential neighborhood waterfronts, and the importance of understanding and incorporating the neighborhood perspective into the planning process. In this study, the post-industrial waterfront neighborhoods of Greenpoint and Red Hook, Brooklyn are the focus. Ways in which the histories of the neighborhoods, the experiences of their residents and the pressure of outside development interests interact with the city's approach to planning the waterfront are explored. An attempt is made to understand how this dynamic might better inform the way waterfront planning is approached. At the core of this new approach is the recognition that planning for today's waterfront is a complex and contentious process. The neighborhood waterfront setting requires a planning and implementation process that bridges various city-agencies and links to planning activity at the neighborhood level.; y Carrie Grassi.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Transit-oriented development and the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail : shaping urban design patterns in northern New Jersey

Aranda, Marlon Patrick
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.
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This thesis investigates the influence of a new transit system on mature urban environments. The confluence of evolving socio-economic trends, cultural travel behaviors, and existing urban contexts, is changing how cities develop. The added value of convenient transit access provides unique urban design opportunities. Transit-oriented development (TOD) addresses these opportunities through attention to the pedestrian environment, coordinated land uses, and an emphasis on the holistic urban experience. The new Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) provides a much needed North-South transit line along the New Jersey's congested Hudson River waterfront. Since NJ Transit announced their commitment to increase regional mobility in the mid-1990s, parcels adjacent to the HBLR stations have experienced unprecedented growth The various urban design and planning strategies address many contemporary issues, such as the role of the automobile in the city, the impact of increased densities, and the marketable pedestrian networks. By looking at the different urban development experiences of three different cities along the light rail, the thesis will illustrate transit-oriented opportunities for urban design and development.; by Marlon Patrick Aranda.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Pairing mega events and hydrological systems for urban sustainability : strategy framework for Delhi beyond the Commonwealth Games 2010

Cherian, Danny, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 p.; 7887343 bytes; 7896211 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) initiate a process by which the city learns to seize opportunities through benign and sustainable change. Furthermore, this thesis intends to inform decision makers with a checklist of crucial tradeoffs, risks and benefits involved in incorporating water systems as a strategy framework. Eventually, the thesis argues that CWG 2010 organizers cannot ignore the crucial nature or threats posed by the neglect of Delhi's Water Systems. It proves that CWG 2010 organizers can benefit from the inherent utility offered by Delhi's Water Systems. Finally, it demonstrates that Delhi's hydrological systems allow an advantageous compatibility of the CWG's short-term objectives and the city's long-term objectives.; This thesis studies the inter-influence of urban hydrological systems and mega congregative events, as basis for urban strategy for sustainability. It questions how structuring the Commonwealth Games 2010 around Delhi's stream networks and the Yamuna River front create a more sustainable city. Millennia of continuous urban settlement have evolved hydraulic networks that allow extensive human control of Delhi's hydrological complex. This hierarchical system of water retaining, diverting and flood control structures made large populations possible in an otherwise arid landscape. Delhi's topography and this network of streams...

‣ Collaborative urban information systems : a Web services approach

Singh, Raj R. (Raj Richard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 186 p.; 11421047 bytes; 11444337 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) to encourage the interconnection of planning and mainstream information technology. We find that the PAMML framework can lower costs by leveraging mainstream technology, simplify the most basic data sharing activities, yet still allow organizations with different levels of technical sophistication to collaborate. PAMML captures the semantics of spatial planning problems, allowing them to be decomposed into fundamental information processing operations. Regarding user interfaces, we show that PAMML's structure allows multiple end user applications aimed towards different audiences to be easily built from the same core PAMML document.; This thesis examines systemic problems with the way information is managed and processed in planning support systems. We find evidence of these problems when we attempt to: develop an analysis without spending most of the time gathering and organizing data sets; or build an analysis that can be re-run at low cost; or implement systems that interact collaboratively with those of other experts. This research starts with the hypothesis that these problems are related and systemic, and that a new paradigm of information management is needed if we can hope to address them effectively. The research is divided into two main sections. First...

‣ CompactCities : analyzing the urban spatial structure in cities with growth restrictions; Compact Cities : analyzing the urban spatial structure in cities with growth restrictions

Oberoi, Amit
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 [i.e. 114] leaves; 6491409 bytes; 6505419 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A compact city form is one that espouses high intensity development within a restrictive geographic area. Its perceived benefits include (a) saving agricultural land (b) inducing shorter commute trips, thus less consumption of fuel and lower emission of harmful gases (c) bringing about a better quality of life through greater social interaction and (d) causing economic benefits through economies of agglomeration. In this thesis I analyze these claims based on literature review, economic models, statistical tools, and by generating hypothetical transport scenarios. Based on this analysis, I conclude that high-density development by itself has little significant association with the benefits claimed above. Further growth control mechanisms have negative externalities such as increasing land rents and causing an immense strain on congestible amenities. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first section is treated as an introduction to the concept of a "compact city". In the second section I analyze whether a compact city can deliver the benefits that its proponents claim. I look at issues such as, (i) the effect of density on urban travel behavior factors like commute distances and public transit usage; (ii) the economics at the urban edge; (iii) the claim that sprawl is inevitable...

‣ The parking policy and smart growth disconnect : obstacles to establishing and implementing smart growth parking policy

Richardson, Heather Eileen Seyfang
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 147 p.; 8594745 bytes; 8602997 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Urban areas are plagued by congestion, economic inequality, and inefficient land use that result from highway and single family housing subsidies, segregated land uses, and many other government policies established over the last 80 years. Parking is one part of the complex and problematic system of traditional urban development that can benefit from a Smart Growth approach to urban livability. Parking is increasingly understood to be an underlying factor in traffic generation that leads to increasing vehicle miles traveled, congestion, and several other nuisances that arise from a growing number of vehicles on the road. Furthermore, parking increases the cost of living in urban areas where parking demand is high and supply is tight. Traditional growth patterns that encourage low density development with minimum free parking requirements exacerbate problems caused by parking. Smart Growth development counters traditional growth by offering mixed use development, maximum parking requirements, context sensitive design and focusing on increasing pedestrian and transit trips. After establishing the advantages of Smart Growth over traditional development for Boston, this thesis asks: why are the cities of Boston, Cambridge and Quincy not implementing Smart Growth when it could be better for everyone? Four case studies from the Boston Metropolitan Area (North Station...

‣ Reclaiming residual space from elevated transport infrastructure : time, space, and activity under the Chicago Brown Line

Su, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 p.; 7037592 bytes; 7041570 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis studies the non-transport functions of the residual space generated by elevated transport infrastructure and its relationship with abutting neighborhoods The space under the Chicago Brown Line, among all other elevated train lines, is often considered as an undesirable and useless urban eyesore. As part of the transit authority's right of way, such space is usually labeled "mass transportation corridor" on planner's land use maps. However, more careful observations reveal that a considerable portion of the land underneath the train tracks has been actively used by the adjacent residents or business owners for a variety of purposes other than providing transit service. These observations place an interesting question mark on the stubborn negative common perception of the residual space associated with the elevated train lines and other large scale transport infrastructure: why the fact that such residual space is actually being used cannot change the notion that it is not usable? By categorizing the observed activities under the Brown Line into private, quasi-public, and public use types, it is clear that most of the spontaneous reclamation actions are intended for private activities.; (cont.) This in a sense indicates that private activities have limited contribution to the entire image of the social character of the residual space. Analysis of the physical characteristics of the residual space shows that although the physical condition of a given plot of residual space does not determine the occurrence of activities on it...

‣ Bolshevik era, the extreme case of urban planning

Nilina, Nadya
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 leaves
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The key premise of the Russian revolutionary movement was the overthrow of the old government and establishment of the new political order under the one party leadership of the Bolsheviks. The political platform of the new government extended well beyond the promise of simple reforms. Its foundation was a vision of an entirely new society governed by a set of new economic mechanisms and social relations. The foundation of the new system rested on the complete socialization of all economic resources and means of production and the creation of the centralized planning system independent of the volatile dynamics of the free market. In this thesis I argue that in their role as the new government of Russia, Bolsheviks simultaneously acted as town planners and as social planners, envisioning the new society and its institutions in every detail and creating a new urban form-the socialist city, and the new citizen-the socialist man. To create this city the Bolsheviks designed a unique tool-they merged their legal right to make policy with their ability to use rhetoric in the form of widespread persuasion, propaganda, indoctrination and force. I define the socialist city as an urban settlement in which the primary from of human existence is the collective life.; (cont.) This city is designed in such a way as to make every space accessible to government control...

‣ The new partner on the block : an unfamiliar role for arts and cultural organizations in community economic development

Lee, Helen Chongmin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 p.
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This thesis looks at three case studies of arts and cultural organizations in New York City that have chosen to go beyond their traditional roles and business-as-usual practices to engage in community economic development in their neighborhoods. The cases include the Brooklyn Academy of Music, a performance arts center; the Heart of Brooklyn, a consortium of cultural institutions; and the Bronx Council on the Arts, a quasi-public arts service organization. An important finding of this thesis is that arts and cultural organizations have much to offer to urban communities like other private players such as foundations, corporations and universities, and they may be the new community partner on the block. The case studies show that these nonprofits are interested and can take part in a wide variety of community economic development activities: physical development, neighborhood and commercial revitalization, and job training. The evidence also suggests that these organizations are more prone to take on place-based projects since they are increasingly dependent on their own revenue sources and are interested in upgrading their neighborhoods to build audiences.; (cont.) Some caution must be exercised since these place-based activities may accelerate the displacement of residents and small businesses in neighborhoods that are gentrifying like the communities in this thesis. One outlier among the cases is the Bronx Council on the Arts...

‣ Business leadership in city planning : the case of the Central Artery

Agarwal, Anjali, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77, [20] leaves; 5396353 bytes; 5400372 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis has been motivated by my interest in the Artery Business Committee (ABC), which was formed in 1989 with a mission to collectively represent the business community's interests in the fear and opportunity presented by the Central Artery Project in Boston. ABC's objectives were to ensure access to the downtown business district during the project and to market the city of Boston as a place to visit, do business in and invest in. This example of ABC presents an interesting paradigm in city planning where business groups recognize their relationship and role in planning for the city future. The same trend can also be found in several other cities. Two leading examples, which have been chosen for detail study, are the Commercial Club of Chicago and the Central Houston Inc. Both the business led civic groups have an agenda similar to that of ABC and promote a better future for their cities. Owing to their efforts, both the business groups now hold a strategic position of influence in their city's planning process and decision-making. Their study offers several important lessons, which can further be used as criteria to judge ABC's role in the planning of the Central Artery Project in Boston.; (cont.) In 2005, as the Central Artery project nears completion...

‣ Transit planning in Curitiba and Bogotá : roles in interaction, risk, and change

Ardila Gómez, Arturo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 454 p.
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What is the role of planners in the planning process for new transit modes? By documenting transit-planning processes in Curitiba and Bogota from 1955-95 and 1986-2001, respectively, this work demonstrates that in both cities planners had important roles in system design, the inventive adaptation of new technologies to local conditions, the integration of newly proposed systems with existing service and, above all, mediation between political leadership and strong vested interests. Both cities put planners' roles in special context, however. First, the mayors had a firm appreciation of planning services and understood that planners needed to interact with stakeholders and politicians. Second, the mayors were strong leaders who offered planners a benchmark from which to understand the implications of stakeholders' demands. Third, these cases were framed by new technologies such as Bus Rapid Transit, which competed against rail alternatives. Fourth, because of the novelty of BRT planners had difficulty producing credible forecasts. This uncertainty forced planners to interact more with stakeholders and politicians to build credibility. Fifth, BRT offered the advantage of being highly flexible, particularly when compared to rail proposals. This flexibility allowed planners to adjust the plans in response to the feedback produced by the interaction with stakeholders and politicians. Adjusting the plans often forced planners to innovate. Within this context...