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‣ Re-constructing place and community : urban heritage and the symbolic politics of neighborhood revitalization

Serda, Daniel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 246 p.; 31798884 bytes; 31798642 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Inner-city neighborhoods have gathered new life as the hopeful settings for the resurrection of community, safety, economy, and social vitality. Preservationists, artists, historians, and urban designers make bold claims that urban heritage can strengthen community identity, empower neighborhood residents, and serve as catalysts for economic revitalization. Despite the prominence of such claims in professional and policy discourse, the social and political implications of heritage revitalization strategies remain largely unexplored. This exploratory study therefore builds a theory explaining the ways in which heritage is used by different groups and actors to promote the economic revitalization of historic inner-city neighborhoods. This dissertation uses a comparative case-study method to apprehend three ways in which heritage is used instrumentally to promote neighborhood revitalization: heritage as reclamation, the invocation of legacies to validate disputed claims to space by communities engaged in struggle; heritage as remembrance, the evocation of the past through commemoration; and heritage as restoration, the literal and discursive recreation of the past in the present through ritual and ephemeral urbanism. Two neighborhoods...

‣ City knowledge : an emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning

Carrera, Fabio, 1961-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 256 leaves; 20713680 bytes; 20747615 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) updates. It produces plan-ready information, by exploiting the self-serving and opportunistic pursuit of instant return-on-investment by frontline offices. Thanks to its emergent qualities, City Knowledge engenders unexpected plan-demanding situations, where the ability to conduct second-order analyses leads to deeper knowledge of our cities. In the end, this dissertation proposes a paradigmatic shift by recommending that information be considered as a bonafide infrastructure and be consequently treated with the same attention that cities reserve to other infrastructures such as utilities and roads. It proposes that communicative planners become catalysts of this transformation away from the "hunting-and- gathering" of urban data and toward the "farming" of municipal information.; Recent advances in geo-spatial technologies, together with a steady decline in their cost, have inspired many spontaneous bottom-up municipal GIS initiatives aimed at improving many aspects of urban maintenance, management or planning. Some communities have institutionalized top-down citywide urban information systems with limited results, due to many organizational and institutional factors. Despite some encouraging progress, comprehensive urban information systems are still not commonplace and planners and decision makers still struggle to acquire the rich information that they need to conduct in-depth analyses and to make important decisions. This dissertation suggests a plausible strategy and several practical tactical solutions to set municipalities on a trajectory leading to City Knowledge. The concept of City Knowledge is introduced by first presenting numerous case studies ranging from the maintenance of the canals in Venice...

‣ Local management of a global tension : cost recovery and social equity in urban water and sanitation provision in Durban, South Africa

Hooper, Michael Craig, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 149 leaves; 947859 bytes; 955823 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Michael Craig Hooper.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2003.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ Civil society strategies on urban waterways : stewardship, contention, and coalition building

Campbell, Lindsay Kathleen
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 169 p.
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Urban, industrial waterways-with their contamination, environmental injustice, and nebulous development futures given changing economies-present multiple problems that are confronted by environmental civil society organizations. Despite the many problems, these groups view urban waterways as some of the last available open space in the city and as potential public amenities and natural resources that merit revitalization. This work focuses on the means by which citizen groups and nonprofit organizations-which are often in positions of relatively less power and authority vis-h-vis public and private actors-attempt to engage, be heard, and leverage influence over decision-making on and end use of three New York City river resources. Depending on the situation and the groups involved, strategies rooted in conflict or collaboration rise to the fore. Civil society organizations select from "insider" strategies based on cooperation with government, "outsider" strategies that depend upon advocacy and pressure tactics directed towards either government or the private sector, and "independent" strategies like stewardship, education, and environmental monitoring that engage with the resource, regardless of the political and policy context.; (cont.) To understand the selection and efficacy of strategies in general and alliance-building in specific...

‣ South Korean technology policies for the industrial competitiveness between Japan and China

Lee, Sanghoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 leaves
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(cont.) In addition, this paper will propose new technology policies for Korea in order to secure its position as a leader in the information technology (IT) industry, particularly in the context of its relationships with Japan and China. Lastly, this study recommends that the Korean government foster entrepreneurs to create novel global IT businesses and keep pace with the United States regarding technology development and learn from Japan regarding globalization experiences. This study also suggests that the Korean government focus its research and development (R&D) funds on making electronic materials to enhance competitiveness of domestic IT companies.; In Korea, as in many developing countries, government has played a major role in leading technological development. The technology policies of this government have been aiming to increase the competitiveness of local companies. However, as the new trade system represented by the World Trade Organization (WTO) emerged and Korean companies quickly grew, the Korean government had difficulties in keeping pace. Furthermore, the government began to feel a mismatch between its technology policies and the demands of private companies. For example, in the past, Korean companies had asked the government to make a new exclusive market for their initial products through governmental procurement. However...

‣ Growth and poverty in the urban fringe : decentralization, dispersion, and inequality in greater Buenos Aires

Libertun de Duren, Nora R
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 280 p.
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This research presents the case of growth in Buenos Aires since the late 1970s, when the decentralization of urban planning powers in the Province of Buenos Aires began, until 2001, when an economic crisis submerged -even if transitorily- more than half of all metropolitan households below the poverty line. This thesis explores why social inequality within municipal boundaries increased after the municipalities acquired autonomous planning powers. It counts with three sections: Section I investigates how the decentralized planning practices of the municipalities of Greater Buenos Aires have impacted the growth of Buenos Aires. It explains the cluster of affluent gated communities in the poorest municipalities of the urban periphery as the outcome of the special permits that these municipalities gave to real estate developers. Section II explains how national development policies have contributed to the impoverishment of these municipalities. It depicts how these policies have generated a persistent flow of poor residents to Greater Buenos Aires at the same time that they have diminished the economic sufficiency of local governments. Section III explains why these municipalities did not resist these transformations. This research has found that national industrialization policies determined much of the fate of Greater Buenos Aires. Because of the limitations that the preexisting geography of development imposes on local participants...

‣ Real estate development exactions in Boston : implications for linkage and planning in the South Boston Seaport District

Fischer, Michael Anthony
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 leaves
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by Michale Anthony Fischer.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1999.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 116-120).

‣ New towns from gowns : urban form and placemaking at college campuses

Stout, Amanda C. (Amanda Caroline)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 179 p.
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At the beginning of the 21st century, colleges and universities have realized that they need to have more than a well-planned campus and top-ranked academic programs to attract students and faculty. Rather, they need to have a complementary "town/gown" relationship with their host community. The "college town" -a quintessentially American ideal city formcan provide a very high quality of life, both for students of college-age and for faculty, alumni, and retirees who choose to live in these towns. But what if the existing town falls short? In recent years, several universities in North America have sought to remedy perceived deficiencies in their "college towns" by going into the town planning business-planning new neighborhoods, new commercial centers, or even whole new towns adjacent to their campuses. They are quite literally engaged in "placemaking" and they are developing these new neighborhoods and communities in the shadow of fundamentally place-based institutions. Furthermore, as universities seek to expand their physical campuses, they often find themselves entering the field of real estate development-buying up land, developing it, and trying to find the optimal fit between the existing campus, the existing town, and new development.This thesis explores this new phenomenon through profiles of four projects: The Ohio State University and the South Campus Gateway (Columbus...

‣ The sequence of the supreme and mundane : case studies of the Chinese urban order

Huang, Jianxiang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 leaves
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After decades of urbanization and growth, Chinese cities are experiencing rapid renewal and redevelopment. The revolutionary changes in city form are accompanied by not only prosperity and wealth, but also chaotic environment and life. On the one hand, the current international style of urban design, which is largely copied from abroad, applies homogeneous grids and modern buildings without much concerns of the context. On the other hand, the past traditions have been forgotten or frowned upon. It is time for planners and urban designers to reflect on the question: will there be any relevant components from the past tradition which will prove to be valuable for contemporary Chinese cities? In what follows I want to explore an appropriated model of urban design which provides attractive environment and strengthened identities for contemporary Chinese cities. Different from previous approaches, my study focuses on the urban sequence which refers to the ordered configuration in a succession along urban routes. There are five chapters in this thesis. I start with a brief introduction to the definition and categorization of urban order and sequence. Then I looked at the vocabulary of sequence in pre-modern Chinese cities, including walls...

‣ Fiscal decentralization and urban public transport

Favero, Giorgia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 175 leaves
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Financing public transport through public funds is a common practice that can be justified on different grounds: equity, natural monopoly and, particularly with the increasing motorization rate, externalities produced by private transport (congestion, pollution, road accidents) especially in urban areas. In addition, there is a belief that transport investments support economic growth, in particular transit investments because they help fostering the agglomeration effect. Whether local or national tax sources should be used for subsidizing public transport is a fairly recent question, at least in Europe where, historically, countries used to be very centralized. Several national policy reviews as well as academic papers suggest that the reforms aiming at decentralizing power and responsibility for urban public transport management lead to successful outcomes. Yet, there is no literature on the effects of decentralization of tax raising on public transport provision although an increasing number of subnational governments reports a mismatch between transferred resources and devolved responsibilities and the public finance literature indicates that decentralization of finance authority can improve the results of decentralization reforms .; (cont.) The objective of this thesis...

‣ Newfound land : urban highway removal and planning the land it uncovers

Masenten, David J. (David Joel), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 196 p.; 11787754 bytes; 11787557 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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When the interstate highway system was routed through urban centers during the 1950's and 1960's, few thought these elevated expressways would have a serious detrimental impact on the cities they served. These interstates were designed to bring a new ease to travel between cities. Unhappiness with the system began before much of the Interstate Highway system was complete, when communities were divided, and in some cases obliterated. This pattern of urban destruction can be prominently seen across the North America and around the world. Recently, cities have begun to undo this destruction by removing highways. Several projects, most notably the Central Artery Tunnel Project in Boston, have begun to bring awareness of what has become a new urban revitalization tool. With Boston's completion near, and San Francisco's Embarcadero standing as a successful completed example, cities around the world are beginning to acknowledge the problems elevated highways continue to create today, leading them to plan for their removal. Despite the abundance of projects, none of the municipalities currently undertaking highway removal have used past precedent to guide their design processes. This has occurred because cities see their projects as unique and individual...

‣ The 'creative city' : moving from ideas to planning practice

Simeti, Antonina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
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Economic development and planning practitioners around the world are focusing on the producers and consumers of the creative economy as the basis for growing vibrant and successful cities. This creative movement calls for an interdisciplinary approach to planning where a break in the rules that govern 'normal' planning practice contribute to environments that breed creativity, innovation and ultimately, economic growth. While it is still too early to measure the economic impacts of the movement, many cities have begun to engage in a creative city planning approach to urban revitalization. This thesis investigates the translation of the creative city concept into urban revitalization policies and programs in Providence, Boston and Baltimore. These case studies illustrate the range of strategies for putting the ideas of the creative city in place, the new difficulties that arise when the planning community attempts to reframe planning practice, and provides recommendations for overcoming these implementation challenges.; by Antonina M. Simeti.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 91-94).

‣ Placelogging : mobile spatial annotation and its potential use to urban planners and designers; Mobile spatial annotation and its potential use to urban planners and designers

Kottamasu, Rajesh
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168, [1] p.
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With the rise of 'Mobile 2.0,' digital telecommunications are beginning to provide deep resources of information to mobile city dwellers. Particularly striking among recent applications is placelogging, defined here as the practice of digitally annotating physical places with user-generated text and media accessible onsite to other mobile users. Placelogging presents potential as a means of engaging citizens with each other and with their environment, as well as distributing authority over defining what Kevin Lynch called "the image of the city." But as an emerging practice, its uniqueness as a mode of communication distinct from other forms of spatial annotation has not yet been proved. To investigate the uniqueness of placelogging, the thesis first establishes a taxonomy of spatial annotation through which to consider the different forms, functions, and trends in official adoption of a wide range of annotating media. Next, annotations made through various media, including placelogging projects [murmur] and Yellow Arrow, are catalogued in two neighborhoods each of Toronto and New York City. A preliminary methodology is defined to analyze and compare trends in distribution, placement and content of annotations.; (cont.) Placelogs are found to distinguish themselves by annotating a wide range of public and private places...

‣ Evocative and evidentiary : interpreting the city through non-fiction filmmaking

Shepard, Cassim (Cassim Cauldwell)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159 p.
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This thesis interrogates the relationship between non-fiction film and urban discourse. It outlines intellectual and visual strategies at play in a selection of non-fiction films that actively assign meaning to the mutual influence of urban form and social processes. In so doing, I identify two overlapping traditions, the evocative and the evidentiary, which classify the applications of filmmaking to the interpretation of cities. The research focuses on two American urban planning films that represent radically different ways of organizing their visual content in order to advocate a specific kind of urban reform: The City (1939) by Willard Van Dyke and Ralph Steiner and The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (1980) by William H Whyte. Each case requires a thorough contextualization and location with urban studies, planning and film histories. The thesis, therefore, is arranged as a chronological exploration of the antecedents and turning points that explain the difference between these two films' formal strategies and philosophical positions. My analysis begins by linking the kinetic and fragmentary qualities of modernity in art and theory to the earliest experiments in creating moving images on film. It goes on to explore in greater depth the development of a formal cinematic vocabulary for the evocation of urban space. The adaptation of evocative techniques to the political subject matter of regional planning introduces an extended historical and formal analysis of The City that demonstrates how it draws from the diverse elements discussed in the previous chapters and applies them to the planning agenda of Lewis Mumford and the Regional Planning Association of America.; (cont.) Evidentiary techniques developed as methods of resistance to the top-down planning philosophies espoused by films like The City; the oppositional practices that emerged during the 1960s gave rise to a mentality of learning a city through looking at it...

‣ Multiculturalism and planning : lessons from Vancouver

Achugbue, Elsie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 132 p.; 8064179 bytes; 8070920 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Today, the city planning and development professions face a changing landscape. The politics of difference, and the corresponding socio-cultural processes from which it emerged (migration, post- colonialism, and the rise of civil society), are urban manifestations that bear important implications for the city and urban life. Planners today, in policy and practice, must learn new ways to accommodate difference in the city. The purpose of this master's thesis is to pose the question of how increased racial and ethnic diversity in Canadian cities has impacted the role of social planners in Vancouver, British Columbia. Canada, the first country in the world to officially legislate a national multicultural policy, to facilitate the integration of Canada's ever-growing immigrant population, serves as an ideal socio-political environment in which to examine issues of citizenship and social inclusion. Using Vancouver as a case study, this work aims to tease out the role of city planners in identifying existing barriers and innovative approaches to communication and collaboration with diverse citizens, to better understand and meet their needs. It explores how planners, and the planning profession, can respond to, or generate, dialogue on cultural diversity...

‣ Participatory parks planning : exploring democratic design as a tool to mediate cultural conflict over neighborhood green space

Sherman, Diana R. (Diana Ruth)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 10378607 bytes; 10384821 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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America's park history has largely been a story of the commodification and representation of nature, from the idyllic naturescapes of the mid-nineteenth century to the reform parks and playgrounds of the City Beautiful era. Not until this century, however, has it become clear that this interpretation of nature is often an Anglo-centric vision, influenced by Western notions of landscape and the frontier. Rarely do American urban parks consider or reflect the non-Western ideals of nature; consequently, these parks are often culturally inaccessible to new immigrants and communities of color. As the United States becomes an increasingly pluralistic society, the need grows for open space that can foster interaction between different ethnic and racial groups and that can serve multiple user groups simultaneously. Parks-and particularly, American parks- are largely products of political will and reflections of power structures, at least with respect to their locations and designs. Design decisions dictate who feels welcome in a space and who feels excluded; similarly, programming choices-often informed by design-can define a park's audience. Thus, a discussion of power in the context of planning provides a critical link in considering reflections of culture in park design...

‣ Planners, architects and landscape architects designing New Orleans : disciplinary differences in developing the unified plan

Boatright, Jessica Berman
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 151 p.
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Designing cities is a complex proposition. Planners, architects and landscape architects all center their practice on aspects of this proposition. As such, their respective disciplines share the realm of urban design. This thesis attempts to understand how professionals from these three groups work as urban designers by testing the hypothesis that professional training and affiliation dictates distinct differences in how urban plans are developed by planners, architects or landscape architects. Relying on the American educational and professional associations for each discipline, the thesis proposes three spectra to contrast the disciplines: The Role of Process, Understanding of Physical Space, and Ultimate Goals. These spectra are applied to cases studies of Unified New Orleans Plan recovery plan development in three of New Orleans' 13 planning districts. The cases focus on the professional staff for each district, which include one planning firm, one architecture firm and one landscape architecture firm. The cases demonstrate predictive connections between planning training and concepts and the planning firm's performance and architecture training and concepts and the architecture firm's performance.; (cont.) There is less predictive evidence in the case of landscape architecture. The challenges of using a quasi-experimental design...

‣ Whose city? Whose schools? : a case study of civic engagement and planning "from below" to promote education equity in New Orleans public schools; Civic engagement and planning "from below" to promote education equity in New Orleans public schools

Tahbildar, Dulari
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 p.
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How and why have ordinary citizens claimed their stake in the process of rebuilding public education in post-Katrina New Orleans, and what are the lessons for planning in post-disaster contexts? This paper investigates civic engagement that emerged "from below" in post-Katrina New Orleans through a case study of the Downtown Neighborhoods Improvement Association (DNIA) Education Committee. Civic engagement from below promotes the powerful idea that citizens can and should be agents of change within public decision-making, and not merely recipients of public services or providers of input in top-down approaches to reform. The case of the DNIA Education Committee reveals three key lessons relevant to civic engagement after a disaster. First, opportunities for collaboration between government and community groups can be easily missed, especially when dynamics of mistrust and unequal power are unaddressed, unless each party believes it is possible and knows how to invent options for collaboration that address their different needs while meeting their shared goals. Second, after a disaster residents may find their very survival intrinsically connected to, and indeed dependent on, how public institutions and infrastructure are rebuilt.; (cont.) With a heightened sense of interconnectedness to their environment and awareness of government's role to protect the common good...

‣ The City of Brotherly Love? : investigating collaborative planning in Philadelphia's contemporary revitalization initiatives

Hébert, Jeffrey Paul, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves; 3596809 bytes; 3707343 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The revitalization of many cities across the United States is much less focused on the development of the city center and its flagship projects than was the case a decade or so ago. Substantial investment has begun to flow into once forgotten, deteriorating urban neighborhoods and community groups are becoming prominent voices in the reshaping of communities. Based on Naomi Carmon's Stages of Urban Revitalization and Patsy Healey's theory of collaborative planning, this thesis presents a theoretical framework that argues that a new stage of urban revitalization practice has emerged. Carmon's research describes three stages of urban revitalization since roughly 1940: The Bulldozer Era (1 940s - 1960s), Neighborhood Rehabilitation (1960s - 1970s), and Center Ciy Revitalization (1970s - 1990s). She then argues that since the late 1990s, a new urban revitalization paradigm has emerged that is more neighborhood focused than the previous stage. Healey describes collaborative planning as the coordination between hard infrastructure (city agencies) and soft infrastructure (neighborhood groups) that produces community plans. This thesis argues that contemporary revitalization planning is a combination of the two.; (cont.) Today, revitalization planning both emphasizes neighborhood revitalization - as outlined by Carmon - and collaboration - as outlined by Healey. American and European examples are presented to illustrate this theory. In addition...

‣ Swamp rats, fat cats and soggy suburbs : planners and engineers in south east Florida

Phelan, Katherine A., 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 373 p.
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U.S. cities continue to physically expand, supported by and creating demand for water supply, road, sewerage, electricity networks. But the relationship between the professional values, education and practices of city or urban planning and civil engineering, and these infrastructure networks is an under-explored phenomenon in both fields. This doctoral dissertation contributes important new knowledge about the decisions and recommendations of planners and engineers for infrastructure and growth, and their resulting impact on the shape of rapidly growing urban areas. A qualitative method results in qualified conclusions about continuity, change and contradiction in the two professions' beliefs, actions and their physical influence on the built environment. Studying these two professions in the swampland context of south east Florida exposes their professional beliefs and actions in relation to infrastructure conception and implementation, and urban expansion. The involvement of planners and engineers with the canals and ditches used to drain the Everglades have been crucial to the accommodation of urban population growth on the east coast of the Florida peninsula. But neither profession appears satisfied with the extent of their influence on urban growth in Florida or the nation. At the same time...