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‣ Temporal lobe epilepsy and social behavior: An animal model

MARIN, Joao Carlos M.; MOURA, Paula J.; CYSNEIROS, Roberta M.; COLUGNATI, Diego B.; CAVALHEIRO, Esper A.; SCORZA, Fulvio A.; XAVIER, Gilberto F.; ZILBOVICIUS, Monica; MERCADANTE, Marcos T.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Social behavior depends on the integrity of social brain circuitry. The temporal lobe is an important part of the social brain, and manifests morphological and functional alterations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), induced with pilocarpine, were subjected to a social discrimination test that has been used to investigate potential animal models of ASD, and the results were compared with those for the control group. Rats with TLE exhibited fewer social behaviors than controls. No differences were observed in nonsocial behavior between groups. The results suggest an important role for the temporal lobe in regulating social behaviors. This animal model might be used to explore some questions about ASD pathophysiology. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

‣ Correlação entre doença aterosclerótica, dieta hipercolesterolêmica e as perdas dentais, estudo em modelo animal; Relationship between atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemic fat diet and tooth loss: Study in animal model

Santos, Endrigo Sperto Rodrigues dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/03/2009 Português
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar em Modelo animal, coelhos (raça Nova Zelândia) divididos em três grupos randomizados, (jovem com 60 dias (G1), um idoso com aterosclerose e ingestão de colesterol (G2) e um idoso com aterosclerose e sem ingestão do colesterol (G3)) se, a dieta rica em colesterol e a idade, causam lesões de aterosclerose e placas ateroscleróticas nos animais, alterações nos comprimentos dos dentes, aumento ou diminuição dos espaços periapicais dos dentes, perda óssea alveolar na maxila e mandíbula. Através da metodologia descrita e após as análises histológicas e morfológicas, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante, nas variáveis dos comprimentos dos dentes 1º prémolares superiores entre os grupos G3 versus G1 p<5%. médias de 1247,88 (p=0,017) e G3 versus G2, com diferença das médias de 1190,85 (p=0,025) ou seja o comprimento dos dentes fora diferente no grupo G2. Com relação à variável, espessura do osso alveolar, não ocorreu significância estatística, porém tendências de que este esteja sendo alterado. Com relação a variável espessura do espaço periapical fora verificado significância estatística com p=0,017 em relação ao G1, na região dos 1º Pré-molares...

‣ Invasive Assessment of the Coronary Microcirculation Using the Index of Microcirculatory Resistance: Description and Validation of an Animal Model

Fiarresga, A; Selas, M; Oliveira, E; Cavaco-Gonçalves, S; Cacela, D; Carrapiço, B; Cardim, N; Cruz Ferreira, R
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION: The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) enables/provides quantitative, invasive, and real-time assessment of coronary microcirculation status. AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to validate the assessment of IMR in a large animal model, and the secondary aim was to compare two doses of intracoronary papaverine, 5 and 10 mg, for induction of maximal hyperemia and its evolution over time. METHODS: Measurements of IMR were performed in eight pigs. Mean distal pressure (Pd) and mean transit time (Tmn) were measured at rest and at maximal hyperemia induced with intracoronary papaverine, 5 and 10 mg, and after 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes. Disruption of the microcirculation was achieved by selective injection of 40-μm microspheres via a microcatheter in the left anterior descending artery. RESULTS: In each animal 14 IMR measurements were made. There were no differences between the two doses of papaverine regarding Pd response and IMR values - 11 ± 4.5 U with 5 mg and 10.6 ± 3 U with 10 mg (p=0.612). The evolution of IMR over time was also similar with the two doses, with significant differences from resting values disappearing after five minutes of intracoronary papaverine administration. IMR increased with disrupted microcirculation in all animals (41 ± 16 U...

‣ Invasive Assessment of the Coronary Microcirculation Using the Index of Microcirculatory Resistance: Description and Validation of an Animal Model

Fiarresga, A; Selas, M; Oliveira, E; Cavaco-Gonçalves, S; Cacela, D; Carrapiço, B; Cardim, N; Cruz Ferreira, R
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.615786%
INTRODUCTION: The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) enables/provides quantitative, invasive, and real-time assessment of coronary microcirculation status. AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to validate the assessment of IMR in a large animal model, and the secondary aim was to compare two doses of intracoronary papaverine, 5 and 10 mg, for induction of maximal hyperemia and its evolution over time. METHODS: Measurements of IMR were performed in eight pigs. Mean distal pressure (Pd) and mean transit time (Tmn) were measured at rest and at maximal hyperemia induced with intracoronary papaverine, 5 and 10 mg, and after 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes. Disruption of the microcirculation was achieved by selective injection of 40-μm microspheres via a microcatheter in the left anterior descending artery. RESULTS: In each animal 14 IMR measurements were made. There were no differences between the two doses of papaverine regarding Pd response and IMR values - 11 ± 4.5 U with 5 mg and 10.6 ± 3 U with 10 mg (p=0.612). The evolution of IMR over time was also similar with the two doses, with significant differences from resting values disappearing after five minutes of intracoronary papaverine administration. IMR increased with disrupted microcirculation in all animals (41 ± 16 U...

‣ Fine needle aspiration biopsy to reestablish cell culture in an animal model of uveal melanoma

Correa,Zelia Maria da Silva; Marshall,Jean-Claude; Souza Filho,João Pessoa; Odashiro,Alexandre Nakao; Burnier, Jr.,Miguel Noel
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 Português
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PURPOSE: To access the reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in harvesting a sufficient amount of viable melanoma cells to establish a cell culture and maintain a melanoma cell line from an animal model of uveal melanoma. METHODS: For this study, fifteen male New Zealand albino rabbits had their right eye surgically inoculated with uveal melanoma cell line 92.1. The animals were immunosupressed with cyclosporine A using a dose schedule previously published. The animals were followed for 12 weeks. Intraocular tumor growth was monitored weekly by indirect ophthalmoscopy. After the fourth week, one animal was sacrificed per week preceded by fine-needle aspiration biopsy using a sharp 25-gauge, 1-inch long needle. Two separate aspirates were made from different areas of the tumor. Each aspirate was flushed to a separate cell culture media and sent for cell culture. The cells were frozen after two weeks when there were at least 1 million cells, which is enough to maintain a cell line. Cells were defrosted for HMB-45 immuno-stains to confirm the melanoma origin. RESULTS: Cell growth was observed from the samples harvested from 11 out of the 15 animals inoculated with uveal melanoma. All cell cultures, after defrost, immunoassayed positive for HMB-45. CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy seems to be a reliable method to harvest cells from solid intraocular melanomas in an animal model...

‣ Head-to-head comparison of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in an animal model of coronary artery stenosis

Schmidt,A.; de Almeida-Filho,O.C.; Ayres-Neto,E.M.; Carneiro,J.J.; Marin-Neto,J.A.; Maciel,B.C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54107%
To compare the sensitivity of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia we produced a physiologically significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery of 14 open-chest dogs (range: 50 to 89% reduction in luminal diameter). In each study, dobutamine (5 to 40 µg kg-1 min-1 in 3-min stages) and pacing (20 bpm increments, each 2 min, up to 260 bpm) were performed randomly, and then followed by dipyridamole (up to 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min). The positivity of stress echocardiography tests was quantitatively determined by a significant (P<0.05) reduction of or failure to increase absolute and percent systolic wall thickening in the stenotic artery supplied wall, as compared to the opposite wall (areas related to the left anterior descending artery). Systolic and diastolic frozen images were analyzed off-line by two blinded observers in the control and stress conditions. The results showed that 1) the sensitivity of dobutamine, dipyridamole and pacing stress tests was 57, 57 and 36%, respectively; 2) in animals with positive tests, the mean percent change of wall thickening in left ventricular ischemic segments was larger in the pacing (-19 ± 11%) and dipyridamole (-18 ± 16%) tests as compared to dobutamine (-9 ± 6%) (P = 0.05)...

‣ Nonirradiated NOD/SCID-Human Chimeric Animal Model for Primary Human Multiple Myeloma : A Potential in Vivo Culture System

Huang, Shang-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Su, Fang-Hsein; Hsu, Su-Ming
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
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The NOD/SCID human chimeric animal model was generated by implanting of human fetal bones (FBs) into subcutaneous sites of NOD/SCID mice (NOD/SCID-hu+), followed by inoculation of primary bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) obtained from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) into the FBs. The BMNCs from 30 patients with MM were inoculated, and 28 (93%) of them revealed evidence of tumor growth of myeloma cells (MCs) in the NOD/SCID-hu+ mice. Intriguingly, 17 (61%) of the 28 patients’ BMNCs inoculated developed not only myeloma in the bone marrow of the FBs, but also extramedullary macrotumors (EMTs) along the periosteum of the FBs. The tumor cells in these EMTs had plasmacytoid morphology and preserved antigens and cytogenetics similar, if not identical, to those in the parent MCs. Moreover, small tumor blocks from nine EMTs were transplanted into subcutaneous sites of subsequent recipient NOD/SCID mice without human FBs (NOD/SCID-hu−), and all but one grew successfully. Two of the EMTs have been maintained in the animal model for more than 12 months. The NOD/SCID-hu+ chimeric animal model is highly efficient for growth of primary MCs and presents clinical features of human MM. The engrafted MCs can be maintained subsequently in NOD/SCID-hu− mice as in vivo culture.

‣ Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2004 Português
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In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a defined tract system. For this reason we have developed a localized EAE model, in which large inflammatory lesions are targeted to the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, an area including the corticospinal tract. These lesions show the pathological hallmarks of MS plaques and lead to reproducible and pronounced deficits in hindlimb locomotion. Because of the anatomical specificity of this technique we can now use highly sensitive behavioral tests that assess the functional integrity of specific axonal tracts. We show that these tests are predictive of the site and extent of a given lesion and are more sensitive for assessing the clinical course than the scales commonly used for disseminated EAE models. We believe that this targeted EAE model will become a helpful new tool for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for MS that attempt to protect axons or support their repair.

‣ Animal Model of Fatal Human Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis

Sotomayor, Edgar A.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Feng, Hui-Min; Walker, David H.; Olano, Juan P.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2001 Português
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Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a life-threatening, tick-borne, emerging infectious disease for which no satisfactory animal model has been developed. Strain HF565, an ehrlichial organism closely related to E. chaffeensis isolated from Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan, causes fatal infection of mice. C57BL/6 mice became ill on day 7 after inoculation and died on day 9. The liver revealed confluent necrosis, ballooning cell injury, apoptosis, poorly formed granulomas, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, erythrophagocytosis, and microvesicular fatty metamorphosis. The other significant histological findings consisted of marked expansion of the marginal zone and infiltration of the red pulp of the spleen by macrophages, interstitial pneumonitis, and increased numbers of immature myeloid cells and areas of necrosis in the bone marrow. Ehrlichiae were detected by immunohistology and electron microscopy in the liver, lungs, and spleen. The main target cells were macrophages, including Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. Apoptosis was detected in Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and macrophages in the lungs and spleen. This tropism for macrophages and the pathological lesions closely resemble those of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis for which it is a promising model for investigation of immunity and pathogenesis.

‣ Immunological Characterization of Human Vaginal Xenografts in Immunocompromised Mice : Development of a Small Animal Model for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection

Kish, Tina M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Howett, Mary K.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 Português
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A small animal model for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and other fastidious infectious agents in human host target tissues is critical for the advancement of therapeutic and preventative strategies. Our laboratory has developed a human vaginal xenograft model that histologically recapitulates features of the human vaginal epithelial barrier. Vaginal xenografts were surgically implanted into C.B.-Igh-1b/IcrTac-Prkdcscid (SCID) and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid (NOD/SCID) mice, with and without human peripheral blood mononuclear cell reconstitution. Immunohistochemical staining of vaginal xenografts demonstrated that in the SCID strain healed vaginal xenografts did not retain intrinsic human immune cells at baseline levels, whereas the NOD/SCID strain supported retention of intrinsic human immune cell populations within the xenografts for at least 2 months after engraftment. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD/SCID mice with vaginal xenografts, flow cytometric analyses detected human immune cell populations in the peripheral blood and immunohistochemical methods detected infiltration of human CD45+ cells in the mouse spleens and vaginal xenografts for at least 2 months after reconstitution. This optimized NOD/SCID human vaginal xenograft model may provide a unique small animal in vivo system for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission and infection.

‣ Mice with Homozygous Disruption of the mdr2 P-Glycoprotein Gene A Novel Animal Model for Studies of Nonsuppurative Inflammatory Cholangitis and Hepatocarcinogenesis

Mauad, Thais H.; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M. J.; Dingemans, Koert P.; Smit, Jaap J. M.; Schinkel, Alfred H.; Notenboom, Robbert G. E.; van den Bergh Weerman, Marius A.; Verkruisen, Ronald P.; Groen, Albert K.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van der Valk, Martin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1994 Português
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The mouse mdr2gene (and its human homologue MDR3, also called MDR2) encodes a P-glycoprotein that is present in high concentration in the bile canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. The 129/OlaHsd mice with a homozygous disruption of the mdr2 gene (-/-mice) lack this P-glycoprotein in the canalicular membrane. These mice are unable to secrete phospholipids into bile, showing an essential role for the mdr2 P-glycoprotein in the transport of phosphatidylcholine across the canalicular membrane. The complete absence of phospholipids from bile leads to a hepatic disease, which becomes manifest shortly after birth and shows progression to an end stage in the course of 3 months. The liver pathology is that of a nonsuppurative inflammatory cholangitis with portal inflammation and ductular proliferation, consistent with toxic in-jury of the biliary system from bile salts unaccompanied by phospholipids. Thus, the mdr2 (-/-) mice can serve as an animal model for studying mechanisms and potential interventions in nonsuppurative inflammatory cholangitis (in a generic sense) in human disease, be it congenital or acquired. When the mice are 4 to 6 months of age, preneoplastic lesions develop in the liver, progressing to metastatic liver cancer in the terminal phase. The mdr2 (-/-) mice therefore also provide a tumor progression model of value for the study of hepatic carcinogenesis. Interestingly...

‣ An Animal Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome : Herpesvirus Papio Frequently Induces Fatal Lymphoproliferative Disorders with Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Rabbits

Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Teramoto, Norihiro; Onoda, Sachiyo; Chen, Hong-Li; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Yates, John; Akagi, Tadaatsu
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 Português
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Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis. However, the animal model for EBV-AHS has not been developed. We reported the first animal model for EBV-AHS using rabbits infected with EBV-related herpesvirus of baboon (HVP). Eleven of 13 (85%) rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells developed fatal lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) between 22 and 105 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in nine of these 11 rabbits. The peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced the virus infection with increased anti-EBV-viral capsid antigen-IgG titers in three of five rabbits, and two of these three infected rabbits died of LPD with HPS. Autopsy revealed hepatosplenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes. Atypical lymphoid T cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNA-1 infiltrated diffusely in many organs, frequently involving the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by polymerase chain reaction or Southern blot analysis. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed both HVP-EBNA1 and HVP-EBNA2 transcripts...

‣ Electrocardiograms Corresponding to the Development of Myocardial Infarction in Anesthetized WHHLMI Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an Animal Model for Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Ito, Takashi; Yamada, Satoshi; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Shiomi, Masashi
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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66.584897%
The aim of this study was to determine whether features indicative of myocardial ischemia occur in the electrocardiograms (ECG) in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, an animal model for human familial hypercholesterolemia. ECG were recorded in 110 anesthetized WHHLMI rabbits (age, 10 to 39 mo) by using unipolar and bipolar limb leads with or without chest leads. We noted the following electrocardiographic changes: T wave inversion (37.4%), ST segment depression (31.8%), deep Q wave (16.3%), reduced R wave amplitude (7.3%), ST segment elevation (2.7%), and high T wave (1.8%). These ECG changes resembled those in human patients with coronary heart disease. Histopathologic examination revealed that the left ventricular wall showed acute myocardial lesions, including loss of cross-striations, vacuolar degeneration, coagulation necrosis of cardiac myocytes, and edema between myofibrils, in addition to chronic myocardial lesions such as myocardial fibrosis. The coronary arteries that caused these ECG changes were severely stenosed due to atherosclerotic lesions. Ischemic ECG changes corresponded to the locations of the myocardial lesions. Normal ECG waveforms were similar between WHHLMI rabbits and humans...

‣ Validation of the sheep as a large animal model for the study of vertebral osteoporosis

Zarrinkalam, K.; Beard, H.; Schultz, C.; Moore, R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Rats have long been the animal of choice for research in the field of osteoporosis. In the search for a complementary large animal model the sheep appears useful but hitherto the extent of bone loss from the spine has failed to reach a level that is generally accepted as osteoporotic in humans. Osteoporosis was induced in ten sheep using ovariectomy, low calcium diet and steroid injection for 6 months. Bone samples of iliac crest (IC), lumbar spine (LS), and proximal femur (PF) from the osteoporotic sheep were compared with those from four normal sheep using densitometry, histomorphometry, biochemistry and basic mechanical testing. The differences were examined using an analysis of variance with Tukey–Kramer test. Overall, the bone mineral density at LS and PF decreased more than 25% after treatment. Trabecular bone volume decreased by 29.2, 33.4 and 42.6% in IC, LS and PF, respectively. The failure load of the LS in axial compression was reduced to 2,003 from 6,140 N. The extent of bone loss was sufficient to categorise these sheep as osteoporotic although the pattern of bone loss varied between sites. Reduced mechanical competence in LS confirmed the suitability of this model for evaluation of potential treatments for osteoporosis; M. R. Zarrinkalam...

‣ The pressure distribution of cerebrospinal fluid responds to residual compression and decompression in an animal model of acute spinal cord injury

Jones, C.F.; Newell, R.S.; Lee, J.H.T.; Cripton, P.A.; Kwon, B.K.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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STUDY DESIGN: In vivo large animal (pig) model study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressures after acute experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To determine how the CSF pressure (CSFP) and CSF pulse pressure amplitude (CSFPPA) cranial and caudal to the injury site change after an acute SCI with subsequent thecal occlusion and decompression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lowering intrathecal pressure via CSF drainage is currently instituted to prevent ischemia-induced SCI during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and was recently investigated as a potential intervention for acute traumatic SCI. However, in SCI patients, persistent extradural compression commonly occludes the subarachnoid space. This may generate a CSFP differential across the injury site, which cannot be appreciated with lumbar catheter pressure measurements. METHODS: Anesthetized pigs were subjected to an acute contusive SCI at T11 and 8 hours of sustained compression (n = 12), or sham surgery (n = 2). CSFP was measured cranial and caudal to the injury site, using miniature pressure transducers, during compression and for 6 hours after decompression. RESULTS: The cranial-caudal CSFP differential increased (mean, 0.39 mm Hg/h), predominantly due to increased cranial pressure. On decompression...

‣ Freiwillige Einnahme von Paracetamol und Paracetamol-Coffein-Kombinationen im Tiermodell; Voluntary intake of Paracetamol and paracetamol-caffeine-combination in an animal model

Clasen, Jörg
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.584897%
Es wurden folgende Arbeitshypothesen überprüft: 1. Paracetamol führt im Tiermodell, insbesondere in der Kombination mit Coffein, bei freier Substanzwahl zu einem kontrollierten, flexiblen Einnahmemuster und schließlich zur Ausbildung einer Sucht. 2. Individuelle Verhaltensmerkmale der Tiere lassen Rückschlüsse auf das Einnahmeverhalten zu. 3. Coffein und Paracetamol besitzen psychomotorische Effekte, dabei agieren die Effekte von Coffein und Paracetamol nach akuter Verabreichung nicht-additiv miteinander. Zudem wirkt sich die akute Verabreichung von Paracetamol, Coffein oder einer Kombination beider Substanzen auf das Verhalten der Tiere einerseits und auf das anschließende Konsumverhalten der Tiere andererseits aus. Ad 1. Im Verlauf des Langzeit-Trink-Wahlversuchs fanden sich mehrere Indizien für das Vorliegen eines kontrollierten Konsums, entsprechend der zweiten der vier Phasen des Konzeptes des freien wahlweisen Zugriffs auf die Substanzen. Als erstes Indiz zeigte sich, dass Änderungen der Haltungsbedingungen Einfluss auf die freiwillig eingenommenen Tagesdosen hatte. Das zweite Indiz fand sich in der Stabilität des Einnahmeverhaltens, die sich nach der Eingewöhnungsphase einstellte. Der spontane Anstieg der konsumierten Substanzmenge...

‣ Verhaltenspharmakologische und histologische Charakterisierung der Funktion von Dopamin und Glutamat bei der 'nigralen' und 'extranigralen' Pathologie in einem Tiermodell der Parkinson-Krankheit; Neuropharmacological and histological characterisation of the function of dopamine and glutamate in the ‘nigral’ and ‘extranigral’ pathology in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

Pedersen, Vera
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6893%
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde im Tiermodell die Rolle des dopamin (DA)ergen und glutamat (GLU)ergen Systems bei den neurodegenerativen Prozessen, die der Parkinson-Krankheit zugrundeliegen, untersucht. Die Versuche wurden mit verhaltenspharmakologischen Methoden an der Ratte durchgeführt und durch neurochemische, biochemische und histologische Techniken ergänzt. Es wurde ein Tiermodell weiterentwickelt, mit dem das frühe klinische Stadium der Parkinson-Krankheit erfasst werden kann. Das Modell weist durch seine vergleichbaren Verhaltensveränderungen sowie den spezifischen Degenerationsmustern und Veränderungen der Neurotransmittersysteme eine hohe Validität auf und ermöglicht die Untersuchung von selektiven Eingriffen in das DAerge und GLUerge Transmittersystem und deren Auswirkung auf die degenerativen Prozesse. Die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Versuche unterstützen die Eignung dieses Tiermodells zur präklinischen Untersuchung neuer Therapiestrategien für die Parkinson-Krankheit. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit zeigen, dass die Degeneration der DAergen Neurotransmission entscheidend zur Progression der ‚nigralen‘ und ‚extranigralen‘ Pathologie bei der Parkinson-Krankheit beitragen kann. Pathologische neuroadaptative Mechanismen des kompromitierten DAergen Systems sind ebenfalls für die motorischen Komplikationen...

‣ Development of a rabbit's urethral sphincter deficiency animal model for anatomical-functional evaluation

Skaff,M.; Pinto,E.R.S.; Leite,K. R. M.; Almeida,F.G.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.739917%
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a new durable animal model (using rabbits) for anatomical-functional evaluation of urethral sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 New Zealand male rabbits, weighting 2.500 kg to 3.100 kg, were evaluated to develop an incontinent animal model. Thirty-two animals underwent urethrolysis and 8 animals received sham operation. Before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after urethrolysis or sham operation, it was performed cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP) evaluation with different bladder distension volumes (10, 20, 30 mL). In each time point, 10 animals (8 from the study group and 2 from the sham group) were sacrificed to harvest the bladder and urethra. The samples were evaluated by H&E and Masson's Trichrome to determine urethral morphology and collagen/smooth muscle density. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after urethrolysis, it was observed a significant decrease in LPP regardless the bladder volume (from 33.7 ± 6.6 to 12.8 ± 2.2 cmH2O). The histological analysis evidenced a decrease of 22% in smooth muscle density with a proportional increase in the collagen, vessels and elastin density (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Transabdominal urethrolysis develops urethral sphincter insufficiency in rabbits...

‣ Animal model of undernutrition for the evaluation of drug pharmacokinetics

Merino-Sanjuán,M.; Catalán-Latorre,A.; Nácher,A.; Miralles-Arnau,S.; Jiménez-Torres,N. V.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.739644%
Background: Protein energy malnutrition is a public health problem affecting a great number of people. Pathophysiological imbalances in malnourished individuals have a profound impact on drug pharmacokinetics. Objective: To develop an animal model of undernutrition using male Wistar rats to be used to assess, in further studies, the impact of nutritional status on the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of drugs. Desing: Animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups and fed different diets for 26 days: WN (well-nourished/regular diet, N = 61) and UN (under-nourished/protein-calorie restricted diet, N = 72). Assessment of the animals' nutritional status was performed taking into account serum albumin, total cholesterol level and total body weight. A kinetic model incorporating population kinetic analysis (NONMEM) was developed to analyze body weight versus time profiles in the adaptation period following administration of the two aforementioned diets. Results: Serum albumin plasma levels were lower than 2.3 g/dL in 80% (60/72) of malnourished animals at the end of the adaptation period. The range of the total serum cholesterol was similar in both groups at the end of the adaptation period. Total body weight in all cases was less than 230 g for malnourished animals and higher than 240 g for well-nourished animals. The kinetic model assayed was confirmed to be an expansion module characterized by linear weight gain and a decline module characterized by exponential weight loss...

‣ Estimation of genetic parameters of test day fat and protein yields in Brazilian Holstein cattle using an autoregressive multiple lactation animal model

Costa,C.N.; Carvalheira,J.; Cobuci,J.A.; Freitas,A.F.; Thompson,G.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.614585%
This study was aimed to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for daily fat and protein yields of Brazilian Holstein cattle, using an autoregressive test day multiple lactations (AR) animal model. Data consisted of test day (TD) records produced by Holstein cows under milk recording supervised by the Brazilian Holstein Association, calving from 1993 to 2004. Medium to high heritability estimates (from 0.18 to 0.30 and from 0.30 to 0.43 for fat and protein TD yields, respectively) suggest opportunities for larger genetic gain by selection. Results from this study confirm the potential of using TD yields to replace the lactation model to estimate breeding values of Holstein cows in Brazil. Further studies are needed to compare these results with other modelling approaches e.g., the RR model.