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‣ Differences between completers and early dropouts from 2 HIV intervention trials: a health belief approach to understanding prevention program attrition.

DiFranceisco, W; Kelly, J A; Sikkema, K J; Somlai, A M; Murphy, D A; Stevenson, L Y
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting program attrition among participants in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction trials. METHODS: Participants were gay/bisexual men and severely mentally ill adults recruited to take part in HIV risk reduction small-group interventions. Program completers were compared with participants who were assessed at baseline but then failed to attend any sessions. The health belief model provided a framework for selection of possible predictors of program attrition. RESULTS: Younger age was associated with early dropout in both samples. Other predictors among gay/bisexual men included involvement in an exclusive sexual relationship, minority ethnicity, injection drug use, and higher perceived severity of AIDS. Severely mentally ill dropouts were less knowledgeable about safer sex methods and more likely to hold positive outcome expectancies for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of intervention effectiveness among vulnerable population segments is threatened if there is selective attrition. Better methods are needed to attract and maintain participation in HIV prevention programs. Alternatively, wider application of "intention to treat" analysis of intervention outcomes is recommended to minimize selection bias due to program dropout.

‣ The Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Study of Mental Health: Examining Recruitment and Attrition Bias

Tambs, Kristian; Rønning, Torbjørn; Prescott, C. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Torgersen, Svenn; Harris, Jennifer R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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All Norwegian twin pairs born 1967–1974 and still living in Norway in 1992 were invited to a health questionnaire study (Q1). 2,570 pairs (65%) participated. These cohorts and the twin cohorts born 1967–1979 were invited to a new questionnaire study (Q2) in 1998. This time 3,334 pairs (53%) participated. Almost all pairs having participated in the 1998 study were invited to an interview study of mental health (MHS), taking place 1999–2004. 1,391 complete pairs (44%) participated. The questionnaire studies included extensive data on somatic health with fewer items on mental health and demography. Health-related and demographic information available from the Medical Birth Registry on all invited twins was applied to predict participation to the first study. A few registry variables indicating poor health predicted nonparticipation in Q1. Health information and demography from Q1 were tested as predictors of participation in the follow-up study (Q2). Monozygosity, female sex, being unmarried, having no children, and high education predicted participation, whereas few indicators of poor mental and somatic health and unhealthy lifestyle moderately predicted nonparticipation in Q2. No health indicators reported in Q2 predicted further participation. Standard genetic twin analyses of indicators of various mental disorders from Q2...

‣ The Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project 2004–06: Data collection, data quality, and analysis of attrition

Anglewicz, Philip; adams, jimi; Obare, Francis; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Watkins, Susan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/05/2009 Português
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In this paper we evaluate the quality of survey data collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project by investigating four potential sources of bias: sample representativeness, interviewer effects, response unreliability, and sample attrition. We discuss the results of our analysis and implications of our findings for the collection of data in similar contexts.

‣ Attrition in Models of Intergenerational Links Using the PSID with Extensions to Health and to Sibling Models*

Fitzgerald, John M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Selective attrition potentially biases estimation of intergenerational links in health and economic status. This paper documents attrition in the PSID through 2007 for a cohort of children, and investigates attrition bias in intergenerational models predicting adult health, education and earnings, including models based on sibling differences. Although attrition affects unconditional means, the weighted PSID generally maintains its representativeness along key dimensions in comparison to the National Health Interview Survey. Using PSID, sibling correlations in outcomes and father-son correlations in earnings are not significantly affected by attrition. Models of intergenerational links with covariates yield more mixed results with females showing few robust impacts of attrition and males showing potential attrition bias for education and earnings outcomes. For adult health outcomes conditional on child background, neither gender shows significant impacts of attrition for the age ranges and models considered here. Sibling models do not produce robustly higher attrition impacts than individual models.

‣ Does Attrition during Follow-Up of a Population Cohort Study Inevitably Lead to Biased Estimates of Health Status?

Lacey, Rosie J.; Jordan, Kelvin P.; Croft, Peter R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2013 Português
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Attrition is a potential source of bias in cohort studies. Although attrition may be inevitable in cohort studies of older people, there is little empirical evidence as to whether bias due to such attrition is also inevitable. Anonymised primary care data, routinely collected in clinical practice and independent of any cohort research study, represents an ideal unselected comparison dataset with which to compare primary care data from consenting responders to a cohort study. Our objective was to use this method as a novel means to assess if (i) responders at follow-up stages in a cohort study remain representative of responders at baseline and (ii) attrition biases estimates of longitudinal associations. We compared primary care consultation morbidities and prescription prevalences among circa 32,000 patients aged 50+ who contribute to an anonymised general practice database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive (CiPCA)) with those from patients aged 50+ in the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP) cohort, United Kingdom (2002–2008; n = 16,159). 8,197 (51%) persons responded to the NorStOP baseline survey and consented to medical record review. 5,121 and 3,311 responded at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. Differences in consulting prevalence of non-musculoskeletal morbidities between NorStOP responders and CiPCA comparison population did not increase over the two follow-up points except for ischaemic heart disease. Differences observed at baseline for osteoarthritis-related consultations were generally unchanged at the two follow-ups (standardised prevalence ratios for osteoarthritis (1.09–1.13) and joint pain (1.12–1.23)). Age and gender adjusted associations between baseline consultation for chronic morbidity and future new osteoarthritis and related consultations were similar in CiPCA (adjusted Hazard Ratio: 1.40; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.34...

‣ Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

Launes, Jyrki; Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/07/2014 Português
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Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades.

‣ Posttreatment Attrition and Its Predictors, Attrition Bias, and Treatment Efficacy of the Anxiety Online Programs

AL-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
Fonte: JMIR Publications Inc. Publicador: JMIR Publications Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2014 Português
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‣ Attrition in Longitudinal Household Survey Data : Some Tests for Three Developing-Country Samples

Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Maluccio, John A.; Cotts Watkins, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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For capturing dynamic demographic relationships, longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over more widely used cross-sectional data. But because the collection of longitudinal data may be difficult and expensive, analysts must assess the magnitudes of the problems, specific to longitudinal, but not to cross-sectional data. One problem that concerns many analysts is that sample attrition may make the interpretation of estimates problematic. Such attrition may be especially severe where there is considerable migration between rural, and urban areas. And attrition is likely to be selective on such characteristics as schooling, so high attrition is likely to bias estimates. The authors consider the extent, and implications of attrition for three longitudinal household surveys from Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa that report very high annual attrition rates between survey rounds. Their estimates indicate that: 1) the means for a number of critical outcome, and family background variables differ significantly between those who are lost to follow-up, and those who are re-interviewed. 2) A number of family background variables are significant predictors of attrition. 3) Nevertheless, the coefficient estimates for standard family background variables in regressions...

‣ The effect of household characteristics on living standards in South Africa 1993 - 98: a quantile regression analysis with sample attrition

Maitra, Pushkar; Vahid, Farshid
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 864502 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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This paper examines whether the dismantling of apartheid has resulted in the improvement in the standard of living for the vast majority of South Africans. The study is based on a panel data set from the Kwazulu-Natal province. Despite the best efforts of the interview team, the attrition rate in this panel is around 16%. We find that household income and size in 1993, several community characteristics and survey quality in 1993 significantly affect the probability of attrition. We use weighted quantile regressions to examine the distribution of standards of living, which corrects for the potential bias arising from non-random sample attrition. Our results show that there has been a significant increase in the spread of the distribution of household expenditure of the Non-White households residing in Kwazulu-Natal province. We argue that the stretch to the right of the upper tail of distribution can be attributed to significant increase in returns to primary and high school education, while movement to the left of the lower quantiles can be associated with the increase in the proportion of female headed households and household size.; no

‣ Effect of state unemployment rate on attrition for first-term U.S. Navy enlisted attrition

Thompson, Erica L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis analyzes the effects of unemployment on first-term attrition for U.S. Navy enlisted personnel in the pay grades of E-1 to E-9 with no prior service that attrited between fiscal years 1999 and 2007. Four separate probit models were formed to analyze the effect of the state unemployment rate on first-term attrition for Navy enlisted personnel for cohorts during six months of service, 12 months of service, 24 months of service and 45 months of service. A second model type analyzed attrition over a specific period of time. Attrition was estimated during six months, between 6-12 months of service, between 12--24 months of service and between 24--45 months of service. These models were developed to predict the likelihood of an enlisted sailor attriting when state unemployment rates increase by one percentage point. The independent variables for the two models types included demographic variables, such as Black, White, Asian, Native American, other race, education years, age, female, male, AFQT__score, pay grade dependents, no dependents, first enlistment with bonus, and first enlistment no bonus. Dummy variables for 1999-2007 and dummy variables for states were created to explain any bias of attrition by circumstances, such as the economy. Consistent negative effects on attrition included unemployment rate...

‣ The effect of gender on attrition at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

Arthur, George T.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) , located at the Presidio of Monterey, California, provides language training for Department of Defense military and civilian personnel. The Institute trains approximately 2,500 students annually, of which approximately 26 percent are female. Student attrition is a costly feature of this training program. Females experience roughly a 7 percent higher rate of attrition than males at DLIFLC. The Institute is interested in knowing whether this difference indicates a gender bias, or whether it can be explained by other factors. This study investigates this question. Specifically, data on FY-95 DLIFLC students are examined to determine factors with a significant impact on attrition, with particular emphasis on gender. Such information is potentially useful to the Institute for internal quality assurance efforts as well as part of potential cost saving measures.

‣ A study of promotion and attrition of mid-grade officers in the U.S. Marine Corps: are assignments a key factor?

Morgan, Jerry R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 75 p. : col. ill.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This study analyzes the relationship between selection to major in the Marine Corps, and the survival of midgrade officers to the promotion point of major, by investigating the effects of billet assignments. Specifically, this study looks at the influence of the percentage of time spent in the Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), the percentage of time spent in primary military occupation (PMOS) billet assignments, and the effect of having served in combat, recruiting, security forces, joint, and drill field duties. Models were formulated using groundwork established in previous promotion, retention, and attrition studies. Assignment variables were then introduced to the models. To account for officers' choice for continued service vice forced attrition, the sample was restricted to officers who had attained five years of service. Probit regression was used to find the influence of career assignments on the probability of selection; Heckman's correction was used to control for self-selection bias; and, Cox proportionalhazard regression was used, utilizing the same assignment factors, to find the influence of assignments on the likelihood of attrition. The findings indicated that FMF and PMOS ratios above 60 percent had a negative effect on promotion and retention. Also indicated was that time spent outside the PMOS...

‣ Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children

Jefferson,Tom; Jones,Mark A.; Doshi,Peter; Del Mar,Chris B.; Hama,Rokuro; Thompson,Matthew; Spencer,Elizabeth A.; Onakpoya,Igho; Mahtani,Kamal R.; Nunan,David Nunan; Howick,Jeremy; Heneghan,Carl J.
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and regulatory comments. METHODS Search methods: We searched trial registries, electronic databases (to 22 July 2013) and regulatory archives, and corresponded with manufacturers to identify all trials. We also requested clinical study reports. We focused on the primary data sources of manufacturers but we checked that there were no published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from non-manufacturer sources by running electronic searches in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Embase.com, PubMed (not MEDLINE), the Database of Reviews of Effects, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Economic Evaluations Database. Selection criteria: Randomised, placebo-controlled trials on adults and children with confirmed or suspected exposure to naturally occurring influenza. Data collection and analysis: We extracted clinical study reports and assessed risk of bias using purpose-built instruments. We analysed the effects of zanamivir and oseltamivir on time to first alleviation of symptoms...

‣ Attrition bias in panel data: a sheep in wolf's clothing? A case study based on the Mabel survey

Cheng, T.C.; Trivedi, P.K.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Abstract not available; Terence C. Cheng and Pravin K. Trivedi; Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015

‣ Handling Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Case for Refreshment Samples

Deng, Yiting; Hillygus, D. Sunshine; Reiter, Jerome P.; Si, Yajuan; Zheng, Siyu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2013 Português
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Panel studies typically suffer from attrition, which reduces sample size and can result in biased inferences. It is impossible to know whether or not the attrition causes bias from the observed panel data alone. Refreshment samples - new, randomly sampled respondents given the questionnaire at the same time as a subsequent wave of the panel - offer information that can be used to diagnose and adjust for bias due to attrition. We review and bolster the case for the use of refreshment samples in panel studies. We include examples of both a fully Bayesian approach for analyzing the concatenated panel and refreshment data, and a multiple imputation approach for analyzing only the original panel. For the latter, we document a positive bias in the usual multiple imputation variance estimator. We present models appropriate for three waves and two refreshment samples, including nonterminal attrition. We illustrate the three-wave analysis using the 2007-2008 Associated Press-Yahoo! News Election Poll.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/13-STS414 the Statistical Science (http://www.imstat.org/sts/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

‣ Bayesian Latent Pattern Mixture Models for Handling Attrition in Panel Studies With Refreshment Samples

Si, Yajuan; Reiter, Jerome P.; Hillygus, D. Sunshine
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2015 Português
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Many panel studies collect refreshment samples---new, randomly sampled respondents who complete the questionnaire at the same time as a subsequent wave of the panel. With appropriate modeling, these samples can be leveraged to correct inferences for biases caused by non-ignorable attrition. We present such a model when the panel includes many categorical survey variables. The model relies on a Bayesian latent pattern mixture model, in which an indicator for attrition and the survey variables are modeled jointly via a latent class model. We allow the multinomial probabilities within classes to depend on the attrition indicator, which offers additional flexibility over standard applications of latent class models. We present results of simulation studies that illustrate the benefits of this flexibility. We apply the model to correct attrition bias in an analysis of data from the 2007-2008 Associated Press/Yahoo News election panel study.

‣ El Tractament de manteniment per a la dependència dual d'heroïna i cocaïna i per a la dependència de cocaïna

Castells Cervelló, Xavier
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Objectiu: Estudiar les evidències científiques disponibles sobre l'eficàcia del tractament de manteniment per a la dependència dual d'heroïna i cocaïna i per a la dependència de cocaïna. Mètodes: Revisió sistemàtica d'assaigs clínics aleatoritzats (ACA) de grups paral·lels. Es va recollir l'abstinència d'heroïna, cocaïna i la retenció a l'estudi. Es van combinar els resultats obtinguts mitjançant tècniques metanalítiques. Resultats: Tres ACA (456 pacients) van comparar l'eficàcia de dosis altes d'opiacis vs dosis baixes en pacients amb dependència dual d'heroïna i cocaïna. Les dosis altes d'opiacis van ser més eficaces que les dosis baixes per a retenir els pacients en el tractament i disminuir el consum d'heroïna, però no van millorar el consum de cocaïna. Quatre ACA (329 pacients) van comparar l'eficàcia de la metadona (un agonista opioid complet) respecte de la buprenorfina (un agonista parcial) en pacients amb una dependència dual d'heroïna i cocaïna. L'abstinència d'heroïna i cocaïna i la retenció al tractament van ser superiors entre els pacients tractats amb metadona que entre els que van rebre buprenorfina. Disset ACA (1.555 pacients) van investigar l'eficàcia de fàrmacs psicoestimulants respecte el placebo en pacients amb dependència de cocaïna. El tractament de manteniment amb psicoestimulants va ser eficaç per a disminuir el consum de cocaïna però no va millorar la retenció al tractament. Cinc ACA (403 pacients) van comparar l'eficàcia del tractament de manteniment doble amb opioids i psicoestimulants respecte del tractament de manteniment amb opioids en pacients amb dependència dual d'heroïna i cocaïna. El tractament de manteniment doble va aconseguir una disminució més gran del consum d'heroïna i cocaïna però no va augmentar la retenció al tractament. Cap dels ACA inclosos es va considerar lliure de biaix...

‣ O atrito nas pesquisas longitudinais: o caso da pesquisa mensal de emprego (PME/IBGE)

Ribas, Rafael Perez; Soares, Sergei Suarez Dillon
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2010 Português
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This article aims to estimate the determinants of attrition/permanence of people in the panel of the Brazilian Monthly Employment Survey (PME/IBGE) and also to test the bias emerged from ignorability of attrition selection in regression analyses. Results point out a strong correlation between attrition rate and characteristics closely related to geographic mobility. In addition, both survey design aspects and socioeconomic events are significantly related to the probability of attrition. In selection correction models, we find that all selection mechanisms are endogenous, even though they are not directly correlated with the equation of interest. Finally, we show that ignoring the endogeneity of sample selection, such as attrition, may imply to a biased analysis. However, controlling for only some selection mechanism, not controlling for all, may provide estimators even more biased than no controlling.; O objetivo deste artigo é estimar os determinantes da permanência de pessoas no painel da Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego (PME) e, além disso, testar se ignorar a não-aleatoriedade do desgaste no painel causa algum viés em análises de regressão. Os resultados apontam que há uma forte correlação da taxa de atrito com as características geralmente associadas a uma mobilidade geográfica maior. Além disso...

‣ Modeling Missing Data In Panel Studies With Multiple Refreshment Samples

Deng, Yiting
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Most panel surveys are subject to missing data problems caused by panel attrition. The Additive Non-ignorable (AN) model proposed by Hirano et al. (2001) utilizes refreshment samples in panel surveys to impute missing data, and offers flexibility in modeling the missing data mechanism to incorporate both ignorable and non-ignorable models. We extend the AN model to settings with three waves and two refreshment samples. We address identication and estimation issues related to the proposed model under four different types of survey design, featured by whether the missingness is monotone and whether subjects in the refreshment samples are followed up in subsequent waves of the survey. We apply this approach and multiple imputation techniques to the 2007-2008 Associated Press-Yahoo! News Poll (APYN) panel dataset to analyze factors affecting people's political interest. We find that, when attrition bias is not accounted for, the carry-on effects of past political interest on current political interest are underestimated. This highlights the importance of dealing with attrition bias and the potential of refreshment samples for doing so.

; Thesis

‣ Post treatment attrition and its predictors, attrition bias, and treatment efficacy of the anxiety online programs

AL-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britta; Meyer, Denny
Fonte: Journal of medical Internet Research Publicador: Journal of medical Internet Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Although relatively new, the field of e-mental health is becoming more popular with more attention given to researching its various aspects. However, there are many areas that still need further research, especially identifying attrition predictors at various phases of assessment and treatment delivery. Objective: The present study identified the predictors of posttreatment assessment completers based on 24 pre- and posttreatment demographic and personal variables and 1 treatment variable, their impact on attrition bias, and the efficacy of the 5 fully automated self-help anxiety treatment programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: A complex algorithm was used to diagnose participants' mental disorders based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. A total of 3199 individuals did not formally drop out of the 12-week treatment cycle...