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‣ The use of stem cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases

Rosa, Sílvia Barcellos; Voltarelli, Júlio Cesar; Chies, Jose Artur Bogo; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Autoimmune diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of conditions commonly treated with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and immunomodulating drugs, with satisfactory results in most cases. Nevertheless, some patients become resistant to conventional therapy. The use of high doses of drugs in such cases results in the need for bone marrow reconstitution, a situation which has stimulated research into the use of hematopoietic stem cells in autoimmune disease therapy. Stem cell transplantation in such diseases aims to destroy the self-reacting immune cells and produce a new functional immune system, as well as substitute cells for tissue damaged in the course of the disease. Significant results, such as the reestablishment of tolerance and a decrease in the recurrence of autoimmune disease, have been reported following stem cell transplantation in patients with autoimmune disease in Brazil and throughout the world. These results suggest that stem cell transplantation has the potential to become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, autoimmune blood cytopenias...

‣ Effective treatment of autoimmune disease and progressive renal disease by mixed bone-marrow transplantation that establishes a stable mixed chimerism in BXSB recipient mice

Wang, Bingyan; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; El-Badri, Nagwa S.; Good, Robert A.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/1999 Português
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Male BXSB mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease with features similar to systemic lupus erythematosus. To determine whether this autoimmune disease can be treated as well as prevented by bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and, at the same time, whether the immunity functions of lethally irradiated recipients can be reconstituted fully, male BXSB mice were engrafted with mixed T cell-depleted marrow (TCDM) both from fully allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice and from syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice, after the onset of autoimmune disease in the recipient mice. BMT with mixed TCDM from both resistant and susceptible strains of mice (mixed BMT) established stable mixed chimerism, prolonged the median life span, and arrested development of glomerulonephritis in BXSB mice. BMT with mixed TCDM also reduced the formation of anti-DNA antibodies that are observed typically in male mice of this strain. Furthermore, mixed BMT reconstituted the primary antibody production in BXSB recipients impressively. These findings indicate that transplantation of allogeneic autoimmune-resistant TCDM plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone TCDM into lethally irradiated BXSB mice can be used to treat autoimmune and renal disease in this strain of mice. In addition...

‣ Analysis of Families in the Multiple Autoimmune Disease Genetics Consortium (MADGC) Collection: the PTPN22 620W Allele Associates with Multiple Autoimmune Phenotypes

Criswell, Lindsey A.; Pfeiffer, Kirsten A.; Lum, Raymond F.; Gonzales, Bonnie; Novitzke, Jill; Kern, Marlena; Moser, Kathy L.; Begovich, Ann B.; Carlton, Victoria E. H.; Li, Wentian; Lee, Annette T.; Ortmann, Ward; Behrens, Timothy W.; Gregersen, Peter K.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Autoimmune disorders constitute a diverse group of phenotypes with overlapping features and a tendency toward familial aggregation. It is likely that common underlying genes are involved in these disorders. Until very recently, no specific alleles—aside from a few common human leukocyte antigen class II genes—had been identified that clearly associate with multiple different autoimmune diseases. In this study, we describe a unique collection of 265 multiplex families assembled by the Multiple Autoimmune Disease Genetics Consortium (MADGC). At least two of nine “core” autoimmune diseases are present in each of these families. These core diseases include rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves disease), juvenile RA, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis), psoriasis, and primary Sjögren syndrome. We report that a recently described functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2476601, encoding R620W) in the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) confers risk of four separate autoimmune phenotypes in these families: T1D, RA, SLE, and Hashimoto thyroiditis. MS did not show association with the PTPN22 risk allele. These findings suggest a common underlying etiologic pathway for some...

‣ Organ-specific autoimmune diseases induced in mice by elimination of T cell subset. I. Evidence for the active participation of T cells in natural self-tolerance; deficit of a T cell subset as a possible cause of autoimmune disease

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1985 Português
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Organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as oophoritis, gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis were induced in female or male nude (nu/nu) mice by the transfer of nu/+spleen cells from which particular Lyt T cell subset(s) had been removed: nu/+spleen cells treated with anti-Lyt- 1 plus complement (C) caused disease in recipient nude mice; anti-Lyt-2 plus C-treated spleen cells, in contrast, did not. The cells responsible for disease induction are believed to be Thy-1+, Lyt-1-, 2,3- (Thy-1, Lyt-1, 2,3), since spleen cells treated with mixed antisera, including anti-Lyt-1 and anti-Lyt-2, plus C, could induce the disease with almost the same incidence as anti-Lyt-1 plus C-treated cells (oophoritis 50%, gastritis 25%, thyroiditis 10-20%, and orchitis 40%). Cells treated with mixed antisera of anti-Thy-1, anti-Lyt-1, and anti-Lyt-2, plus C, could not induce autoimmune disease. Each induced autoimmune disease could be adoptively transferred to other nude mice via spleen cells, with resulting histological lesion of corresponding organs and development of specific circulating autoantibodies. Since anti-Thy-1 plus C treatment of donor spleen cells abrogated the capacity to transfer the disease, we conclude that T cells are required as effector cells...

‣ Thymus and autoimmunity: capacity of the normal thymus to produce pathogenic self-reactive T cells and conditions required for their induction of autoimmune disease

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1990 Português
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BALB/c athymic nu/nu mice spontaneously developed organ-specific (gastritis, thyroiditis, oophoritis, or orchitis) and systemic (arteritis, glomerulonephritis, and polyarthritis) autoimmune diseases when transplanted with neonatal BALB/c thymuses. Transplantation of thymuses from adult BALB/c mice was far less effective in inducing histologically evident organ-specific autoimmune disease in nu/nu mice. Autoimmune disease developed, however, when adult thymuses were irradiated at a T cell-depleting dose before transplantation. Engrafting newborn thymuses into BALB/c mice T cell depleted by thymectomy, irradiation, and bone marrow transplantation produced similar organ-specific autoimmune disease as well, but thymus engrafting into T cell-nondepleted BALB/c mice (i.e., mice thymectomized as adults, but not irradiated) did not, despite the fact that transplanted thymuses grew well in both groups of mice. The mice with organ-specific autoimmune disease produced autoantibodies specific for the respective organ components, such as gastric parietal cells, thyroglobulins, oocytes, or sperm. The thymus-transplanted nu/nu mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia and developed anti-DNA autoantibodies, rheumatoid factors, and immune complexes in the circulation. These results indicate that: (a) the thymus of a murine strain that does not develop spontaneous autoimmune disease can produce pathogenic self- reactive T cells that mediate organ-specific and/or systemic autoimmune diseases; and (b) such self-reactive T cells...

‣ Autoimmune disease in mothers with the FMR1 premutation is associated with seizures in their children with fragile X syndrome

Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tassone, Flora; Ashwood, Paul; Hessl, David; Schneider, Andrea; Campos, Luis; Nguyen, Danh V.; Hagerman, Randi J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases in family members of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been previously reported. ASD is also a common problem co-occurring in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Why ASD occurs in some individuals with FXS, but not all, is largely unknown. Furthermore, in premutation carrier mothers, there is an increased risk for autoimmune diseases. This study compared the rate of ASD and other neurodevelopmental/behavioral problems in 61 children with FXS born to 41 carrier mothers who had autoimmune disease and in 97 children with FXS of 78 carrier mothers who did not have autoimmune disease. There were no significant differences in the mean age (9.61 ± 5.59 vs. 9.41 ± 6.31, P = 0.836), cognitive and adaptive functioning in children of mothers with and without autoimmune disease. Among children whose mothers had autoimmune disease, the odds ratio (OR) for ASD was 1.27 (95% CI 0.62–2.61, P = 0.5115). Interestingly, the OR for seizures and tics was 3.81 (95% CI 1.13–12.86, P = 0.031) and 2.94 (95% CI 1.19–7.24, P = 0.019), respectively, in children of mothers with autoimmune disease compared to children of mothers without autoimmune disease. In conclusion, autoimmune disease in carrier mothers was not associated with the presence of ASD in their children. However...

‣ Antigenic Challenge in the Etiology of Autoimmune Disease in Women

Rogers, Mary A.M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Blumberg, Neil; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kabeto, Mohammed; Langa, Kenneth M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Infection has long been implicated as a trigger for autoimmune disease. Other antigenic challenges include receipt of allogeneic tissue or blood resulting in immunomodulation. We investigated antigenic challenges as possible risk factors for autoimmune disease in women using the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study, linked to Medicare files, years 1991–2007. The prevalence of autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, celiac disease, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome and multiple sclerosis) was 1.4% in older women (95% CI: 1.3%, 1.5%) with significant variation across regions of the United States. The risk of autoimmune disease increased by 41% (95% CI of incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.10, 1.81) with a prior infection-related medical visit. The risk of autoimmune disease increased by 90% (95% CI of IRR: 1.36, 2.66) with a prior transfusion without infection. Parity was not associated with autoimmune disease. Women less than 65 years of age and Jewish women had significantly elevated risk of developing autoimmune disease, as did individuals with a history of heart disease or end-stage renal disease. Antigenic challenges...

‣ Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women...

‣ TNF Receptor 2 and Disease: Autoimmunity and Regenerative Medicine

Faustman, Denise L.; Davis, Miriam
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The regulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) exerts its effects through two receptors: TNFR1 and TNFR2. Defects in TNFR2 signaling are evident in a variety of autoimmune diseases. One new treatment strategy for autoimmune disease is selective destruction of autoreactive T cells by administration of TNF, TNF inducers, or TNFR2 agonism. A related strategy is to rely on TNFR2 agonism to induce T-regulatory cells (Tregs) that suppress cytotoxic T cells. Targeting TNFR2 as a treatment strategy is likely superior to TNFR1 because of its more limited cellular distribution on T cells, subsets of neurons, and a few other cell types, whereas TNFR1 is expressed throughout the body. This review focuses on TNFR2 expression, structure, and signaling; TNFR2 signaling in autoimmune disease; treatment strategies targeting TNFR2 in autoimmunity; and the potential for TNFR2 to facilitate end organ regeneration.

‣ Regulation of Gene Expression in Autoimmune Disease Loci and the Genetic Basis of Proliferation in CD4+ Effector Memory T Cells

Hu, Xinli; Kim, Hyun; Raj, Towfique; Brennan, Patrick J.; Trynka, Gosia; Teslovich, Nikola; Slowikowski, Kamil; Chen, Wei-Min; Onengut, Suna; Baecher-Allan, Clare; De Jager, Philip L.; Rich, Stephen S.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Brenner, Michael B.; Raychaudh
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent dense-genotyping of associated loci identified over a hundred single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and celiac disease (CeD). Immunological and genetic studies suggest a role for CD4-positive effector memory T (CD+ TEM) cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of autoimmune disease alleles, we investigated molecular phenotypes in CD4+ effector memory T cells potentially affected by these variants. In a cohort of genotyped healthy individuals, we isolated high purity CD4+ TEM cells from peripheral blood, then assayed relative abundance, proliferation upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and the transcription of 215 genes within disease loci before and after stimulation. We identified 46 genes regulated by cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the majority of which we detected in stimulated cells. Eleven of the 46 genes with eQTLs were previously undetected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of 96 risk alleles of RA, T1D, and/or CeD in densely genotyped loci, eleven overlapped cis-eQTLs, of which five alleles completely explained the respective signals. A non-coding variant...

‣ Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence

Staples, Judith A; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lim, Lynette; McMichael, Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 6 pages
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The apparent immune-suppressive effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has suggested that this environmental exposure may influence the development of immune-related disorders. Self-reported prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , eczema/dermatitis, and asthma, from the 1995 Australian National Health Survey, were therefore examined by latitude and ambient level of UVR. A positive association of type 1 diabetes mellitus prevalence was found with both increasing southern latitude of residence (r = 0.77 ; p = 0.026) and decreasing regional annual ambient UVR (r = -0.80 ; p = 0.018) ; a 3-fold increase in prevalence from the northernmost region to the southernmost region was evident. In contrast, asthma correlated negatively with latitude (r = -0.72 ; p = 0.046) , although the change in asthma prevalence from the north to the south of Australia was only 0.7-fold. For both RA and eczema/dermatitis, there were no statistically significant associations between latitude/UVR and disease prevalence. These ecologic data provide some support for a previously proposed beneficial effect of UVR on T-helper 1-mediated autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. The inverse association of type 1 diabetes prevalence with UVR is consistent with that previously reported for another autoimmune disease...

‣ Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) acts as a regulator of B-cell development, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated activation, and autoimmune disease

Wilkinson, R.; Lyons, A.; Roberts, D.; Wong, M.X.; Bartley, P.; Jackson, D.
Fonte: Amer Soc Hematology Publicador: Amer Soc Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is an immunoglobulin-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (Ig-ITIM) superfamily member that recruits and activates protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2, through its intrinsic ITIMs. PECAM-1-deficient (PECAM-1(-/-) ) mice exhibit a hyperresponsive B-cell phenotype, increased numbers of B-1 cells, reduced B-2 cells, and develop autoantibodies. In the periphery, there are reduced mature recirculating B-2 cells and increased B-1a cells within the peritoneal cavity. In addition, PECAM-1(-/-) B cells display hyperproliferative responses to lipopolysaccharide and anti-IgM stimulation and showed enhanced kinetics in their intracellular Ca(++) response following IgM cross-linking. PECAM-1(-/-) mice showed increased serum levels of IgM with elevated IgG isotypes and IgA antidinitrophenol antibody in response to the T-independent antigen, dinitrophenol-Ficoll. Finally, PECAM-1(-/-) mice developed antinuclear antibodies and lupuslike autoimmune disease with age.; Ray Wilkinson, A. Bruce Lyons, Donna Roberts, Mae-Xhum Wong, Paul A. Bartley, and Denise E. Jackson; Copyright © 2002 by The American Society of Hematology.

‣ NK, T and NK T-cells in ageing, coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease.

Grose, Randall Hilton
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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This thesis investigated the number and function of natural killer T-cells (NK T-cells) as a function of age, in coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. NK T-cells are a newly appreciated class of immune cells that are able to regulate the activity of the broader T-cell population. NK T-cells have been implicated in animal models of autoimmune disease and in human autoimmune disease. A subset of NK cells express the T-cell receptor (TCR) and are termed NK T-cells. In humans a further small subset of NK T-cells express an invariant TCR α chain (Vα24Jα18) and contain the immunoregulatory cell population that is distinguished from classical T-cells by promptly producing interleukin-4 (IL-4). Invariant NK T-cells (iNK T-cells) have the surface phenotype of Vα24+ Vβ11+ T-cells and express CD161+ NK markers. They are CD4+ (single positive; SP) or CD4- (double negative; DN), CD1d restricted and are α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) reactive. NKT cells have been implicated in numerous autoimmune disorders. Early work showed a major deficiency of NKT cell numbers in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a well-established model of spontaneous, autoimmune T-cell mediated insulin-dependent diabetes. Both the number of NKT cells and function...

‣ Function of the immunoregulatory CD4-CD8- T cells in the context of autoimmune diabetes

Hillhouse, Erin
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La tolérance immunitaire dépend de la distinction entre le soi et le non soi par le système immunitaire. Un bris dans la tolérance immunitaire mène à l'auto-immunité, qui peut provoquer la destruction des organes, des glandes, des articulations ou du système nerveux central. Le diabète auto-immun, également connu sous le nom diabète juvénile et diabète de type 1, résulte d'une attaque auto-immune sur les cellules β pancréatiques sécrétrices d’insuline, localisées au niveau des îlots de Langerhans du pancréas. Bien que le diabète auto-immun soit traitable par une combinaison d’injections quotidiennes d’insuline d’origine exogène, de régime et d'exercices, beaucoup de complications chroniques peuvent se manifester chez les patients, y compris, mais non limitées à, la cécité, les maladies cardiovasculaires, l’insuffisance rénale et l'amputation. En raison des nombreuses complications liées au diabète auto-immun à long terme, la recherche continue afin de mieux comprendre tous les facteurs impliqués dans la progression de la maladie dans le but de développer de nouvelles thérapies qui empêcheront, renverseront et/ou traiteront cette maladie. Un rôle primordial dans la génération et l'entretien de la tolérance immunitaire a été attribué au nombre et à la fonction des sous-populations de cellules régulatrices. Une de ces populations est constituée de cellules T CD4-CD8- (double négatives...

‣ Autoimmune Disease Classification by Inverse Association with SNP Alleles

Sirota, Marina; Schaub, Marc A.; Batzoglou, Serafim; Robinson, William H.; Butte, Atul J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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With multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed across autoimmune diseases, there is a great opportunity to study the homogeneity of genetic architectures across autoimmune disease. Previous approaches have been limited in the scope of their analysis and have failed to properly incorporate the direction of allele-specific disease associations for SNPs. In this work, we refine the notion of a genetic variation profile for a given disease to capture strength of association with multiple SNPs in an allele-specific fashion. We apply this method to compare genetic variation profiles of six autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis (MS), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and type 1 diabetes (T1D), as well as five non-autoimmune diseases. We quantify pair-wise relationships between these diseases and find two broad clusters of autoimmune disease where SNPs that make an individual susceptible to one class of autoimmune disease also protect from diseases in the other autoimmune class. We find that RA and AS form one such class, and MS and ATD another. We identify specific SNPs and genes with opposite risk profiles for these two classes. We furthermore explore individual SNPs that play an important role in defining similarities and differences between disease pairs. We present a novel...

‣ The use of stem cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases

Rosa,S.B.; Voltarelli,J.C.; Chies,J.A.B.; Pranke,P.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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Autoimmune diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of conditions commonly treated with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and immunomodulating drugs, with satisfactory results in most cases. Nevertheless, some patients become resistant to conventional therapy. The use of high doses of drugs in such cases results in the need for bone marrow reconstitution, a situation which has stimulated research into the use of hematopoietic stem cells in autoimmune disease therapy. Stem cell transplantation in such diseases aims to destroy the self-reacting immune cells and produce a new functional immune system, as well as substitute cells for tissue damaged in the course of the disease. Significant results, such as the reestablishment of tolerance and a decrease in the recurrence of autoimmune disease, have been reported following stem cell transplantation in patients with autoimmune disease in Brazil and throughout the world. These results suggest that stem cell transplantation has the potential to become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, autoimmune blood cytopenias...

‣ Immunization of Balb/c mice with modified auto-antigens for induction of autoimmune sialoadenitis

Unterkircher,Carmelinda Schmidt; Leão,Mariella Vieira Pereira; Carvalho,Yasmin Rodarte
Fonte: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by sialoadenitis and elevated titers of autoantibodies. To assess whether it is possible to induce inflammatory changes in salivary gland tissues, a series of immunizations in Balb/c mice have been undertaken, using salivary gland extract, modified or not, added to several adjuvants. Mice's humoral immune response to salivary gland antigens was monitored by ELISA. Inflammatory cells infiltrating gland tissue were seen 3 months after immunization with salivary gland extract modified with pepsin (AgGp) and metaperiodate (AgGMp). Although pathological progression was not observed, the histopathological picture was similar to the initial phase of Sjögren's syndrome. In addition, a monoclonal antibody reactive with 3 gland polypeptides and anhydrase carbonic II was rescued among B cells from immunized mice. Thus, immunizations with modified autoantigens were able to initiate pathological damage to glandular tissue and stimulate the proliferation of auto-reactive B cells.

‣ Spontaneous B cell hyperactivity in autoimmune-prone MRL mice

Nijnik, Anastasia; Ferry, Helen; Lewis, Graham; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Leung, Janson C H; Daser, Angelika; Lambe, Teresa; Goodnow, Christopher; Cornall, Richard J
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The MRL-lpr/lpr mouse strain is a commonly used model of the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although much is known about the contribution of the lpr Fas mutation to B cell tolerance breakdown, the role of the genetic background of the MRL strain itself is less well explored. In this study, we use the MD4 anti-hen egg lysozyme Ig (IgHEL) transgenic system to explore B cell function in MRL+/+ and non-autoimmune mice. We demonstrate that MRL IgHEL B cells show spontaneous hyperactivity in the absence of self-antigen, which is associated with low total B cell numbers but an expansion of the marginal zone B cell population. However, B cell anergy is normal in the presence of soluble lysozyme [soluble hen egg lysozyme (sHEL)], and MRL IgHEL B cells undergo normal elimination in the presence of sHEL when competing with a polyclonal C57BL/6 B cell repertoire. We conclude that B cell hyperactivity may contribute to the autoimmune phenotype of MRL+/+ and MRL-lpr/lpr strains when it initiates antibody responses to rare or sequestered antigens that are below the threshold for tolerance induction, but that there is no B cell intrinsic defect in anergy in MRL mice.

‣ Nitric oxide plays a critical role in the recovery of Lewis rats from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the maintenance of resistance to reinduction

O'Brien, Nikki; Charlton, Brett; Cowden, William; Willenborg, David
Fonte: American Association of Immunologists Publicador: American Association of Immunologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS and an animal model for the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. In the Lewis rat, myelin basic protein (MBP)- CFA-induced EAE is an acute monophasic disease from which animals recover fully, do not relapse, and develop a robust long-term resistance to further active reinduction of disease. In this paper, we report that rats recovering from MBP-CFA-induced EAE have significantly increased serum levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates indicative of increased NO production. These levels remain elevated after the recovery period and increase even further early after a rechallenge with MBP-CFA, and all animals are totally refractory to a second episode of disease. Oral treatment of rats with N- methyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMA), beginning at peak disease on day 11 postimmunization, results in significant prolongation of disease and an alteration in the presentation of clinical symptoms from that of solely hind limb paresis/paralysis to severe fore limb involvement as well. Treatment of fully recovered rats with L-NMA 24 h before a rechallenge with MBP-CFA leads to decreased serum reactive nitrogen intermediate levels and results in a second episode of EAE in 100% of animals. Furthermore...

‣ Ultraviolet radiation and autoimmune disease: insights from epidemiological research

McMichael, Anthony; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; van der Mei, Ingrid A F
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This review examines the epidemiological evidence that suggests ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may play a protective role in three autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. To date, most of the information has accumulated from population studies that have studied the relationship between geography or climate and autoimmune disease prevalence. An interesting gradient of increasing prevalence with increasing latitude has been observed for at least two of the three diseases. This is most evident for multiple sclerosis, but a similar gradient has been shown for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America. Seasonal influences on both disease incidence and clinical course and, more recently, analytical studies at the individual level have provided further support for a possible protective role for UVR in some of these diseases but the data are not conclusive. Organ-specific autoimmune diseases involve Th1 cell-mediated immune processes. Recent work in photoimmunology has shown ultraviolet B (UVB) can specifically attenuate these processes through several mechanisms which we discuss. In particular, the possible contribution of an UVR-induced increase in serum vitamin D (1...