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‣ Repeated exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate does not induce behavioral sensitization or cross-sensitization to nicotine

JUSTO, C.C.; CARNEIRO-DE-OLIVEIRA, P.E.; DELUCIA, R.; AIZENSTEIN, M.L.; PLANETA, C.S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.363823%
Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate (MPD), increases tobacco smoking. This has raised concerns that MPD use during adolescence could facilitate nicotine abuse. Preclinical studies have shown that repeated treatment with an addictive drug produces sensitization to that drug and usually cross-sensitization to other drugs. Behavioral sensitization has been implicated in the development of drug addiction. We examined whether repeated oral MPD administration during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization to MPD and long-lasting cross-sensitization to nicotine. Adolescent male Wistar rats were treated orally with 10 mg/kg MPD or saline (SAL) from postnatal day (PND) 27 to 33. To evaluate behavioral sensitization to MPD in adolescent rats (PND 39), the SAL pretreated group was subdivided into two groups that received intragastric SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or MPD (10 mg/kg); MPD pretreated rats received MPD (10 mg/kg). Cross-sensitization was evaluated on PND 39 or PND 70 (adulthood). To this end, SAL- and MPD-pretreated groups received subcutaneous injections of SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg). All groups had 8 animals. Immediately after injections, locomotor activity was determined. The locomotor response to MPD challenge of MPD-pretreated rats was not significantly different from that of the SAL-pretreated group. Moreover...

‣ Ethanol-induced sensitization depends preferentially on D(1) rather than D(2) dopamine receptors

CAMARINI, Rosana; MARCOURAKIS, Tania; TEODOROV, Elizabeth; YONAMINE, Mauricio; CALIL, Helena Maria
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Behavioral sensitization, defined as a progressive increase in the locomotor stimulant effects elicited by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, has been used as an animal model for drug craving in humans. The mesoaccumbens dopaminergic system has been proposed to be critically involved in this phenomenon; however, few studies have been designed to systematically investigate the effects of dopaminergic antagonists on development and expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in Swiss mice. We first tested the effects of D(1) antagonist SCH-23390 (0-0.03 mg/kg) or D(2) antagonist Sulpiride (0-30 mg/kg) on the locomotor responses to an acute injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Results showed that all tested doses of the antagonists were effective in blocking ethanol`s stimulant effects. In another set of experiments, mice were pretreated intraperitoneally with SCH-23390 (0.01 mg/kg) or Sulpiride (10 mg/kg) 30 min before saline or ethanol injection, for 21 days. Locomotor activity was measured weekly for 20 min. Four days following this pretreatment, all mice were challenged with ethanol. Both antagonists attenuated the development of ethanol sensitization, but only SCH-23390 blocked the expression of ethanol sensitization according to this protocol. When we tested a single dose (30 min before tests) of either antagonist in mice treated chronically with ethanol...

‣ Changes in extracellular levels of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens after ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in adolescent and adult mice

CARRARA-NASCIMENTO, Priscila Fernandes; III, William C. Griffin; PASTRELLO, Daniel Mazzeo; OLIVE, M. Foster; CAMARINI, Rosana
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Repeated administration of low doses of ethanol gradually increases locomotor responses to ethanol in adult Swiss mice. This phenomenon is known as behavioral sensitization. However, we have shown that adolescent Swiss mice show either behavioral tolerance or no sensitization after repeated ethanol injections. Although the mesolimbic dopamine system has been extensively implicated in behavioral sensitization, several studies have demonstrated an important role of glutamatergic transmission in this phenomenon. In addition, relatively few studies have examined the role of developmental factors in behavioral sensitization to ethanol. To examine the relationship between age differences in behavioral sensitization to ethanol and the neurochemical adaptations related to glutamate within nucleus accumbens (NAc), in vivo microdialysis was conducted in adolescent and adult Swiss mice treated with ethanol (1.8 g/kg) or saline for 15 days and subsequently challenged with an acute dose (1.8 g/kg) of ethanol 6 days later. Consistent with previous findings, only adult mice demonstrated evidence of behavioral sensitization. However, ethanol-treated adolescent mice demonstrated a 196.1 +/- 40.0% peak increase in extracellular levels of glutamate in the NAc after ethanol challenge in comparison with the basal values...

‣ Environmental enrichment blocks ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and decreases BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex in mice

Rueda, André Veloso Lima; Teixeira, Ana Maria Aristimunho; Yonamine, Maurício; Camarini, Rosana
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The use of addictive drugs can lead to long-term neuroplastic changes in the brain, including behavioral sensitization, a phenomenon related to addiction. Environmental enrichment (EE) is a strategy used to study the effect of environment on the response to several manipulations, including treatment with addictive drugs. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with behaviors related to ethanol addiction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of EE on ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and BDNF expression. Mice were exposed to EE and then repeatedly treated with a low dose (1.8 g/kg) of ethanol. Another group of mice was first subjected to repeated ethanol treatment according to the behavioral sensitization protocol and then exposed to EE. Environmental enrichment prevented the development of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and blocked behavioral sensitization in sensitized mice. Both repeated ethanol and EE decreased BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex but not in the hippocampus. However, BDNF levels were lower in ethanol-treated mice exposed to EE. These findings suggest that EE can act on the mechanisms implicated in behavioral sensitization, a model for drug-induced neuroplasticity and relapse. Additionally...

‣ Maternal immune activation in late gestation enhances locomotor response to acute but not chronic amphetamine treatment in male mice offspring: Role of the D1 receptor

Zager, Adriano; Mennecier, Gregory; Palermo-Neto, Joao
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Exposure to elevated levels of maternal cytokines can lead to functional abnormalities of the dopaminergic system in the adult offspring, including enhanced amphetamine (AMPH)-induced locomotion. Therefore, it seems reasonable to consider that offspring of challenged mothers would behave differently in models of addictive behavior, such as behavioral sensitization. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the locomotor response to acute and chronic AMPH treatment in male mice offspring. For this purpose, LPS (Escherichia coli 0127:B8; 120 mu g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to pregnant Swiss mice on gestational day 17. At adulthood, male offspring were studied under one of the following conditions: (1) locomotor response to acute AMPH treatment (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) in an open field test; (2) behavioral sensitization paradigm, which consists of a daily injection of AMPH (1.0 mg/kg) for 10 days and observation of locomotion in the open field on days 1, 5, 10 (development phase), 15 and 17 (expression phase). The LPS stimulated offspring showed enhancement of the locomotor-stimulant effect after an acute AMPH challenge in comparison to baseline and saline pre-treated mice. They also showed development of behavioral sensitization earlier than the saline pre-treated group...

‣ Changes in CREB activation in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus blunt ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in adolescent mice

Simi, Sabrina Lucio Soares; Pastrello, Daniel M.; Ferreira, Zulma Felisbina da Silva; Yonamine, Maurício; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Camarini, Rosana
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation; Lausanne Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation; Lausanne
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Drug dependence is a major health problem in adults and has been recognized as a significant problem in adolescents. We previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with a behaviorally sensitizing dose of ethanol in adult mice induced tolerance or no sensitization in adolescents and that repeated ethanol-treated adolescents expressed lower Fos and Egr-1 expression than adult mice in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present work, we investigated the effects of acute and repeated ethanol administration on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) DNA-binding activity using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the phosphorylated CREB (pCREB)/CREB ratio using immunoblotting in both the PFC and hippocampus in adolescent and adult mice. Adult mice exhibited typical locomotor sensitization after 15 days of daily treatment with 2.0 g/kg ethanol, whereas adolescent mice did not exhibit sensitization. Overall, adolescent mice displayed lower CREB binding activity in the PFC compared with adult mice, whereas opposite effects were observed in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that ethanol exposure induces significant and differential neuroadaptive changes in CREB DNA-binding activity in the PFC and hippocampus in adolescent mice compared with adult mice. These differential molecular changes may contribute to the blunted ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization observed in adolescent mice.; São Paulo Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP - 2007/53848-6); São Paulo Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP - 2007/07871-6); São Paulo Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP - 2012/10260-7); National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico - CNPq 470352/2007-8); FAPESP (2006/52485-4)

‣ Aspectos Comportamentais e Moleculares da Sensibilização Cruzada entre Estresse e Cocaina.; Behavioral and molecular aspects of the cross-sensitization between stress and cocaine

Araujo, Ana Paula Natalini de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2001 Português
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Vários estudos clínicos demonstram que existem fatores adicionais ao efeito reforçador primário das drogas que determinam por que alguns indivíduos permanecem usuários ocasionais, enquanto outros progridem para a farmacodependência. Evidências clínicas apontam o estresse como uma variável importante na iniciação, manutenção e recaída ao uso da cocaína ou morfina. Em roedores, a cocaína induz a sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo da atividade motora no decorrer do seu uso prolongado. Esse fenômeno é um dos eventos que emergem no decurso temporal das adaptações que levam à farmacodependência. Recentemente foi sugerido que a sensibilização é a gênese do uso compulsivo de drogas. Muitos estudos revelam que o estresse induz a sensibilização comportamental cruzada com os psicostimulantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilização cruzada entre o estresse e a cocaína, bem como os mecanismos neurais subjacentes. Para tanto foram avaliados as concentrações plasmáticas da corticosterona, a atividade locomotora basal e a induzida por cocaína, e a atividade da PKA nos animais expostos aos estresses agudo ou crônico, previsível ou imprevisível. A exposição ao estresse crônico previsível (EP) aumentou a atividade locomotora basal e a induzida por cocaína. A exposição ao EP aumentou as concentrações basais da corticosterona mas não alterou a atividade da PKA no núcleo acumbens e no corpo estriado. Assim...

‣ Differential behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of repeated nicotine in adolescent and adult rats

Cruz, F. C.; DeLucia, R.; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 411-417
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite the high prevalence of tobacco abuse among adolescents, the neurobiology of nicotine addiction has been studied mainly in adult animals. Repeated administration of this drug to adult rats induces behavioral sensitization. Nicotine activates the HPA axis in adult rats as measured by drug-induced increases in ACTH and corticosterone. Both behavioral sensitization and corticosterone are implicated in drug addiction. We examined the expression of behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine as well as the changes in corticosterone levels after repeated injections of nicotine in adolescent and adult animals. Adolescent and adult rats received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of saline or 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine once daily for 7 days. Three days after the last injection animals were challenged with saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; s.c.). Nicotine-induced locomotion was recorded in an activity cage. Trunk blood samples were collected in a subset of adolescent and adult rats and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adult, but not adolescent, rats expressed behavioral sensitization. Pretreatment with nicotine abolished corticosterone-activating effect of this drug only in adult animals, indicating the development of tolerance at this age. Our results provide evidence that adolescent rats exposed to repeated nicotine display behavioral and neuroendocrine adaptations distinct from that observed in adult animals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

‣ Repeated exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate does not induce behavioral sensitization or cross-sensitization to nicotine

Justo, C.C.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; DeLucia, R.; Aizenstein, M.L.; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 651-656
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.363823%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 04/01606-0; Processo FAPESP: 05/02356-0; Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate (MPD), increases tobacco smoking. This has raised concerns that MPD use during adolescence could facilitate nicotine abuse. Preclinical studies have shown that repeated treatment with an addictive drug produces sensitization to that drug and usually cross-sensitization to other drugs. Behavioral sensitization has been implicated in the development of drug addiction. We examined whether repeated oral MPD administration during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization to MPD and long-lasting cross-sensitization to nicotine. Adolescent male Wistar rats were treated orally with 10 mg/kg MPD or saline (SAL) from postnatal day (PND) 27 to 33. To evaluate behavioral sensitization to MPD in adolescent rats (PND 39), the SAL pretreated group was subdivided into two groups that received intragastric SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or MPD (10 mg/kg); MPD pretreated rats received MPD (10 mg/kg). Cross-sensitization was evaluated on PND 39 or PND 70 (adulthood). To this end...

‣ Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in adolescent rats endures until adulthood: Lack of association with GluR1 and NR1 glutamate receptor subunits and tyrosine hydroxylase

Marin, Marcelo T.; Cruz, Fabio C.; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 109-114
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.40051%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 04/01894-6; Processo FAPESP: 04/01606-0; Exposure to repeated cocaine induces enduring behavioral sensitization, which has been implicated in the psychostimulant-induced craving and psychosis. Adaptations in dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seem to mediate psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. The abuse of drugs often begins during adolescence; however few studies have been devoted to study the effects of drugs of abuse at this age. The aim of our study was to examine whether repeated cocaine during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization that endures into adulthood. Moreover, the protein levels of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) and the glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and NR1 in the NAc and mPFC were measured following the behavioral tests. Adolescent rats were treated with cocaine from postnatal day (PND) 30 to PND34 and behavioral sensitization was verified recording locomotor activity after cocaine challenge injection to adolescent (PND37) or adult (PND64 or 94) rats in separate groups at each time point. TH...

‣ Amphetamine- and nicotine-induced cross-sensitization in adolescent rats persists until adulthood

Santos, Gabriela C.; Marin, Marcelo T.; Cruz, Fabio C.; DeLucia, Roberto; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 270-275
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.982197%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Processo FAPESP: 97/11010-2; Nicotine and psychostimulants are often abused in combination and drug abuse often begins during adolescence and can have long-term consequences. Behavioral sensitization has been suggested as an animal model of neuroplasticity implicated in the development of drug addiction. We evaluated whether the pretreatment with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; s.c.) or amphetamine (5.0 mg/kg: i.p.) in adolescent rats [from postnatal day (P) 28 to P34] could induce cross-sensitization to nicotine and amphetamine when animals were challenged during both adolescence (P37) and adulthood (P70), in separate groups of animals. Adolescent animals pretreated with amphetamine displayed behavioral sensitization to nicotine. which persisted until adulthood. Moreover. adolescent animals pretreated with nicotine showed sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in the adulthood. These data suggest that adolescents who abuse nicotine may be particularly susceptible to the effects of amphetamine and vice versa. Moreover. this increased vulnerability may persist through their development until adulthood.

‣ THE BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION INDUCED BY FENCAMFAMINE IS NOT RELATED TO PLASMA DRUG LEVELS

Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva; Delucia, R.; Aizenstein, M. L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 667-670
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fencamfamine (FCF) is a CNS stimulant that facilitates central dopaminergic transmission primarily through blockade of dopamine uptake. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between plasma FCF concentration and behavioral sensitization effect. Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) received FCF (10 mg/kg, kg, ip) or saline once or daily for 10 consecutive days (N = 10 for each group). Blood samples were collected 30 min after injections and plasma FCF was measured by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. FCF treatment enhanced sniffing duration (16.8 +/- 0.8 vs 26.6 +/- 0.9 s) and decreased rearing behavior (8.2 +/- 0.8 vs 3.7 +/- 0.6 s) when days 1 and 10 of drug administration were compared. Comparison of pair of means by the Student t-test did not show significant differences in plasma FCF concentration (390 +/- 40 vs 420 +/- 11 ng/ml) when blood samples were collected 30 min after acute FCF administration or after daily administration of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. In conclusion, the behavioral sensitization to FCF could not be correlated with plasma drug levels, and changes in the activity of dopaminergic systems should be considered to explain the sensitization to the effect of FCF.

‣ Repeated exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate does not induce behavioral sensitization or cross-sensitization to nicotine

Justo,C.C.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira,P.E.; DeLucia,R.; Aizenstein,M.L.; Planeta,C.S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.363823%
Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate (MPD), increases tobacco smoking. This has raised concerns that MPD use during adolescence could facilitate nicotine abuse. Preclinical studies have shown that repeated treatment with an addictive drug produces sensitization to that drug and usually cross-sensitization to other drugs. Behavioral sensitization has been implicated in the development of drug addiction. We examined whether repeated oral MPD administration during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization to MPD and long-lasting cross-sensitization to nicotine. Adolescent male Wistar rats were treated orally with 10 mg/kg MPD or saline (SAL) from postnatal day (PND) 27 to 33. To evaluate behavioral sensitization to MPD in adolescent rats (PND 39), the SAL pretreated group was subdivided into two groups that received intragastric SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or MPD (10 mg/kg); MPD pretreated rats received MPD (10 mg/kg). Cross-sensitization was evaluated on PND 39 or PND 70 (adulthood). To this end, SAL- and MPD-pretreated groups received subcutaneous injections of SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg). All groups had 8 animals. Immediately after injections, locomotor activity was determined. The locomotor response to MPD challenge of MPD-pretreated rats was not significantly different from that of the SAL-pretreated group. Moreover...

‣ Repeated Ethanol Intoxication Induces Behavioral Sensitization in the Absence of a Sensitized Accumbens Dopamine Response in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice

Zapata, Agustin; Gonzales, Rueben A; Shippenberg, Toni S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 Português
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Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse results in an increased sensitivity to their behavioral effects, a phenomena referred to as behavioral sensitization. It has been suggested that the same neuroadaptations underlying behavioral sensitization contribute to the maintenance and reinstatement of addiction. Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesoaccumbens system is one neuroadaptation that is thought to lead to the compulsive drug-seeking that characterizes addiction. Evidence that sensitization to psychostimulants and opiates is associated with an enhancement of drug-evoked DA levels in the nucleus accumbens has also been obtained. Like other drugs of abuse, the acute administration of ethanol (ETOH) stimulates DA release in this brain region. Moreover, repeated ETOH experience results in an enhanced behavioral response to a subsequent ethanol challenge. Data regarding the influence of repeated ethanol intoxication and withdrawal upon mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission is limited. Studies examining ETOH-evoked alterations in mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission as a function of withdrawal duration are lacking. The present experiments quantified basal and ethanol-evoked DA levels 14 days and 24 h following the cessation of a repeated ETOH intoxication protocol...

‣ First evidence that drugs of abuse produce behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization in planarians

Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tavni; Yuvasheva, Ekaternia; Raffa, Robert B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
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Behavioral sensitization in mammals, including humans, is sensitive to factors such as administration route, testing environment, and pharmacokinetic confounds, unrelated to the drugs themselves, that are difficult to eliminate. Simpler animals less susceptible to these confounding influences may be advantageous substitutes for studying sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by determining if planarians display sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine and glutamate. Planarian hyperactivity was quantified as the number of C-like hyperkinesias during a 1-min drug exposure. Planarians exposed initially to cocaine (or glutamate) on day 1 were challenged with cocaine (or glutamate) after 2 or 6 days of abstinence. Acute cocaine or glutamate produced concentration-related hyperactivity. Cocaine or glutamate challenge after 2 and 6 days of abstinence enhanced the hyperactivity, indicating the substances produced planarian behavioral sensitization (pBS). Cross-sensitization experiments showed that cocaine produced greater hyperactivity in planarians previously exposed to glutamate than in glutamate-naïve planarians, and vice versa. Behavioral responses were pharmacologically selective because neither scopolamine nor caffeine produced pBS despite causing hyperactivity after initial administration...

‣ μ-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice Are Insensitive to Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization

Shen, Xine; Purser, Chris; Tien, Lu-Tai; Chiu, Chi-Tso; Paul, Ian A.; Baker, Rodney; Loh, Horace H.; Ho, Ing K.; Ma, Tangeng
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2010 Português
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Repeated administration of psychostimulants to rodents can lead to behavioral sensitization. Previous studies, using nonspecific opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, revealed that ORs were involved in modulation of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH). However, the contribution of OR subtypes remains unclear. In the present study, using μ-OR knockout mice, we examined the role of μ-OR in the development of METH sensitization. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injection of drug or saline for 7 consecutive days to initiate sensitization. To express sensitization, animals received one injection of drug (the same as for initiation) or saline on day 11. Animal locomotor activity and stereotypy were monitored during the periods of initiation and expression of sensitization. Also, the concentrations of METH and its active metabolite amphetamine in the blood were measured after single and repeated administrations of METH. METH promoted significant locomotor hyperactivity at low doses and stereotyped behaviors at relative high doses (2.5 mg/kg and above). Repeated administration of METH led to the initiation and expression of behavioral sensitization in wild-type mice. METH-induced behavioral responses were attenuated in the μ-OR knockout mice. Haloperidol (a dopamine receptor antagonist) showed a more potent effect in counteracting METH-induced stereotypy in the μ-OR knockout mice. Saline did not induce behavioral sensitization in either genotype. No significant difference was observed in disposition of METH and amphetamine between the two genotypes. Our study indicated that the μ-opioid system is involved in modulating the development of behavioral sensitization to METH.

‣ Attenuation of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice by systemic administration of naltrexone

Chiu, Chi-Tso; Ma, Tangeng; Ho, Ing K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2005 Português
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48.42912%
Repeated intermittent exposure to psychostimulants was found to produce behavioral sensitization. The present study was designed to establish a mouse model and by which to investigate whether opioidergic system plays a role in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Mice injected with 2.5 mg/kg of methamphetamine once a day for 7 consecutive days showed behavioral sensitization after challenge with 0.3125 mg/kg of the drug on day 11, whereas mice injected with a lower daily dose (1.25 mg/kg) did not. Mice received daily injections with either 1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg of methamphetamine showed behavioral sensitization after challenge with 1.25 mg/kg of the drug on days 11, 21, and 28. To investigate the role of opioidergic system in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization, long-acting but non-selective opioid antagonist naltrexone was administrated prior to the daily injections of and challenge with methamphetamine, respectively. Our results show that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were attenuated by pretreatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg of naltrexone either during the induction period or before methamphetamine challenge when they were tested on days 11 and 21. These results indicate that repeated injection with methamphetamine dose-dependently induced behavioral sensitization in mice...

‣ Comparison of single versus repeated methamphetamine injection induced behavioral sensitization in mice

Jing, Li; Zhang, Min; Li, Jun-Xu; Huang, Ping; Liu, Qing; Li, Yu-Ling; Liang, Hui; Liang, Jian-Hui
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces a persistent behavioral sensitization to stimulants, which is often used to study drug-associated behavioral plasticity. Interestingly, even a single exposure to some drugs of abuse is sufficient to elicit long-lasting behavioral sensitization. However, few studies have directly compared the magnitude of sensitization between single versus repeated drug treatments. This study examined the magnitude and duration of single methamphetamine (METH) injection-induced behavioral sensitization and compared it to the more typical repeated drug injection-induced sensitization in mice. Different groups of mice were injected with METH (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) only once or daily for 7 consecutive days. A challenge dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested 7 days later. The time-course of a single METH injection-induced behavioral sensitization was assessed where METH (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected and a challenge dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested after different drug-free periods. Single METH injection produced similar magnitude of behavioral sensitization as compared to repeated injection. Such a sensitized locomotor response peaked 8 days after METH injection and lasted for at least 21 days. This long lasting behavioral alteration induced by single METH injection suggests the value of future studies to explore the underlying neural mechanisms...

‣ Behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization between methylphenidate amphetamine, and 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in female SD rats

Yang, Pamela B.; Atkins, Kristal D.; Dafny, Nachum
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The psychostimulants amphetamine and methylphenidate (MPD / Ritalin) are the drugs most often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, students of all ages take these drugs to improve academic performance but also abuse them for pleasurable enhancement. In addition, other psychostimulants such 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA / ecstasy) are used / abused for similar objectives. One of the experimental markers for the potential of a drug to produce dependence is its ability to induce behavioral sensitization and cross sensitization with other drugs of abuse. The objective of this study is to use identical experimental protocols and behavioral assays to compare in female rats the effects of amphetamine, MPD and MDMA on locomotor activity and to determine if they induce behavioral sensitization and/or cross sensitization with each other. The main findings of this study are 1. Acute amphetamine, MPD and MDMA all elicited increases in locomotor activity. 2. Chronic administration of an intermediate dose of amphetamine or MPD elicited behavioral sensitization. 3. Chronic administration of MDMA elicited behavioral sensitization in some animals and behavioral tolerance in others. 4. Cross sensitization between MPD and amphetamine was observed. 5. MDMA did not show either cross sensitization or cross tolerance with amphetamine. In conclusion...

‣ Effects of ATPM-ET, a novel κ agonist with partial μ activity, on physical dependence and behavior sensitization in mice

Sun, Jian-feng; Wang, Yu-hua; Li, Fu-ying; Lu, Gang; Tao, Yi-min; Cheng, Yun; Chen, Jie; Xu, Xue-jun; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Neumeyer, John L; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Jing-gen
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Aim: To investigate the effects of ATPM-ET [(−)-3-N-Ethylaminothiazolo [5,4-b]-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan hydrochloride] on physical dependence and behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice. Methods: The pharmacological profile of ATPM-ET was characterized using competitive binding and GTPγS binding assays. We then examined the antinociceptive effects of ATPM-ET in the hot plate test. Morphine dependence assay and behavioral sensitization assay were used to determine the effect of ATPM-ET on physical dependence and behavior sensitization to morphine in mice. Results: The binding assay indicated that ATPM-ET ATPM-ET exhibited a high affinity to both κ- and μ-opioid receptors with Ki values of 0.15 nmol/L and 4.7 nmol/L, respectively, indicating it was a full κ-opioid receptor agonist and a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist. In the hot plate test, ATPM-ET produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect, with an ED50 value of 2.68 (2.34–3.07) mg/kg. Administration of ATPM-ET (1 and 2 mg/kg, sc) prior to naloxone (3.0 mg/kg, sc) injection significantly inhibited withdrawal jumping of mice. In addition, ATPM-ET (1 and 2 mg/kg, sc) also showed a trend toward decreasing morphine withdrawal-induced weight loss. ATPM-ET (1.5 and 3 mg/kg...