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‣ Genetically modified animals for use in research and biotechnology

CHAIBLE, Lucas Martins; CORAT, M. A; ABDELHAY, Eliana; DAGLI, Maria Lúcia Zaidan
Fonte: Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transgenic animals are used extensively in the study of in vivo gene function, as models for human diseases and in the production of biopharmaceuticals. The technology behind obtaining these animals involves molecular biology techniques, cell culture and embryo manipulation; the mouse is the species most widely used as an experimental model. In scientific research, diverse models are available as tools for the elucidation of gene function, such as transgenic animals, knockout and conditional knockout animals, knock-in animals, humanized animals, and knockdown animals. We examined the evolution of the science for the development of these animals, as well as the techniques currently used in obtaining these animal models. We review the phenotypic techniques used for elucidation of alterations caused by genetic modification. We also investigated the role of genetically modified animals in the biotechnology industry, where they promise a revolution in obtaining heterologous proteins through natural secretions, such as milk, increasing the scale of production and facilitating purification, thereby lowering the cost of production of hormones, growth factors and enzymes

‣ Biotecnologia no Brasil: uma atividade econômica baseada em empresa, academia e Estado; Biotechnology in Brazil: an economic activity based on enterprise, academy and State

Freire, Carlos Eduardo Torres
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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Essa pesquisa demonstra que a biotecnologia é uma atividade econômica essencialmente baseada na interdependência de atores das esferas mercado, ciência e Estado. A empresa privada depende do conhecimento da academia e de financiamento para inovação e regulação do Estado para produzir bens e serviços. Universidades e institutos fazem pesquisa utilizando recursos públicos e privados. E governos, agências e comitês formulam políticas de CT&I e respondem pela estrutura de regulação, atividade que precisam estar afinadas com empresas e academia para que sejam efetivas. Compreender a biotecnologia passa pelo entendimento desse complexo de interdependências, por isso as três esferas são utilizadas como recurso analítico nessa tese. O segundo aspecto importante da pesquisa é que seria inapropriado falar em um setor de biotecnologia. São atividades biotecnológicas com aplicações em diferentes áreas da economia (setor privado em saúde, bioenergia e agricultura), que provêm de diferentes áreas de conhecimento (agronomia, ciências biológicas e da saúde) e que precisam de políticas públicas específicas (para medicamentos, biocombustíveis e alimentos), e não genéricas (como políticas para biotecnologia). Condição para discutir esses dois aspectos é construir a biotecnologia como um objeto empírico de pesquisa...

‣ Biotecnologia e biomimetismo: contributos inovadores para a eco-eficiência da indústria da construção; Biotechnology and biomimicry: innovative contributions to an eco-efficient construction industry

Costa, João José Soares
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil (área de especialização em Perfil de Construções); Os desafios ambientais com que o Planeta se depara exigem uma resposta urgente para garantir um desenvolvimento sustentável e as necessidades das gerações futuras. A indústria da construção é um dos principais contribuidores para o actual modelo de desenvolvimento insustentável devido aos seus enormes impactos ambientais. O campo da biotecnologia e também da biomimética apresentam potencial para oferecer soluções inovadoras que podem contribuir para uma maior eco-eficiência da indústria da construção. O objectivo desta dissertação foi a recolha de conteúdos inovadores nas áreas da biotecnologia e do biomimetismo. Nomeadamente os relacionados com a utilização da biotecnologia para aumentar a durabilidade do betão, as aplicações da biotecnologia na estabilização de solos, materiais compósitos bioinspirados, adesivos e materiais de revestimento bioinspirados e materiais com capacidade de auto-limpeza. No decorrer da presente dissertação são apresentados os desenvolvimentos recentes da utilização de microorganismos capazes de induzir a precipitação de carbonato de cálcio para aumentar a durabilidade do betão e a sua capacidade de prover uma melhoria das propriedades do solo. São ainda apresentados diversos materiais compósitos inspirados em estruturas biológicas com propriedades excepcionais que podem encontrar aplicações na área da construção. Também são abordados adesivos sintéticos inspirados na capacidade de adesão de diversos organismos biológicos e materiais com capacidade de auto-limpeza e a sua aplicação no fabrico de superfícies multifuncionais. Apesar do elevado esforço de investigação já levado a cabo nas áreas a que respeita a presente dissertação constata-se que há ainda muitos aspectos a necessitar de mais estudos. Tendo em conta a importância do material betão para a indústria construção...

‣ A brief overview of the evolution and main features of the biotechnology industry

Fontes, M.; Videira, P.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 26/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper offers an overview of the origin, evolution and main features of the biotechnology industry, putting particular emphasis on the behaviour of one key actor – the dedicated biotechnology firm. It starts with a brief historical background detailing the origin and dynamics of the industry, which is followed by a more detailed examination of the firms’ strategies, business models and networking behaviour. It concludes with a discussion on the constraints and opportunities faced by firms operating outside the main centres of knowledge production and business in biotechnology, as is the case of dedicated biotechnology firms located in Portugal.

‣ Preparing Science-Trained Professionals for the Biotechnology Industry: A Ten-Year Perspective on a Professional Science Master’s Program

Hamilton, Paul T.; Luginbuhl, Sarah C.; Hyman, Michael
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/05/2012 Português
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The biotechnology industry has a need for business-savvy scientists; however, this is not the way scientists are traditionally trained at universities and colleges. To address this need, universities have developed Professional Science Master’s (PSM) degree programs that offer advanced training in a technical field along with professional skills development through team-based projects and internships. Nearly ten years ago, the Department of Microbiology at NCSU started a PSM program in Microbial Biotechnology (MMB). This article provides an overview of the MMB program, and shares some of the lessons that we have learned.

‣ Cooperative Learning through Team-Based Projects in the Biotechnology Industry †

Luginbuhl, Sarah C.; Hamilton, Paul T.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2013 Português
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We have developed a cooperative-learning, case studies project model that has teams of students working with biotechnology professionals on company-specific problems. These semester-long, team-based projects can be used effectively to provide students with valuable skills in an industry environment and experience addressing real issues faced by biotechnology companies. Using peer-evaluations, we have seen improvement in students’ professional skills such as time-management, quality of work, and level of contribution over multiple semesters. This model of team-based, industry-sponsored projects could be implemented in other college and university courses/programs to promote professional skills and expose students to an industry setting.

‣ Jeremy Rifkin: An Examination of the Efforts of an Anti-Biotechnology Activist

Naik, Paul S.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
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This paper attempts retrospectively to examine the impact of the efforts of Jeremy Rifkin on the rules and regulation, and ultimately the mission, of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pertaining to biotechnology. Rifkin arguably single-handedly raised the consciousness of the American public, and indeed the world, to the potential risks of the technology, at least as he saw them. In this way, he positioned himself as a biotechnology gadfly who became the bane of the biotechnology industry and federal agencies regulating biotechnology. It seems fitting, therefore, to study the impact of anti-biotechnology activism on federal regulation of biotechnology by focusing on Rifkin’s efforts. In the course of examining Rifkin’s activities that were targeted specifically at the FDA, this paper also discusses his efforts aimed at curbing recombinant DNA research regulated by the National Institutes of Health and genetic engineering activities that fell under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

‣ Capital project development in biotechnology industry

Kristinsdottir, Asbjorg
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 p.
Português
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The biotechnology industry has experienced fast growth during the first 30 years of its existence but is now reaching a stage of maturity. Companies are being challenged by weak pipelines and patent expirations, as well as increasing regulation. Mergers and acquisitions are frequent, and companies are forced to reduce planned capital expenditures, as well as restructure with personnel cuts and facility reductions. This thesis focuses on the affect those changes are having on the development of capital projects. It researches the environment as it used to be and what is now bringing the changes. Through literature search and case study, the thesis aims to capture the reasons for why the main driver of new facilities construction has shifted from time to cost and the affect that is having on the management and delivery of such projects.; by Asbjorg Kristinsdottir.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-62).

‣ 7.88J / 5.48J / 7.24J / 10.543J Protein Folding Problem, Fall 2003; Protein Folding Problem

King, Jonathan, 1941-; Gossard, D.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Português
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Mechanisms by which the amino acid sequence of polypeptide chains determines their three-dimensional conformation. Topics include: sequence determinants of secondary structure; folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains within cells; unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro; folding intermediates aggregation and competing off-pathway reactions; role of chaperonins, isomerases, and other helper proteins; protein recovery problems in the biotechnology industry; diseases associated with protein folding defects.

‣ Integrating innovation: frameworks for entrepreneurial leverage

Daniel, L.
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.327754%
Understanding the process by which innovations are adopted is a lucrative skill for entrepreneurial organisations. In practical terms accepting new ideas requires a fundamental framework, which enables entrepreneurs to recognise the potential of opportunities early in the development process. Such a framework would then enable interactions and negotiations to be strategically directed for maximum entrepreneurial leverage. A model is presented here which recognises the socio-cognitive framework for entrepreneurial leverage and innovation adoption as enacted in the acceptance and integration of emerging technologies in the Australian biotechnology industry. By recognising the key attributes of such frameworks and further developing those processes that are conducive to entrepreneurial leverage, entrepreneurs and their organisations will be better placed to ensure the effective uptake and integration of innovation opportunities.

‣ Colaboración con universidades y desempeño innovador en la industria farmaceútica española (2003-2005); Collaboratlon wlth universities and innovate activity in the Spanish pharmaceutical industry (2003-2005)

D'Este, Pablo; Tribó, Josep A.; García-Romero, Antonio
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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FUNDAMENTO y OBJETIVOS: Se estudia el efecto en la innovación farmacéutica de la cooperación entre universidades y empresas farmacéuticas en España. De modo análogo, se considera el efecto que tiene la universidad como fuente de información para la innovación en medicamentos. MATER IAL Y MeTOOO: Se emplean datos procedentes del panel de innovación tecnológica (PITEC) elaborado a partir de las encuestas de innovación de los años 2003 a 2005. Para un total de 132 empresas, se dispone de información de su actividad innovadora (cuatro indicadores), la cooperación con universidades, así como la utilidad del conocimiento que éstas generan. También se emplean variables de control como el tamaño del gasto en 1+0 o la actividad en biotecnología. R ESULlAOOS: El efecto de la cooperación con universidades es positivo y significativo (p < 0,01). Además se observa un efecto positivo de la 1+0 en biotecnología. De modo similar, el efecto de la universidad como fuente de información para la innovación es igualmente positivo (p < 0,01). CONCLUSIONES: Las empresas farmacéuticas que han cooperado con universidades tienen una mayor probabilidad de solicitar patentes, así como de que éstas les sean concedidas. Además, la proporción de ventas de productos nuevos es sensiblemente mayor en las empresas que han cooperado con universidades que en las que no lo hacen.----------------------------------------------------------------------; BACKGROUND ANO OBJECTIVES: This article examines...

‣ Florida International University's resources to support the biotechnology industry in South Florida: Research, commercialization, industry support, and orkforce development

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Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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‣ Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth : A Study of Indian Policies to Foster Accelerated Technology Adaptation for Affordable Development

Vijayaraghavan, K.; Dutz, Mark A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper describes and analyzes a series of complementary policy initiatives in India to adapt and commercialize existing global biotechnologies to meet local needs in healthcare, agriculture, industry and the environment in a more affordable manner. This evolving approach has been implemented through six complementary elements, namely (1) translational research; (2) technology access through global consortia; (3) commercialization supported by public-private partnerships, broadly interpreted; (4) skills development; (5) regulation; and (6) institutional governance, including special purpose vehicles, for effective project management. The paper focuses on two public-private partnership initiatives, the Small Business Innovation Research Initiative and the Biotechnology Industry Partnership Program, which together have allocated more than US$70 million in public funding to almost 150 projects, contributing to a total public-private investment of more than $170 million over the past five years. The authors' key recommendation...

‣ Seleção e apropriação de biotecnologias agrícolas : uma análise sobre as trajetórias tecnológicas associadas aos organismos geneticamente modificados; Selection and appropriation of biotechnologies in agriculture : an analysis of technological trajectories involving the genetic modified organisms

Vinícius Eduardo Ferrari
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta tese almeja mapear as trajetórias tecnológicas (TT) que marcaram a evolução da indústria de biotecnologia vegetal com a finalidade de qualificar os processos de apropriação tecnológica e de apontar os mecanismos bloqueantes empregados pelas firmas para capturar os benefícios econômicos derivados do desenvolvimento e da comercialização de organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM). A consecução destes objetivos envolveu a adoção da metodologia de análise de redes de citações de patentes por outras posteriores. A utilização da metodologia supracitada possibilitou a identificação de quatro TT: de tolerância a herbicidas; de tecnologias habilitadoras; de resistência contra pragas; de alterações no metabolismo lipídico das plantas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que as principais patentes que reivindicam tecnologias habilitadoras pertencem à Monsanto. A empresa empregou esses documentos de propriedade intelectual para processar os agricultores norte-americanos acusados de cometer crimes de biopirataria; e também para arquitetar um sistema de patentes bloqueantes que logrou eliminar adversários do mercado, basicamente, por meio da exclusão do acesso às principais ferramentas biotecnológicas dos processos de inserção e expressão gênica em células vegetais...

‣ REFORMING DRUG APPROVAL IN THE UNITED STATES: MEASURES NECESSARY TO ALLEVIATE THE CASH CRUNCH FACED BY SMALL BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

McWilliams, Douglas E.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Over the past decade, the infant biotechnology industry, led by small biotechnology companies, has produced numerous breakthrough drugs which have saved lives, reduced suffering and cut the cost of health care. Given that the biopharmaceutical industry has only been in existence for a little over 20 years, biotechnology holds enormous potential for the advancement of medical treatments. Unfortunately, even with biotechnology, as with the more traditional methods of drug development, the government mandated testing and approval of new therapeutic products takes a considerable amount of time and costs an exorbitant amount of money. The United States has the most demanding drug approval process in the world. Under the current Food and Drug Administration's drug approval process, the time required to gain approval for new drugs averages between 10 to 12 years and the cost approximates $350 million. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has come under attack as taking too conservative of an approach to approving beneficial new drugs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of this costly drug approval process on small biotechnology companies, to determine the effects of a decline in small biotechnology companies on the United States and to analyze current proposals to change the current Food and Drug Administration's drug approval process to ensure the survival of small biotechnology companies. Part II of this paper identifies the various stages of the drug approval process. Part III explores the policy behind the FDA's extensive drug approval process. Part IV examines the adverse affects of the drug approval process on small biotechnology companies. Part V analyzes the effect of a declining biotechnology industry on the United States. Part VI addresses current proposals to change the FDA drug approval process focusing on their ability to help small biotechnology companies.

‣ The regional dimension of innovation and the globalization of science: the case of biotechnology in a peripheral region of the European Union

Todt, Oliver; Gutiérrez Gracia, Antonio; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio; Castro Martínez, Elena
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 134583 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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10 pages, 3 figures.; This article presents the results of an analysis of the relationship between public sector research and industry development in the field of biotechnology in a peripheral region of the European Union: the Region of Valencia (Spain). It contributes empirical data on the delocalized impact of research-industry relations in a globalized economy. It also uncovers a gap between a relatively well-developed public research sector in biotechnology and a weak biotechnology industry. The analysis raises questions as to the role of the concept of predominantly local knowledge communities in regional innovation systems, as well as the model of linear technological development, both of which exert an important influence on decision making in research and development (R&D) and innovation. A high level of R&D is shown to be a necessary condition for stimulating innovation, but does not suffice. Rather, R&D must be integrated with a number of different actions to correct deficiencies in the regional innovation system.; The research project on which this paper is based was financed by the Valencian regional government (Contract no. I34/2001).; The research project on which this paper is based was financed by the Valencian regional government (Contract no. I34/2001).; Peer reviewed

‣ Sistema tecnológico de inovação, atributos do custo de transação e capacidade relacional na indústria de biotecnologia humana

Maia, Fabrício Simplício
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.998206%
Esse estudo teve como objetivo explorar de forma dedutiva a relação entre os construtos: STI de biotecnologia, considerado no nível regional; a capacidade relacional das empresas de biotecnologia humana; e os atributos dos custos de transações de alianças no Brasil. O universo considerado foram as empresas que atuam na indústria de biotecnologia. A amostra foi composta pelas empresas atuantes na indústria de biotecnologia saúde humana, nos estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Os níveis de análise foram os construtos: Sistema Tecnológico de Inovação, Atributos dos Custos de Transação e Capacidade Relacional. A unidade de análise foram as alianças estratégicas contratuais formalizadas pelas empresas. Foi elaborado um modelo estrutural e de mensuração composto por relações causais baseadas na teoria existente. A partir do modelo, definiram-se variáveis latentes de primeira, segunda e terceira ordem e indicadores mensuráveis. Os dados foram coletados de duas formas: acesso a dados secundários, disponibilizados por organizações governamentais e privadas; acesso aos dados primários por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas com gestores ou pessoas diretamente ligadas ao processo de gestão das alianças estratégicas contratuais. Para testar o modelo de mensuração procedeu-se à análise da modelagem de equações estruturais resolvido pelo método Partial Least Squares. Os resultados mostram que a dinamicidade do Sistema Tecnológico de Inovação exerce influência na Frequência das transações...

‣ Role of intellectual property rights in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries

Ajeet Ajeet
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The main objective of this review is to highlight and explore the inter-relationship and the functioning of the intellectual property right in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The rising tide of patent applications can be witnessed globally in this industry as the need for such protection and licensing has become imperative so as to safeguard the rights of the inventor and also to encourage and promote new talents, inventions and innovations which can be a boon for the economy. The field of biotechnology is an upcoming science which is still at the initial stage of establishing a foundation but it promises a revolution in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals and industrial sector amongst other sectors of the economy along with contribution to the GDP growth.

‣ Fermentation process and physicochemical treatment applied to dairy industry: an approach for waste management (production and use) and new perspectives in the transformation of these residues in value-added products

dos Santos, Leandro Freire; Gonçalves, Cibely Maria; Suguimoto, Hélio Hiroshi
Fonte: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Publicador: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ;
Publicado em 16/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Studies point out several initiatives to reduce the pollutant load from dairy industry, leading to enhanced sustainability, including reduced environmental impacts and cost savings. This review provides a summary of the recent strategies focused on physicochemical treatments and fermentation processes to produce value-added products from cheese whey, such as bioactive proteins, ribonucleotides, biodegradable plastics, biogas, hydrogen gas, organic acids, and ethanol. The environmental costs and production aspects of dairy waste will be also addressed. The polluting potential and the high environmental costs of the waste produced by the dairy industry may be mitigated by dairy waste management.

‣ Science and profit: Essays on the biotechnology industry.

Kumaramangalam, Kartik
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Following the opening three chapters, which survey the literature related to knowledge, economic growth and firm behavior, I focus on the biotechnology industry to understand how firms translate basic scientific ideas into profitable ventures. I find that this industry is characterized by two unique stylized facts: first, firms publish the results of their scientific research openly in peer reviewed journals, and two, they collaborate with universities quite intensively. I explore the private-public nature of biotechnology innovation in three separate papers. In my first paper, I find that collaborative research with academics improves research quality for biotechnology firms. My results indicated that biotechnology firms seek alliances with high status academics with established research reputations so as to gain publication in highly ranked journals which is one measure of research quality. One of the major policy implications of my paper was that support for public science should be strengthened and collaboration across the private-public divide should also be encouraged. However, collaboration should not be conflated with co-option or appropriation of roles, i.e., the public sector should not be encouraged to emulate private sector functions. A strong independent public science nexus is crucial for private biotech firms...