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‣ DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-C, and S-adenosylmethionine is effective for VEGF-C methylation and for inhibiting cancer growth

Da,M.X.; Zhang,Y.B.; Yao,J.B.; Duan,Y.X.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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56.687583%
DNA hypomethylation may activate oncogene transcription, thus promoting carcinogenesis and tumor development. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions and acts as an inhibitor of intracellular demethylase activity, which results in hypermethylation of DNA. The main objectives of this study were to determine whether DNA hypomethylation correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression, and the effect of SAM on VEGF-C methylation and gastric cancer growth inhibition. VEGF-C expression was assayed by Western blotting and RT-qPCR in gastric cancer cells, and by immunohistochemistry in tumor xenografts. VEGF-C methylation was assayed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. The effect of SAM on cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry analyses and its effect on cancer growth was assessed in nude mice. The VEGF-C promoters of MGC-803, BGC-823, and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells, which normally express VEGF-C, were nearly unmethylated. After SAM treatment, the VEGF-C promoters in these cells were highly methylated and VEGF-C expression was downregulated. SAM also significantly inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-C. SAM can effectively induce VEGF-C methylation...

‣ CCL2 as an Important Mediator of Prostate Cancer Growth In Vivo through the Regulation of Macrophage Infiltration1

Loberg, Robert D; Ying, Chi; Craig, Matt; Yan, Li; Snyder, Linda A; Pienta, Kenneth J
Fonte: Neoplasia Press Inc. Publicador: Neoplasia Press Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2007 Português
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The ability of CCL2 to influence prostate cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis may occur through two distinct mechanisms: 1) a direct effect on tumor cell growth and function, and 2) an indirect effect on the tumor microenvironment by the regulation of macrophage mobilization and infiltration into the tumor bed. We have previously demonstrated that CCL2 exerts a direct effect on prostate cancer epithelial cells by the regulation of their growth, invasion, and migration, resulting in enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we describe an indirect effect of CCL2 on prostate cancer growth and metastasis by regulating monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the tumor microenvironment and by stimulating a phenotypic change within these immune cells to promote tumor growth (tumor-associated macrophages). VCaP prostate cancer cells were subcutaneously injected in male SCID mice and monitored for tumor volume, CD68+ macrophage infiltration, and microvascular density. Systemic administration of anti-CCL2 neutralizing antibodies (CNTO888 and C1142) significantly retarded tumor growth and attenuated CD68+ macrophage infiltration, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in microvascular density. These data suggest that CCL2 contributes to prostate cancer growth through the regulation of macrophage infiltration and enhanced angiogenesis within the tumor.

‣ Allyl isothiocyanate-rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion

Bhattacharya, Arup; Li, Yun; Wade, Kristina L.; Paonessa, Joseph D.; Fahey, Jed W.; Zhang, Yuesheng
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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56.599365%
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which occurs in many common cruciferous vegetables, was recently shown to be selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissues through urinary excretion and to inhibit bladder cancer development in rats. The present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that AITC-containing cruciferous vegetables also inhibit bladder cancer development. We focused on an AITC-rich mustard seed powder (MSP-1). AITC was stably stored as its glucosinolate precursor (sinigrin) in MSP-1. Upon addition of water, however, sinigrin was readily hydrolyzed by the accompanying endogenous myrosinase. This myrosinase was also required for full conversion of sinigrin to AITC in vivo, but the matrix of MSP-1 had no effect on AITC bioavailability. Sinigrin itself was not bioactive, whereas hydrated MSP-1 caused apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Comparison between hydrated MSP-1 and pure sinigrin with added myrosinase suggested that the anticancer effect of MSP-1 was derived principally, if not entirely, from the AITC generated from sinigrin. In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, oral MSP-1 at 71.5 mg/kg (sinigrin dose of 9 μmol/kg) inhibited bladder cancer growth by 34.5% (P < 0.05) and blocked muscle invasion by 100%. Moreover...

‣ Inhibition of Hyaluronan Synthase-3 Decreases Subcutaneous Colon Cancer Growth by Increasing Apoptosis

Teng, Brian P.; Heffler, Melissa D.; Lai, Eric C.; Zhao, Ya-Li; LeVea, Charles M.; Golubovskaya, Vita M.; Dunn, Kelli M. Bullard
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
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46.71994%
Hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronan synthases (HAS) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. We previously have shown that HAS3 and HA mediate tumor growth in SW620 colon cancer cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In addition, the effect of HAS3 inhibition on tumor growth with other cells lines has not been explored. We therefore hypothesized that inhibition of HAS3 in highly tumorigenic HCT116 colon cancer cells would decrease tumor growth and that the underlying mechanism would involve altering proliferation and/or apoptosis. HAS3 expression was inhibited by transfection with siRNA; a scrambled sequence served as a control. Stable transfectants were injected into the flanks of nude mice and tumor growth followed for 30 days. Proliferation and apoptosis were then assessed in the harvested tumors. Results were compared using the Students’ t-test and ANOVA where appropriate. siRNA transfection decreased HAS3 expression, protein production, and pericellular HA retention, and decreased in vivo tumor growth. Proliferation was unaffected in the HCT116 tumors, but increased slightly in the SW620 tumors. In contrast, HAS3 inhibition significantly increased apoptosis in all tumors. HAS3 inhibition decreases subcutaneous tumor growth by colon cancer cells and significantly increases apoptosis with less effect on proliferation. These data show that HAS3 and HA mediate colon cancer growth by inhibiting apoptosis.

‣ Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Progression

Quail, Daniela F.; Zhang, Guihua; Walsh, Logan A.; Siegers, Gabrielle M.; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z.; Findlay, Scott D.; Broughton, Heather; Putman, David M.; Hess, David A.; Postovit, Lynne-Marie
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2012 Português
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46.69645%
Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII) mice...

‣ Aldose Reductase Inhibition Prevents Colon Cancer Growth by Restoring Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Through Modulation of miR-21 and FOXO3a

Saxena, Ashish; Tammali, Ravinder; Ramana, Kota V.; Srivastava, Satish K.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/04/2013 Português
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46.79672%
Aims: We have shown earlier that inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), an oxidative stress-response protein, prevents colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Changes in microribonucleic acid (miR) expression can contribute to cancer by modulating the functional expression of critical genes involved in cancer growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates miR expression and their dependent mitogenic effects in cancer cells are not known. Therefore, we investigated how AR regulates growth factor-induced expression of miRs and growth of colon cancer cells. Results: Inhibition of AR significantly downregulated growth factor-induced miR-21 expression in human colon cancer cells, HT29, SW480, and Caco-2. Further, AR inhibition also increased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (a direct target of miR-21) and forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) in colon cancer cells. Our results obtained with HT29 cells ablated with FOXO3a siRNA showed increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and miR-21 expression, indicating that FOXO3a represses miR-21 via AP-1 inactivation. Inhibition of AR also prevented the epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (AKT)...

‣ Phospho-sulindac inhibits pancreatic cancer growth: NFATc1 as a drug resistance candidate

MURRAY, ONIKA T.; WONG, CHI C.; VRANKOVA, KVETOSLAVA; RIGAS, BASIL
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/11/2013 Português
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46.746177%
Phospho-sulindac (P-S), a promising anticancer agent, is efficacious in pre-clinical models of human cancer and is apparently safe. Here, we studied the effect of P-S on pancreatic cancer growth. We found that P-S strongly inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, is efficacious in inhibiting the growth of pancreatic xenografts in nude mice, and has an excellent safety profile. Microarray analysis revealed that P-S induced the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, isoform c1 (NFATc1) gene. NFATc1, a calcineurin-responsive transcription factor associated with aggressive pancreatic cancer. The role of increased NFATc1 expression on the growth inhibitory effect of P-S on cancer growth was evaluated by silencing or by overexpressing it both in vitro and in vivo. We found that when the expression of NFATc1 was abrogated by RNAi, pancreatic cancer cells were more responsive to treatment with P-S. Conversely, over-expressing the NFATc1 gene made the pancreatic cancer cells less responsive to treatment with P-S. NFATc1 likely mediates drug resistance to P-S and is an unfavorable prognostic factor that predicts poor tumor response. We also demonstrated that NFATc1-mediated resistance can be overcome by cyclosporin A (CsA)...

‣ TBLR1 as an AR coactivator selectively activates AR target genes to inhibit prostate cancer growth

Daniels, Garrett; Li, Yirong; Gellert, Lan Lin; Zhou, Albert; Melamed, Jonathan; Wu, Xinyu; Zhang, Xinming; Zhang, David; Meruelo, Daniel; Logan, Susan K.; Basch, Ross; Lee, Peng
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Androgen Receptor (AR), a steroid hormone receptor, is critical for prostate cancer growth. However, activation of AR by androgens can also lead to growth suppression and differentiation. Transcriptional cofactors play an important role in this switch between proliferative and anti-proliferative AR target gene programs. TBLR1, a core component of the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) complex, shows both co-repressor and co-activator activities on nuclear receptors, but little is known about its effects on AR and prostate cancer. We characterized TBLR1 as a coactivator of AR in prostate cancer cells and the activation is both phosphorylation and 19S proteosome dependent. We showed that TBLR1 physically interacts with AR and directly occupies the androgen response elements of affected AR target genes in an androgen-dependent manner. TBLR1 is primarily localized in the nucleus in benign prostate cells and nuclear expression is significantly reduced in prostate cancer cells in culture. Similarly, in human tumor samples, the expression of TBLR1 in the nucleus is significantly reduced in the malignant glands compared to the surrounding benign prostatic glands (p<0.005). Stable ectopic expression of nuclear TBLR1 leads to androgen-dependent growth suppression of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by selective activation of androgen regulated genes associated with differentiation (e.g. KRT18) and growth suppression (e.g. NKX3.1)...

‣ Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

Subramani, Ramadevi; Lopez-Valdez, Rebecca; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Increasing incidence and mortality indicates that there is still much lacking in detection and management of the disease. This is partly due to a lack of specific symptoms during early stages of the disease. Several growth factor receptors have been associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we have investigated if an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be effective and efficient against pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. For that, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1R inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) on tumor growth and metastasis in HPAC and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that silencing IGF-1R inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis by blocking key signaling pathways such AKT/PI3K, MAPK, JAK/STAT and EMT. Silencing IGF-1R resulted in an anti-proliferative effect in PANC-1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines. Matrigel invasion, transwell migration and wound healing assays also revealed a role for IGF-1R in metastatic properties of pancreatic cancer. These results were further confirmed using Western blotting analysis of key intermediates involved in proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion. In addition...

‣ Differential Impact of Adenosine Nucleotides Released by Osteocytes on Breast Cancer Growth and Bone Metastasis

Zhou, Jade Z.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Gao, Xiaoli; Ellies, Lesley G.; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Jiang, Jean X.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.69645%
Extracellular ATP has been shown to either inhibit or promote cancer growth and migration; however the mechanism underlying this discrepancy remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the divergent roles of ATP and adenosine released by bone osteocytes in breast cancers. We showed that conditioned media (CM) collected from osteocytes treated with alendronate (AD), a bisphosphonate drug, inhibited the migration of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Removal of the extracellular ATP by apyrase in CM abolished this effect, suggesting the involvement of ATP. ATP exerted its inhibitory effect through the activation of purinergic P2X receptor signaling in breast cancer cells evidenced by the attenuation of the inhibition by an antagonist, oxidized ATP, as well as knocking down P2X07 with siRNA, and the inhibition by an agonist, BzATP. Intriguingly, ATP had a biphasic effect on breast cancer cell behavior–lower dosage inhibited, but higher dosage promoted its migration. The stimulatory effect on migration was blocked by an adenosine receptor antagonist, MRS1754, ARL67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor, and A2A receptor siRNA, suggesting that in contrast to the action of ATP, adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP, promoted migration of breast cancer cells. Consistently...

‣ Bladder Cancer: Sex Matters

Johnson, Aimee Michelle ; Reeder, Jay E. ; Mooney, Robert A.
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Rochester. School of Medicine and Dentistry. Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 2008. ; The growing elderly population in the United States has led to a greater number of bladder cancer patients and bladder cancer deaths in the past several years. Mitogenic signaling pathways, specifically the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB2-mediated pathway, are misregulated in bladder cancer, leading to a greater replicative potential in cells that overexpress such mediators. Since erbB2 has been shown to be overexpressed in nearly 50% of bladder cancers, a mouse model of bladder cancer was created to overexpress erbB2 spatially and temporally. While erbB2 RNA expression was induced in this mouse model and papillary growths in the bladder were noted, erbB2 overexpression alone seemed insufficient for bladder tumorigenesis. It may be that additional mitogenic, cell cycle regulatory, and apoptotic pathways need to be involved. Several different animal models of bladder cancer have been utilized in the past four decades, although none of them have been able to reliably detect, measure, and monitor tumors in vivo, instead relying on serial sacrifice. To eliminate the need for such cumbersome experiments...

‣ A potential autocrine role for vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer

Jackson, M.; Roberts, J.; Heckford, S.; Ricciardelli, C.; Stahl, J.; Horsfall, D.; Tilley, W.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Cancer Research Publicador: Amer Assoc Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.731006%
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a peptide growth factor specific for the tyrosine kinase receptors VEGF receptor-1 and -2 (VEGFR-1 and R-2). Whereas VEGF has well-defined actions on the vasculature, including the stimulation of endothelial cell growth and motility and blood vessel permeability, the function of the VEGF/ receptor pathway in other cell types is largely unknown. Recently, VEGFR-1 and R-2 expression has been reported in prostate tumor cells. In this study, we demonstrate that these receptors colocalize with VEGF in prostate tumor cells, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and the basal cells of normal glands. Furthermore, in comparison with normal glands, the expression of VEGFR-1 and R-2 is increased in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and malignant cells in well and moderately differentiated prostate cancer but is decreased in poorly differentiated cancer. Culture of the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in the presence of recombinant human VEGF165 resulted in a 50% increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by these cells and recruitment of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. This effect of recombinant human VEGF165 was abolished by neutralizing antisera to VEGFR-2. These data suggest that VEGF may not only mediate neovascularization associated with prostate cancer progression but may also directly stimulate prostate tumor cells via VEGFR-2-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.; Michael W. Jackson...

‣ Apo21/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand prevents breast cancer-induced bone destruction in a mouse model

Thai, L.; Labrinidis, A.; Hay, S.; Liapis, V.; Bouralexis, S.; Welldon, K.; Coventry, B.; Findlay, D.; Evdokiou, A.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Cancer Research Publicador: Amer Assoc Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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56.48322%
Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma that metastasizes to bone. To examine the efficacy of recombinant soluble Apo2 ligand (Apo2L)/tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against breast cancer growth in bone, we established a mouse model in which MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were transplanted directly into the marrow cavity of the tibiae of athymic nude mice producing osteolytic lesions in the area of injection. All vehicle-treated control animals developed large lesions that established in the marrow cavity, eroded the cortical bone, and invaded the surrounding soft tissue, as assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histology. In contrast, animals treated with recombinant soluble Apo2L/TRAIL showed significant conservation of the tibiae, with 85% reduction in osteolysis, 90% reduction in tumor burden, and no detectable soft tissue invasion. Tumor cells explanted from Apo2L/TRAIL–treated animals were significantly more resistant to the effects of Apo2L/TRAIL when compared with the cells explanted from the vehicle-treated control animals, suggesting that prolonged treatment with Apo2/TRAIL in vivo selects for a resistant phenotype. However, such resistance was readily reversed when Apo2L/TRAIL was used in combination with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic drugs...

‣ Dual roles of PARP-1 promote cancer growth and progression

Schiewer, M.; Goodwin, J.; Han, S.; Brenner, J.; Augello, M.; Dean, J.; Liu, F.; Planck, J.; Ravindranathan, P.; Chinnaiyan, A.; McCue, P.; Gomella, L.; Raj, G.; Dicker, A.; Brody, J.; Pascal, J.; Centenera, M.; Butler, L.; Tilley, W.; Feng, F.; et al.
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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UNLABELLED: PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. With multiple models, data show that PARP-1 elicits protumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells, in both the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced prostate cancer, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses show that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human prostate cancer to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: These studies introduce a paradigm shift with regard to PARP-1 function in human malignancy...

‣ Integrating intracellular dynamics using CompuCell3D and bionetsolver: Applications to multiscale modelling of cancer cell growth and invasion

Andasari, V.; Roper, R.T.; Swat, M.H.; Chaplain, M.A.J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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56.5174%
In this paper we present a multiscale, individual-based simulation environment that integrates CompuCell3D for lattice-based modelling on the cellular level and Bionetsolver for intracellular modelling. CompuCell3D or CC3D provides an implementation of the lattice-based Cellular Potts Model or CPM (also known as the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg or GGH model) and a Monte Carlo method based on the metropolis algorithm for system evolution. The integration of CC3D for cellular systems with Bionetsolver for subcellular systems enables us to develop a multiscale mathematical model and to study the evolution of cell behaviour due to the dynamics inside of the cells, capturing aspects of cell behaviour and interaction that is not possible using continuum approaches. We then apply this multiscale modelling technique to a model of cancer growth and invasion, based on a previously published model of Ramis-Conde et al. (2008) where individual cell behaviour is driven by a molecular network describing the dynamics of E-cadherin and $eta$-catenin. In this model, which we refer to as the centre-based model, an alternative individual-based modelling technique was used, namely, a lattice-free approach. In many respects, the GGH or CPM methodology and the approach of the centre-based model have the same overall goal...

‣ Heme Oxygenase Modulates AC2M2 Mouse Breast Cancer Growth and Progression

Hum, Maaike
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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56.642803%
Heme oxygenase (HO) is the enzyme that breaks down heme to form carbon monoxide, free iron, and biliverdin. The two major isoforms, HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive), are involved in a number of physiological functions, including apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. In cancerous cells these effects may promote growth, tumour cell survival, and metastasis. Many tumour types have demonstrated increased levels of HO, and research has shown that HO inhibition results in decreased tumour growth. Previous work using metalloporphyrin-based compounds identified HO inhibition as a potential therapy for some cancers, but these compounds are limited by their lack of selectivity. Novel azole-based HO inhibitors (QC-xx) have demonstrated increased in vitro selectivity for HO and were tested for their effects on AC2M2 mouse breast cancer growth and progression. QC-xx demonstrated a concentration-dependent decrease in AC2M2 cell viability and a decrease in endothelial cell tube-like sprouting in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. While there was some evidence that QC-xx treatment could delay primary AC2M2 tumour growth and the development of lung metastases in vivo, the results were inconclusive. The effects of QC-xx on HO activity were different between rats...

‣ Silencing of Atp6v1c1 Prevents Breast Cancer Growth and Bone Metastasis

Feng, Shengmei; Zhu, Guochun; McConnell, Matthew; Deng, Lianfu; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Mengrui; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jinshen; Qi, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2013 Português
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46.777505%
Previous studies have shown that Atp6v1c1, a regulator of the assembly of the V0 and V1 domains of the V-ATPase complex, is up-regulated in metastatic oral tumors. Despite these studies, the function of Atp6v1c1 in tumor growth and metastasis is still unknown. Atp6v1c1's expression in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma indicates that Atp6v1c1 has an important function in cancer growth and metastasis. We hypothesized that elevated expression of Atp6v1c1 is essential to cancer growth and metastasis and that Atp6v1c1 promotes cancer growth and metastasis through activation of V-ATPase activity. To test this hypothesis, a Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown approach was used to study the function of Atp6v1c1 in mouse 4T1 mammary tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. Our data revealed that silencing of Atp6v1c1 in 4T1 cancer cells inhibited lysosomal acidification and severely impaired 4T1 cell growth, migration, and invasion through Matrigel in vitro. We also show that Atp6v1c1 knockdown with Lenti-c1s3, a lentivirus targeting Atp6v1c1 for shRNA mediated knockdown, can significantly inhibit 4T1 xenograft tumor growth, metastasis, and osteolytic lesions in vivo. Our study demonstrates that Atp6v1c1 may promote breast cancer growth and bone metastasis through regulation of lysosomal V-ATPase activity...

‣ Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Advanced Prostate Cancer

Brunner, Abigail Maria
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
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46.76022%

The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is a well-established therapeutic target in prostate cancer, due to its central role in tumor maintenance and progression. Although patients respond initially to androgen deprivation therapies and AR antagonists, they invariably progress to a castration-resistant state. Consequently, there is an unmet need for agents that target the AR signaling axis in a unique manner.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors repress AR signaling and prostate cancer growth in cellular and xenograft models. However, HDAC inhibitors also induce epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) and neuroendocrine differentiation, both of which are associated with prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness. Given that 18 different HDAC isoforms have been identified in humans, and non-selective or Class I (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) HDAC inhibitors have been used in most of these studies, the relative contribution of individual HDAC isoforms to AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer pathophysiology remains to be elucidated. The overarching goals of this study were to (1) determine the role of individual Class I HDACs in AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer growth, (2) identify selective HDAC inhibitors that have reduced adverse profiles to the treatment of prostate cancer...

‣ A place for fiber diffraction in the detection of breast cancer?

James, Veronica
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.520713%
Aims: To review the potential relevance and the place that a particular change in the fiber diffraction of hair might have in the future management of breast cancer and other pathologies. Method: A comprehensive overview was obtained using a complete search of the Australian National University Library (data range) and Medline (data range) using the search terms "review breast cancer screening/diagnosis/detection" and "X-ray diffraction of hair". Publications in the past 5 years were selected but older reports that were commonly referenced were not excluded. Results: To date, our results have demonstrated that a specific change occurs in the diffraction pattern of hair for persons with breast cancer. Further research has shown that this change is present in the hair at an earlier stage of the cancer growth than is detectable by mammography. In addition, the change has been found to disappear when the cancer has been successfully removed. Discussion/conclusion: This technology uses only a few hairs, is totally user-friendly, non-invasive and does not require the patient to be exposed to any radiation. As a low-risk procedure, it could potentially provide a much needed, cost-effective early screening test for the presence of breast cancer in women of any age. As the patients are not required to be present during the test...

‣ Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts

Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.341157%
Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that smoking-related promotion is the dominant model mechanism associated with lung cancer mortality in all cohorts. Smoking-related initiation is less important than promotion but interacts synergistically with it. Although no information on ex-smokers is available in these data, the model with estimated variables can be used to project risks among ex-smokers. These projected risks are in good agreement with the risk among ex-smokers derived from other studies. We present 10-year projected risks for current and former smokers adjusted for competing causes of mortality. The importance of smoking duration on lung cancer risk in these cohorts is a direct consequence of promotion. Intervention and treatment strategies should focus on promotion as the primary etiologic mechanism in lung carcinogenesis.