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‣ Sex and socioeconomic inequalities of lung cancer mortality in Barcelona, Spain and Sao Paulo, Brazil

ANTUNES, Jose L. F.; BORRELL, Carme; RODRIGUEZ-SANZC, Maica; PEREZ, Gloria; BIAZEVIC, Maria G. H.; WUNSCH-FILHO, Victor
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this paper was to assess sex and socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in two major cities of Europe and South America. Official information on mortality and population allowed the estimation of sex- and age-specific death rates for Barcelona, Spain and Sao Paulo, Brazil (1995-2003). Mortality trends and levels were independently assessed for each city and subsequently compared. Rate ratios assessed by Poisson regression analysis addressed hypotheses of association between the outcome and socioeconomic covariates (human development index, unemployment and schooling) at the inner-city area level. Barcelona had a higher mortality in men (76.9/100000 inhabitants) than Sao Paulo (38.2/100 000 inhabitants); although rates were decreasing for the former (-2%/year) and levelled-off for the [after. Mortality in women ranked similarly (9.1 for Barcelona, 11.5 for Sao Paulo); with an increasing trend for women aged 35-64 years (+ 7.7%/year in Barcelona and + 2.4%/year in Sao Paulo). The socioeconomic gradient of mortality in men was negative for Barcelona and positive for Sao Paulo; for women, the socioeconomic gradient was positive in both cities. Negative gradients indicate that deprived areas suffer a higher burden of disease; positive gradients suggest that prosmoking lifestyles may have been more prevalent in more affluent areas during the last decades. Sex and socioeconomic inequalities of lung cancer mortality reinforce the hypothesis that the epidemiologic profile of cancer can be improved by an expanded access to existing technology of healthcare and prevention. The continuous monitoring of inequalities in health may contribute to the concurrent promotion of well-being and social justice.; CNPq Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvirnento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq[302541/2004-7]

‣ Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Gonzaga, Carolina Maciel Reis; Freitas, Nilceana Maya Aires; Martins, Edesio; Dardes, Rita de Cassia de Maio
Fonte: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO Publicador: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.09551%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO) and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO). Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC) in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%). Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%), Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8%) and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6%) presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC = 12%), Paraiba (APC = 11.9%), and Piaui (APC = 10.9%). CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually...

‣ Oral cancer mortality trends in Brazilian geographical regions from 1996-2001

Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro; Pinelli, C.; Vitussi, T. R C; Sundefeld, M. L M M; Campos, J. A D B
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 133-138
Português
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The purpose of this study was to analyse the oral cancer mortality trends in Brazil by geographic region, age and sex, from 1996 to 2001. The Brazilian Ministry of Health database DATASUS and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used as the source of data. Oral cancer mortality rates per 100,000 population were estimated. Statistical analyses comprised estimates of oral cancer mortality rates, grouped according to the study variables, in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001; also, the three-year periods 1996-1998 and 1999-2001 were analysed, allowing the oral cancer mortality trends between these two periods to be calculated. For comparison, in each geographical region, the ratio between two death rates (related to period or sex) was calculated. In the period 1996-2001, a total of 25,972 deaths due to oral cancer were reported, giving a mortality rate of 2.67. The rates for the periods 1996-1998 and 1999-2001 were 2.53 and 2.73, respectively, showing a slight increase in the rate. There was a predominance of oral cancer in males with a male/female ratio of approximately 4. All regions exhibited an increase in mortality rates, with the exception of the Southeast region. From 1996 to 2001, the average mortality rates were 3.55 and 3.58 for the Southeast and South regions...

‣ Evolution of thyroid cancer mortality in adults in Brazil

Guimarães,Raphael Mendonça; Muzi,Camila Drumond; Parreira,Viviane Gomes; Santos,Renan Duarte dos; Sampaio,João Roberto Cavalcante
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.977407%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the trend of thyroid cancer mortality in Brazil between 1980 and 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ecological study of time series. Mortality rates for thyroid cancer adjusted by age according to gender were calculated between 1980 and 2010. Data were analyzed by three distinct strategies: polynomial regression, joinpoint analysis, and moving averages. RESULTS: Over 70% of deaths occur in the elderly, regardless of sex. Among young adults, the mortality rate is low, with no difference between men and women. Among mature adults and elderly, mortality is increasing, and significantly, for women. There is a trend of decreasing mortality in all female adults and overall population, and in males and 40-59 years and overall population, both excluding the elderly, with statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about trends allows setting priorities and allocating resources toward positive changes in this scenario in the Brazilian population.

‣ Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

Girianelli,Vania Reis; Gamarra,Carmen Justina; Azevedo e Silva,Gulnar
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased...

‣ Gastric and colorectal cancer mortality in an urban and industrialized area of Brazil

Medrado-Faria,Marcilia de Araujo; Almeida,José Wilson Rodrigues de; Zanetta,Dirce Maria Trevisan
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2001 Português
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PURPOSE: To study the gastric and colorectal cancer mortalities and their relation to the urban-industrialization in Baixada Santista, located in the southeastern region of Brazil. METHODS: Selected from the registries of the State System of Data Analysis Foundation (SEADE) were 1105 deaths due to gastric cancer (ICD 153--154) and 690 due to colorectal cancer (ICD 151) that occurred from 1980 to 1993 in males, above 10 years of age, residing in Baixada Santista. For each of these types of cancer, the standardized mortality rates, age-adjusted by world population in the 1960s, for 4 industrialized and 4 non-industrialized urban communities in that region were calculated. The ratios among those rates were calculated in order to compare the mortality in the periods 1980--93, 1980--1986, and 1987--1993. RESULTS: Standardized mortality rates for colorectal cancer were significantly higher in industrialized area, with ratios of 1.6 [95% CI 1.22 -- 2.29], 1.6 [95% CI 1.2 -- 2.0], and 1.6 [95% CI 1.3 -- 2.0] in the periods 1980--86, 1987--1993 and 1980--93, respectively. Gastric cancer did not show any statistical difference between the industrialized and non-industrialized areas, but there was a significant decrease in BS from the period 1980--1986 to 1987--1993. CONCLUSIONS: The significant elevation of colorectal cancer mortality in the industrialized area could be related to exposure to numerous carcinogens such as aromatic hydrocarbon...

‣ The effect of performing corrections on reported uterine cancer mortality data in the city of São Paulo

Antunes,J.L.F.; Wünsch-Filho,V.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
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Reports of uterine cancer deaths that do not specify the subsite of the tumor threaten the quality of the epidemiologic appraisal of corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality. The present study assessed the impact of correcting the estimated corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The epidemiologic assessment of death rates comprised the estimation of magnitudes, trends (1980-2003), and area-level distribution based on three strategies: i) using uncorrected death certificate information; ii) correcting estimates of corpus and cervix uteri mortality by fully reallocating unspecified deaths to either one of these categories, and iii) partially correcting specified estimates by maintaining as unspecified a fraction of deaths certified as due to cancer of "uterus not otherwise specified". The proportion of uterine cancer deaths without subsite specification decreased from 42.9% in 1984 to 20.8% in 2003. Partial and full corrections resulted in considerable increases of cervix (31.3 and 48.8%, respectively) and corpus uteri (34.4 and 55.2%) cancer mortality. Partial correction did not change trends for subsite-specific uterine cancer mortality, whereas full correction did, thus representing an early indication of decrease for cervical neoplasms and stability for tumors of the corpus uteri in this population. Ecologic correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indices were unchanged for both strategies of correcting estimates. Reallocating unspecified uterine cancer mortality in contexts with a high proportion of these deaths has a considerable impact on the epidemiologic profile of mortality and provides more reliable estimates of cervix and corpus uteri cancer death rates and trends.

‣ Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

Freitas-Junior,Ruffo; Gonzaga,Carolina Maciel Reis; Freitas,Nilceana Maya Aires; Martins,Edesio; Dardes,Rita de Cássia de Maio
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.09551%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO) and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO). Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC) in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%). Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%), Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8%) and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6%) presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%), Paraiba (APC=11.9%), and Piaui (APC=10.9%). CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually...

‣ Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990–2009

Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: Cancer Intelligence Publicador: Cancer Intelligence
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008...

‣ Mortalidade por câncer de mama nas mulheres brasileiras no período de 1980 a 2009; Breast cancer mortality trends among brazilian women from 1980 to 2009

GONZAGA, Carolina Maciel Reis
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Introduction: Breast cancer is the principal cause of death from cancer in women in Brazil and worldwide. Brazil has important social differences, therefore, to understand the mortality rates for female breast cancer, it is necessary to look at the issue of spatial inequalities in income and opportunities characteristic of Brazilian society. Aim: To describe the temporal evolution of breast cancer mortality in Brazil, in its macro-regions and Federal States from 1980 to 2009. Materials and Methods: Ecological time series, using data on deaths from breast cancer registered in the Mortality Information System (SIM/MOH) and the data of population census by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Mortality trends analysis was performed using Poisson s regression model. Results: for Brazil it was observed a 0.4% stabilization trend in women breast cancer mortality since 1994 (95% CI -01 0.8; p = 0.08). Southeast regions showed decreasing trends -0.9% (95% CI -1.6 -0.2; p = 0.01), in South it was observed a -0.3% stabilization (95% CI -1.0 0.3; p = 0.31), whereas the Northeast region stands out with a higher 5.3% increasing trends per year (95% CI 3.9 6.7; p <0.01). A significant decreasing mortality trend was observed in São Paulo -1.9% (95% CI -2.9 -0.9; p < 0.01)...

‣ Population screening and intensity of screening are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality: evidence of efficacy of mamography screening in Australia

Roder, D.; Houssami, N.; Farshid, G.; Gill, P.; Luke, C.; Downey, P.; Beckmann, K.; Iosifidis, P.; Grieve, L.; Williamson, L.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background Efficacy of breast screening may differ in practice from the results of randomized trials. We report one of the largest case–control evaluations of a screening service. Methods Subjects included 491 breast-cancer deaths affecting 45–80-year-old South Australian females during 2002–2005 (diagnosed after BreastScreen commencement) and 1,473 live controls (three per death) randomly selected from the State Electoral Roll after birth-date matching. Cancer Registry and BreastScreen records provided cancer and screening details. Risk estimates were calculated by BreastScreen participation, using conditional logistic regression. Interpretation was assisted by a population survey of risk factor prevalence by BreastScreen participation in 1,684 females aged ≥40 years. Results The relative odds (OR) (95% confidence limits) of breast-cancer death in BreastScreen participants compared with non-participants were 0.59 (0.47, 0.74). Compared with non-participants, the OR was 0.70 (0.47, 1.05) for women last screened through BreastScreen more than 3 years before diagnosis of the index case, and 0.57 (0.44, 0.72) for women screened more recently. The OR of 0.47 (0.34, 0.65) for women screened more frequently in the pre-diagnosis phase was lower than the 0.64 (0.50...

‣ Tendências da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais dos estados do Brasil, 1980-2004; Trends of cancer mortality in Brazilian state capitals, 1980-2004

FONSECA, Luiz Augusto Marcondes; ELUF-NETO, José; WUNSCH FILHO, Victor
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.20657%
OBJETIVO: A mortalidade por câncer iniciou declínio nos países desenvolvidos nos anos 90, mas seu comportamento nos países em desenvolvimento é menos conhecido. Estudo anterior abordando a mortalidade por câncer no Brasil mostrou queda na mortalidade pelo conjunto dos cânceres, mas a qualidade dos dados suscitou críticas quanto à validade dos resultados. As informações de mortalidade das capitais dos estados do Brasil são de melhor qualidade que aquelas para o país como um todo, possibilitando análise mais acurada das tendências. MÉTODOS: Os dados de mortalidade e população foram obtidos das bases de dados do Ministério da Saúde e do IBGE. Calcularam-se taxas ajustadas por idade e taxas específicas por idade, para ambos os sexos. Empregou-se regressão linear para avaliar a significância das mudanças de tendência. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade pelo conjunto dos cânceres declinaram, (-4,6% para os homens e -10,5% para as mulheres). O câncer de estômago mostrou queda de taxas nos dois sexos, assim como o câncer de pulmão entre os homens, enquanto as taxas do câncer de próstata aumentaram. No sexo feminino, “câncer do útero não especificado" apresentou redução e o câncer de pulmão, aumento de taxas. O câncer de mama mostrou-se estável...

‣ Evolución de la mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en Colombia: estudio ecológico

Saenz Becerra, Maria Paula; Arenas Reyes, Nestor Julian; Poveda Matiz, José Luis; Daza Almendrares, Fabián Pompilio
Fonte: Facultad de Medicina Publicador: Facultad de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introducción y objetivos: Universalmente se evidencia un aumento en la incidencia de cáncer prostático, consecuencia de una mayor expectativa de vida y del uso del tamizaje con el antígeno prostático específi co. La mortalidad secundaria es variable y constituye un problema de salud pública. El presente estudio busca describir la evolución de la mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en Colombia en el ámbito nacional y regional. Materiales y métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico mixto, teniendo como grupos de estudio: el país, sus regiones y departamentos, con una serie temporal de 1997 a 2012 para el país, y de 2008 a 2012 para las regiones y departamentos; se incluyeron todas las defunciones relacionadas con el código CIE-10 C61 de la base de estadísticas del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas. Resultados: Se encontró una tasa de mortalidad nacional entre el 8,9 y el 10,9 por cada 100.000 habitantes hombres en la serie temporal. En las regiones pacífica y andina, se encuentran las mayores tasas de mortalidad. Los departamentos del César y Valle concentran las mayores tasas de mortalidad. La tasa estandarizada de mortalidad nacional es similar a otros países de características socioeconómicas semejantes. Conclusiones: La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en Colombia ha disminuido en los últimos 4 años. Se deben optimizar las estrategias de atención médica en regiones con predominio de raza negra y población rural...

‣ Female breast cancer mortality in Brazil and its regions

Kluthcovsky,Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli; Faria,Thaisa Nogueira Palozi; Carneiro,Fabio Henrique; Strona,Robson
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective: to analyze female breast cancer mortality trends in Brazil and its regions. Methods: female breast cancer mortality in Brazil and its regions was analyzed using mortality data from the Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System and the National Cancer Institute between 1991 and 2010. The variables analyzed were. proportional mortality from female breast cancer in relation to total deaths in women, mortality rates of the five primary locations of the neoplasms most common in women, and mortality rates for female breast cancer: Linear regression models were estimated to analyze mortality trends: Results: a growth in proportional mortality due to female breast cancer in Brazil and its regions was observed: In relation to the mortality rates for the five primary types of cancer, breast cancer persisted in first place in Brazil and its regions, except the North region, where cervical cancer was the most frequent: Rising female breast cancer mortality rates were observed for Brazil (p = 0.017), Northeastern (p < 0.001), North (p < 0.001) and the Mid-West (p = 0.001), regions, and declining rates for the Southeast region (p = 0.047), and stable rates for the South region. Conclusion: the results emphasize the importance of the disease in terms of public health in the country...

‣ Câncer de mama : mortalidade crescente na região sul do Brasil entre 1980 e 2002; Increase in breast cancer mortality in southern Brazil from 1980 to 2002

Gonçalves, Andrea Teixeira Cadaval; Jobim, Paulo Fernandes Costa; Vanacor, Roberta; Nunes, Luciana Neves; Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.167373%
O câncer de mama é apontado como o tipo de câncer mais prevalente no mundo. No Brasil, as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de mama continuam elevadas, observando-se diferenças inter-regionais. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico de série temporal (1980-2002) na Região Sul, com dados anuais do Departamento de Informação e Informática do SUS (DATASUS), para avaliar o comportamento do coeficiente de mortalidade por câncer de mama, padronizado por idade. Utilizou-se regressão linear simples e múltipla para estimar as taxas de mortalidade e as diferenças entre os três Estados. O Rio Grande do Sul parte de um patamar mais elevado e apresenta maior taxa média de mortalidade (14,45), sendo significativamente diferente (p < 0,001) quando comparado com Santa Catarina (8,93) e Paraná (9,95). Observou-se um aumento anual de 0,47 óbito na taxa de mortalidade por câncer de mama, independente do Estado. Conclui-se que há uma tendência similar de aumento da mortalidade por câncer de mama nos três Estados da Região Sul, com índices significativamente maiores no Rio Grande do Sul, enfatizando-se a importância da identificação dos fatores relacionados a esse quadro alarmante e o estabelecimento de medidas efetivas a fim de reverter esses números.; Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in the world. Breast cancer mortality rates are high in Brazil and show striking variations between geographic regions. A time-trend ecological study was performed in Southern Brazil from 1980 to 2002. Data were collected from the Mortality Information System (Ministry of Health) to assess age-standardized mortality rates. Linear regression for mortality time-trend analysis and multiple regression for mortality differences among three States were calculated. The highest mean mortality rate (14.45) was observed in Rio Grande do Sul...

‣ Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Gonzaga, Carolina Maciel Reis; Freitas, Nilceana Maya Aires; Martins, Edesio; Dardes, Rita de Cássia de Maio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.09551%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO) and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO). Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC) in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%). Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%), Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8%) and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6%) presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%), Paraiba (APC=11.9%), and Piaui (APC=10.9%). CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually...

‣ Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts

Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.04108%
Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that smoking-related promotion is the dominant model mechanism associated with lung cancer mortality in all cohorts. Smoking-related initiation is less important than promotion but interacts synergistically with it. Although no information on ex-smokers is available in these data, the model with estimated variables can be used to project risks among ex-smokers. These projected risks are in good agreement with the risk among ex-smokers derived from other studies. We present 10-year projected risks for current and former smokers adjusted for competing causes of mortality. The importance of smoking duration on lung cancer risk in these cohorts is a direct consequence of promotion. Intervention and treatment strategies should focus on promotion as the primary etiologic mechanism in lung carcinogenesis.

‣ Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006; Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006; Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Girianelli, Vania Reis; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.223%
OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência corrigida da mortalidade geral por câncer e principais tipos nas capitais e demais municípios do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre óbitos (n = 2.585.012) decorrentes de câncer entre 1980 e 2006 foram obtidos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, e os demográficos, no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As taxas de mortalidade geral por câncer e principais tipos foram corrigidas redistribuindo proporcionalmente 50% das mortes mal definidas e padronizando-as por idade segundo população padrão mundial. As curvas de tendência para o Brasil e grandes regiões foram calculadas para capitais e demais municípios segundo sexo e avaliadas por meio de regressão linear simples. RESULTADOS: Entre os homens, as taxas de mortalidade para os cânceres de pulmão, próstata e colo-retal foram ascendentes; declinantes para o de estômago e estáveis para o de esôfago. Entre as mulheres, houve aumento da mortalidade por câncer de mama, pulmão e colo-retal; e diminuição das taxas para os cânceres de colo do útero e de estômago. A evolução da mortalidade variou entre as regiões do País, com padrões distintos entre as capitais e demais municípios. CONCLUSÕES: A correção das taxas de mortalidade com redistribuição dos óbitos mal definidos aumentou a magnitude da mortalidade geral por câncer no Brasil em cerca de 10% em 1980 e 5% em 2006. Nos municípios do interior não se observou tendência à queda ou estabilidade como nas capitais. Menor alcance das ações de prevenção e a dificuldade de acesso a serviços de diagnóstico e tratamento para câncer para a população residente fora dos grandes centros urbanos podem explicar...

‣ Correção da magnitude da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, 1996-2005; Corrección de la magnitud de la mortalidad por cáncer de colón uterino en Brasil, 1996-2005; Correction for reported cervical cancer mortality data in Brazil, 1996-2005

Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2010 Português
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OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma metodologia para correção da magnitude dos óbitos por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre os 9.607.177 óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, para o período de 1996 a 2005. Para a correção do sub-registro, foram utilizados os fatores de expansão gerados pelo Projeto Carga Global de Doença no Brasil - 1998. Para correção das categorias de diagnósticos desconhecidos, incompletos ou mal definidos de óbitos, foi aplicada redistribuição proporcional. Os dados ausentes de idade foram corrigidos por imputação. As correções foram aplicadas por Unidade Federativa e os resultados apresentados para o Brasil, região e áreas geográficas (capital, demais municípios das regiões metropolitanas e interior) por meio do percentual de variabilidade da magnitude das taxas, antes e após a correção dos óbitos. O comportamento das correções foi analisado por modelo de regressão linear multivariada com termos de interação entre região do País e área geográfica. RESULTADOS: As taxas corrigidas de mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil mostraram um acréscimo de 103,4%, variando de 35% para as capitais da região Sul a 339% para o interior da região Nordeste. A redistribuição dos óbitos por câncer de útero sem especificação de localização anatômica promoveu os maiores acréscimos na magnitude das taxas. Os percentuais de correção...

‣ Mortalidade por cânceres gástrico e colorretal em uma área urbana-industrial do Brasil; Gastric and colorectal cancer mortality in an urban and industrialized area of Brazil

Medrado-Faria, Marcilia de Araujo; Almeida, José Wilson Rodrigues de; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2001 Português
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67.12316%
PURPOSE: To study the gastric and colorectal cancer mortalities and their relation to the urban-industrialization in Baixada Santista, located in the southeastern region of Brazil. METHODS: Selected from the registries of the State System of Data Analysis Foundation (SEADE) were 1105 deaths due to gastric cancer (ICD 153--154) and 690 due to colorectal cancer (ICD 151) that occurred from 1980 to 1993 in males, above 10 years of age, residing in Baixada Santista. For each of these types of cancer, the standardized mortality rates, age-adjusted by world population in the 1960s, for 4 industrialized and 4 non-industrialized urban communities in that region were calculated. The ratios among those rates were calculated in order to compare the mortality in the periods 1980--93, 1980--1986, and 1987--1993. RESULTS: Standardized mortality rates for colorectal cancer were significantly higher in industrialized area, with ratios of 1.6 [95% CI 1.22 -- 2.29], 1.6 [95% CI 1.2 -- 2.0], and 1.6 [95% CI 1.3 -- 2.0] in the periods 1980--86, 1987--1993 and 1980--93, respectively. Gastric cancer did not show any statistical difference between the industrialized and non-industrialized areas, but there was a significant decrease in BS from the period 1980--1986 to 1987--1993. CONCLUSIONS: The significant elevation of colorectal cancer mortality in the industrialized area could be related to exposure to numerous carcinogens such as aromatic hydrocarbon...