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‣ Involuntary smoking and head and neck cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

LEE, Yuan-Chin Amy; BOFFETTA, Paolo; STURGIS, Erich M.; WEI, Qingyi; ZHANG, Zuo-Feng; MUSCAT, Joshua; LAZARUS, Philip; MATOS, Elena; HAYES, Richard B.; WINN, Deborah M.; ZARIDZE, David; WÜNSCH-FILHO, Victor; ELUF-NETO, Jose; KOIFMAN, Sergio; MATES, Dana;
Fonte: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH Publicador: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although active tobacco smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, involuntary smoking has not been adequately evaluated because of the relatively low statistical power in previous studies. We took advantage of data pooled in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium to evaluate the role of involuntary smoking in head and neck carcinogenesis. Involuntary smoking exposure data were pooled across six case-control studies in Central Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated for 542 cases and 2,197 controls who reported never using tobacco, and the heterogeneity among the study-specific ORs was assessed. In addition, stratified analyses were done by subsite. No effect of ever involuntary smoking exposure either at home or at work was observed for head and neck cancer overall. However, long duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home and at work was associated with an increased risk (OR for >15 years at home, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12-2.28; P(trend) <0-01; OR for >15 years at work, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.30; P(trend) = 0.13). The effect of duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home was stronger for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than for other subsites. An association between involuntary smoking exposure and the risk of head and neck cancer...

‣ Missed opportunities: family history and behavioral risk factors in breast cancer risk assessment among a multiethnic group of women

Karliner, Leah S.; Napoles-Springer, Anna; Kerlikowske, Karla; Gregorich, Steven E.; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Haas, Jennifer S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Clinician’s knowledge of a woman’s cancer family history (CFH) and counseling about health-related behaviors (HRB) is necessary for appropriate breast cancer care. Objective: To evaluate whether clinicians solicit CFH and counsel women on HRB; to assess relationship of well visits and patient risk perception or worry with clinician’s behavior. Design: Cross-sectional population-based telephone survey. Participants: Multiethnic sample; 1,700 women from San Francisco Mammography Registry with a screening mammogram in 2001–2002. Measurements: Predictors: well visit in prior year, self-perception of 10-year breast cancer risk, worry scale. Outcomes: Patient report of clinician asking about CFH in prior year, or ever counseling about HRB in relation to breast cancer risk. Multivariate models included age, ethnicity, education, language of interview, insurance/mammography facility, well visit, ever having a breast biopsy/follow-up mammography, Gail-Model risk, Jewish heritage, and body mass index. Results: 58% reported clinicians asked about CFH; 33% reported clinicians ever discussed HRB. In multivariate analysis, regardless of actual risk, perceived risk, or level of worry, having had a well visit in prior year was associated with increased odds (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.6...

‣ Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa, Daniele; Stein, Angelika; Dostal, Lucie; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C.; Allen, Naomi E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; T
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n = 11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer ((OR_{allele}) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.94, p = 1.3×(10^{−3}) for rs546950 and ((OR_{allele}) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.93, p = 5.6×(10^{−4}) for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion...

‣ Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Cancer Risk in the EPIC Cohort

Couto, E; Ferrari, P; Buckland, G; Overvad, K; Dahm, C C; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V; Naska, A; Benetou, V; Kaaks, R; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; von Ruesten, A; Pala, V; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; May, A; Peeters,
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. Methods: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0–9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. Results: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. Conclusion: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk.

‣ Association between XPF Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

Shi, Ting-Yan; Qiu, Li-Xin; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Meng-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Hongpin; Zang, Rong-Yu; Wei, Qingyi; He, Jing; Han, Jiali
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF or ERCC4) plays a key role in DNA repair that protects against genetic instability and carcinogenesis. A series of epidemiological studies have examined associations between XPF polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the findings remain inconclusive. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this meta-analysis of 47,639 cancer cases and 51,915 controls, by searching three electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, EMBASE and CNKI), we summarized 43 case-control studies from 29 publications on four commonly studied polymorphisms of XPF (i.e., rs1800067, rs1799801, rs2020955 and rs744154), and we did not find statistical evidence of any significant association with overall cancer risk. However, in stratification analyses, we found a significant association of XPF-rs1799801 with a reduced cancer risk in Caucasian populations (4,845 cases and 5,556 controls; recessive model: OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76–1.00, P = 0.049, P = 0.723 for heterogeneity test, I2 = 0). Further genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that the homozygous variant CC genotype carriers had higher XPF expression levels than that of the TT genotype carriers (Student’s t test for a recessive model: P = 0.046). No publication bias was found by using the funnel plot and Egger’s test. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests a lack of statistical evidence for the association between the four XPF SNPs and overall risk of cancers. However...

‣ Consumption of Fish Products across the Lifespan and Prostate Cancer Risk

Torfadottir, Johanna E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Mucci, Lorelei Ann; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Adami, Hans-Olov; Stamp
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: To examine whether fish and fish oil consumption across the lifespan is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Design: The study was nested among 2268 men aged 67–96 years in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. In 2002 to 2006, dietary habits were assessed, for early life, midlife and later life using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality through 2009 via linkage to nationwide cancer- and mortality registers. Adjusting for potential confounders, we used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer according to fish and fish oil consumption. Results: Among the 2268 men, we ascertained 214 prevalent and 133 incident prostate cancer cases, of which 63 had advanced disease. High fish consumption in early- and midlife was not associated with overall or advanced prostate cancer. High intake of salted or smoked fish was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer both in early life (95% CI: 1.08, 3.62) and in later life (95% CI: 1.04, 5.00). Men consuming fish oil in later life had a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer [HR (95%CI): 0.43 (0.19, 0.95)], no association was found for early life or midlife consumption. Conclusions: Salted or smoked fish may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer...

‣ Short-term weight gain and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor classification among pre- and postmenopausal women

Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A. Heather; Toriola, Adetunji T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.; Natarajan, Loki; Colditz, Graham A.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Obesity is well established as a cause of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. In contrast, adiposity in early life reduces breast cancer incidence. However, whether short-term weight change influences breast cancer risk is not well known. We followed a cohort of 77,232 women from 1980 to 2006 (1,445,578 person-years), with routinely updated risk factor information, documenting 4196 incident cases of invasive breast cancer. ER and PR status were obtained from pathology reports and medical records yielding a total of 2033 ER+/PR+ tumors, 595 ER−/PR− tumors, 512 ER+/PR− tumors. The log incidence breast cancer model was used to assess the association of short-term weight gain (over past 4 years) while controlling for average BMI before and after menopause. Short-term weight change was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (RR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09–1.33) for a 4-year weight gain of ≥15 lbs versus no change (≤5 lbs) (P_trend < 0.001). The association was stronger for premenopausal women (RR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.13–1.69) (P_trend = 0.004) than for postmenopausal women (RR 1.10; 95 % CI 0.97–1.25) (P_trend = 0.063). Short-term weight gain during premenopause had a stronger association for ER+/PR− (RR per 25 lb weight gain = 2.19; 95 % CI 1.33–3.61...

‣ Variants in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene and prostate cancer risk, survival, and circulating PSA

Severi, G.; Hayes, V.; Neufing, P.; Padilla, E.; Tilley, W.; Eggleton, S.; Morris, H.; English, D.; Southey, M.; Hopper, J.; Sutherland, R.; Boyle, P.; Giles, G.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Cancer Research Publicador: Amer Assoc Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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An A to G substitution, rs925013, in the promoter of the prostate-specific antigen gene (PSA) was recently found to be associated with promoter activity and circulating PSA levels. The objective of this study was to test the associations between rs925013 and another A to G substitution, rs266882, in the PSA gene with prostate cancer risk using a population-based case-control study of 821 prostate cancer cases and 734 controls carried out in Perth and Melbourne, Australia. The study focused on young (i.e., < 70 years) and aggressive cases (i.e., well-differentiated tumors were excluded). Cases in the Melbourne arm of the study (N = 638) were followed up prospectively for an average period of 8.2 years and deaths from prostate cancer ascertained through record linkage to study the possible association between genetic variants and disease-specific survival. PSA-circulating levels were measured in controls to test the association with the genetic variants using a cross-sectional design. Linear regression of log PSA levels, unconditional logistic regression, Cox regression, and haplotype analyses were undertaken. For rs925013, the G allele was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)...

‣ Diabetes, antidiabetic medications, and pancreatic cancer risk: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

Bosetti, C.; Rosato, V.; Li, D.; Silverman, D.; Petersen, G.M.; Bracci, P.M.; Neale, R.E.; Muscat, J.; Anderson, K.; Gallinger, S.; Olson, S.H.; Miller, A.B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Scelo, G.; Janout, V.; Holcatova, I.; Lagiou, P.; Serraino, D.; Lucente
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, but the magnitude of the risk and the time-risk relationship are unclear, and there is limited information on the role of antidiabetic medications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data from 15 case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 8305 cases and 13 987 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 1155 (15%) cases and 1087 (8%) controls reported a diagnosis of diabetes 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis (or interview, for controls), corresponding to an OR of 1.90 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.72-2.09). Consistent risk estimates were observed across strata of selected covariates, including body mass index and tobacco smoking. Pancreatic cancer risk decreased with duration of diabetes, but a significant excess risk was still evident 20 or more years after diabetes diagnosis (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.63). Among diabetics, long duration of oral antidiabetic use was associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69, for ≥15 years). Conversely, insulin use was associated with a pancreatic cancer risk in the short term (OR 5.60...

‣ Glycemic index, glycemic load and endometrial cancer risk: results from the Australian National Endometrial Cancer study and an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

Nagle, C.M.; Olsen, C.M.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Spurdle, A.B.; Webb, P.M.; Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Purpose: The relationship between habitual consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and/or a diet with a high glycemic load (GL) and risk of endometrial cancer is uncertain, and relatively few studies have investigated these associations. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between GI/GL and risk of endometrial cancer using data from an Australian population-based case–control study and systematically review all the available evidence to quantify the magnitude of the association using meta-analysis. Methods: The case–control study included 1,290 women aged 18–79 years with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 1,436 population controls. Controls were selected to match the expected Australian state of residence and age distribution (in 5-year bands) of cases. For the systematic review, relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases through to July 2011. Random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates, overall and dose–response. Results: In our case–control study, we observed a modest positive association between high dietary GI (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.11–1.83) and risk of endometrial cancer, but no association with high dietary GL (OR 1.15...

‣ Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors Among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Robles, Eden Hernandez; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; post-print
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More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social cognitive theory and principles of motivational interviewing originally developed for smoking cessation to also address physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among Latinos exhibiting multiple health risk behaviors. Literature reviews, focus groups, expert consultation, pretesting, and pilot testing were used to inform adaptation decisions. We identified common mechanisms underlying change in smoking, physical activity, and diet used as treatment targets; identified practical models of patient-centered cross-cultural service provision; and identified that family preferences and support as particularly strong concerns among the priority population. Adaptations made to the original intervention are described. The current study is a practical example of how an intervention can be adapted to maximize relevance and acceptability and also maintain the core elements of the original evidence-based intervention. The intervention has significant potential to influence cancer prevention efforts among Latinos in the United States and is being evaluated in a sample of 400 Latino overweight/obese smokers.

‣ Dietary intake and feacal excretion of carbohydrate by Australians: importance of achieving stool weights greater than 150g to improve faecal markers relevant to colon cancer risk.

Birkett, A.; Jones, G.; de Silva, A.; Young, G.; Muir, J.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
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Objectives: This study investigated, on 53 Australians consuming a typical Western diet, the relationship between dietary intake, faecal excretion of carbohydrate and changes in faecal markers believed to be relevant to colon cancer risk, for example faecal output, transit time and concentrations of phenols, ammonia and butyrate. Design: Fifty-three subjects consuming their usual diet were asked to record and weigh all food consumed for a seven day period, and to collect faeces for three days during this period. Setting: Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Subjects: All volunteers were either staff and students of the university, or associates of the authors. Interventions: None. Results: Volunteers had the following dietary intakes of carbohydrate (g/d; mean±s.d.); starch 131±41 (including resistant starch (RS), 5±2), sugar 108±37 and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) 14±7. Daily faecal output was 127±70 g and transit time 47±19 h. Analysis of faecal samples found 0.8±1.2 g RS and 5.6±3.6 g NSP were excreted daily. Dietary starch intake was the only dietary carbohydrate to show a significant relationship with the concentration (mmol/L) of butyrate excreted in faeces (r=0.34, P<0.05). Dietary intake of RS was associated with higher concentrations of faecal ammonia (r=0.34...

‣ Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal.

Beveridge, Rachelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Cancer du poumon associé à l’exposition au nickel, au chrome VI et au cadmium dans le milieu de travail utilisant deux études populationnelles cas-témoins à Montréal. Au début des années 1990, le nickel, le chrome VI et le cadmium ont été classés en tant qu’agents cancérigènes de classe 1 par le CIRC (Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer). Cependant, les résultats des études ayant permis la classification de ces métaux n’ont pas toujours été reproduits, et d’importantes questions demeurent quant aux effets de ces métaux à de faibles niveaux d’exposition. Un plus grand nombre de recherches empiriques est donc nécessaire afin de réaffirmer la cancérogénicité de ces agents, et d’identifier les circonstances dans lesquelles ils peuvent être néfastes. L'objectif de cette étude était d'explorer la relation entre l’exposition à un des métaux (soit le nickel, le chrome VI, ou le cadmium) et les risques subséquents de développer un cancer du poumon chez des travailleurs provenant de différents milieux de travail qui sont exposés à ces métaux à de différents degrés. Deux études cas-témoins de base populationnelle menées à Montréal ont fourni les données nécessaires pour examiner la cancérogénicité de ces métaux. La première étude était menée entre 1979 et 1986 chez des hommes âgés de 35 à 70 ans ayant un cancer dans l’un de 19 sites anatomiques de cancer sélectionnés. La seconde étude était menée entre 1996 et 2001 chez des hommes et des femmes âgés de 35 à 75 ans...

‣ Pre-Diagnostic Leukocyte Genomic DNA Methylation and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women

Nan, Hongmei; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi; Rosner, Bernard Alfred; Fuchs, Charles Stewart; Cho, Eunyoung
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Abnormal one-carbon metabolism may lead to general genomic (global) hypomethylation, which may predispose an individual to the development of colorectal neoplasia. Methods: We evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level and the risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study of 358 colorectal cancer cases and 661 matched controls within the all-female cohort of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Among control subjects, we further examined major plasma components in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to genomic DNA methylation level. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to examine leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. Results: Overall genomic DNA methylation level was not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (p for trend, 0.45). Compared with women in the lowest quintile of methylation, the multivariate OR of colorectal cancer risk was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.82–2.13) for those in the highest quintile. We did not find significant associations between major plasma components of one-carbon metabolism or risk factors for colorectal cancer and genomic DNA methylation level (all p for trend >0.05). Also...

‣ Recent developments in the ability to predict and modify breast cancer risk

Andrades Cvitanic, Patricio Ricardo; Parada, Francisco; Prado, Arturo
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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The identification of women at higher risk for breast cancer is a matter of public health and anyone who participates in any treatment modality of this condition (this includes the plastic surgeon) should be aware of the tools and predictive models of breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer in the community, and probably during the daily plastic surgery consultation, until recently, was limited to decisions about when to initiate a mammography study. New developments that predict and modify breast cancer risk must be clearly understood by our specialty through identification of women at higher risk for breast cancer and be familiar with the current issues related to screening and risk-reduction measures. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding the recent data of breast cancer risk, screening strategies for high-risk women and medical and surgical approaches to reduce breast cancer risk. Patients with breast cancer belong to one of three groups: a. Sporadic breast cancer (75%)-patients without family history or those who have a breast biopsy with proliferative changes. b. Genetic mutation breast cancer (5%)-women who have a genetic predisposition, and most of these are attributable to mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2). c. Cluster family breast cancer (20%)-seen in women with a relevant history of breast cancer in the family and breast biopsy with proliferative breast changes with no association with mutations. Those at high risk for breast cancer should investigate the family history with genetic testing consideration...

‣ Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

Blackburn, Anneke; Hill, Linda Z.; Roberts, Amy L.; Wang, Jun; Aud, Dee; Jung, Jimmy; Nikolcheva, Tania; Allard, John; Peltz, Gary; Otis, Christopher; Cao, Qing; Ricketts, Reva St. J.; Naber, Stephen P; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poustka, A; Malamud, Daniel; Jerry
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53+/- strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which diffe

‣ Patients with a high polygenic risk of breast cancer do not have an increased risk of radiotherapy toxicity; Overdiagnosis by polygenic risk

Dorling, Leila; Barnett, Gillian C.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Coles, Charlotte E.; Burnet, Neil G.; Yarnold, John R.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; West, Catharine M. L.
Fonte: American association for Cancer Research Publicador: American association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from American association for Cancer Research via http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1080; PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify the probability of overdiagnosis of prostate cancer by polygenic risk. METHODS: We calculated the polygenic risk score based on 66 known prostate cancer susceptibility variants for 17,012 men aged 50-69 years (9,404 men identified with prostate cancer and 7,608 with no cancer) derived from three UK-based ongoing studies. We derived the probabilities of overdiagnosis by quartiles of polygenic risk considering that the observed prevalence of screen-detected prostate cancer is a combination of underlying incidence, mean sojourn time (MST), test sensitivity, and overdiagnosis. RESULTS: Polygenic risk quartiles one to four had 9%, 18%, 25% and 48% of the cases respectively. For a PSA test sensitivity of 80% and MST of nine years, 43%, 30%, 25% and 19% of the prevalent screen-detected cancers in quartiles one to four, respectively, were likely to be overdiagnosed cancers. Overdiagnosis decreased with increasing polygenic risk, with 56% drop between the lowest and the highest polygenic risk quartiles. CONCLUSION: Targeting screening to men at higher polygenic risk could reduce the problem of overdiagnosis and lead to a better benefit to harm balance in screening for prostate cancer.; NP is Cancer Research UK Clinician Scientist Fellow. The COGS project was funded through a European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme grant (agreement number 223175 - HEALTH-F2-2009-223175)...

‣ Phyto-oestrogen intake and breast cancer risk in South Asian women in England: findings from a population-based case-control study

dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Mangtani, Punam; McMichael, A J; Bhakta, Dee; McMichael, Anthony; Sevak, Leena
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: This study investigates whether intake of phyto-oestrogens is associated with breast cancer risk in South Asian women from the Indian subcontinent, whose diet is rich in pulses and vegetables but poor in soyfoods. Methods: A total of 240 South

‣ Heterogeneity of breast cancer risk within the South Asian female population in England: a population-based case-control study of first-generation migrants

McMichael, A J; Mangtani, Punam; Bhakta, Dee; McMichael, Anthony; dos Santos Silva, Isabel
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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South Asian women in England have a lower breast cancer risk than their English-native counterparts, but less is known about variations in risk between distinct South Asian ethnic subgroups. We used the data from a population-based case-control study of first-generation South Asian migrants to assess risks by ethnic subgroup. In all, 240 breast cancer cases, identified through cancer registries, were individually matched on age and general practitioner to two controls. Information on the region of origin, religious and linguistic background, and on breast cancer risk factors was obtained from participants. Breast cancer odds varied significantly between the ethnic subgroups (P=0.008), with risk increasing in the following order Bangladeshi Muslims (odds ratio (OR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 1.06), Punjabi Hindu (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33, 1.27), Gujarati Hindu (I=reference group), Punjabi Sikh (OR 1.23, 95% CI: 0.72, 2.11) and Pakistani/Indian Muslims (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.81). The statistically significant raised risk in Pakistani/Indian Muslims increased with adjustment for socioeconomic and reproductive risk factors (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.58), but was attenuated, and no longer significant, with further adjustment for waist circumference and intake of nonstarch polysaccharides and fat (OR 1.49...

‣ Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts

Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73735%
Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that smoking-related promotion is the dominant model mechanism associated with lung cancer mortality in all cohorts. Smoking-related initiation is less important than promotion but interacts synergistically with it. Although no information on ex-smokers is available in these data, the model with estimated variables can be used to project risks among ex-smokers. These projected risks are in good agreement with the risk among ex-smokers derived from other studies. We present 10-year projected risks for current and former smokers adjusted for competing causes of mortality. The importance of smoking duration on lung cancer risk in these cohorts is a direct consequence of promotion. Intervention and treatment strategies should focus on promotion as the primary etiologic mechanism in lung carcinogenesis.