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‣ Análise da metodologia aplicada às tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição para geradores - TUSDg.; Analysis of the methodology for the calculation of the distribution use of system charge for generation plants.

Soares, Bruno Franco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2009 Português
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A regulamentação do livre acesso aos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição possibilitou aos agentes do setor elétrico o direito à utilização dos sistemas elétricos mediante ressarcimento dos respectivos custos. O livre acesso é parte do processo de reestruturação do setor elétrico que visava ao atendimento da expansão da demanda de energia com a liberalização do mercado energético nacional, promovendo a competitividade entre os agentes. Com o livre acesso, surgiu a necessidade de desenvolver métodos eficientes de remuneração pelo uso dos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição, de modo a incentivar o acesso racional a essas redes, minimizando os custos com ampliações e otimizando a operação do sistema elétrico interligado (SIN) e das redes de distribuição. Nesse sentido, definiu-se uma metodologia para o cálculo das tarifas de uso dos sistemas de transmissão (TUST), que procura sinalizar o impacto individual causado pelos usuários na rede, enquanto que as tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição (TUSD) foram definidas a partir dos Custos Marginais de Expansão para cada nível de tensão destes sistemas. Entretanto, a metodologia de TUSD implementada não se aplicava ao segmento geração, que passou a ser cobrado pelo menor valor do segmento consumo...

‣ Análise de fluxo de carga eletrônica em modos vibracionais; Analysis of electronic charge flux in vibrational modes

Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2013 Português
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Diversas metodologias foram desenvolvidas nas últimas décadas para cálculo de propriedades que representassem quantitativamente a distribuição de carga eletrônica de forma mais simplista. A mais básica destas propriedades é chamada de carga atômica. Contudo, não havendo unanimidade quanto à utilização de um formalismo de cálculo de carga para situações abrangentes de estudo, há a necessidade de trabalhos voltados para uma análise comparativa entre as respostas destes formalismos em termos de carga atômica e parâmetros derivados. Assim, fez-se nesta dissertação uma investigação sobre valores de carga atômica e propriedades dinâmicas relacionadas, com importância em estudos sobre movimentos vibracionais em moléculas, como fluxo de carga e fluxo de dipolo, obtidos com os formalismos de cálculo de carga de Mulliken, NPA, CHELPG e QTAIM. Neste trabalho também se avaliou o efeito da escolha do método de cálculo, como Hartree-Fock e métodos que incluem correlação eletrônica (MP2, MP4(SDQ) e CCSD), e do conjunto de funções de base, através de funções como cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ e cc-pVQZ, sobre estas propriedades dinâmicas. Os sistemas analisados incluíram moléculas diatômicas e triatômicas lineares (HF...

‣ Movimento de carga espacial sobre uma matriz de densidade uniforme - equações gerais em circuito aberto e fechado; Space-charge motion over a matrix of uniform charge density general equations in open and short circuit cases

Monsanto, Sergio de Aguiar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/1983 Português
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Neste trabalho estudou-se o movimento de uma carga espacial sobre uma matriz fixa, de densidade uniforme, tanto em circuito aberto como fechado. No primeiro caso, circuito aberto, a solução é quase trivial comparada com o outro caso, no qual o problema é finalmente reduzido a uma equação diferencial ordinária, com método de solução análogo ao empregado em problemas de carga espacial monopolar livre. Como ilustração, estudou-se a voltagem e a corrente produzidas por um sistema com carga total nula, mas com excessos locais de carga; In this work the motion of a space charge cloud embedded in a matrix of Constant immobile charge density is studied in open as well as in closed circuit. In the first case, open circuit, the solution is almost trivial as compared as the other one in which, after some work, the problem is reduced to an ordinary diffetential equation. The method of solution is parallel to that employed in the study of monopolar free space charge motion. The voltage and the current produced by a system with no net charge but with unbalanced local charge density were calculated using the general equations derived in the first part of the work

‣ Charge injection in an LED with a hybrid composite as the emissive layer

Gozzi, G.; Chinaglia, D. L.; Schmidt, T. F.; Oliveira, O. N.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 969-974
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Understanding and controlling charge transport are crucial to achieve optimized organic devices, including light emitting diodes. In this study, we investigate the charge injection in devices made with a hybrid composite (HC) containing Zn(2)SiO(4):Mn (ZSP:Mn) in a polymeric blend consisting of poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) and poly(vinylidene co-trifluorethylene) P(VDFTrFE), with the architecture ITO/HC/metallic electrode (ME). Charge injection was found to depend mainly on the POMA semiconducting phase. For ITO/HC/Au, an Ohmic junction was observed because the work function of ITO is close to that of Au, which also matches the energy levels of HC. Holes are injected through the HC/Au junction, as the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of POMA matches the Fermi level of Au. The impedance spectroscopy data for the ITO/HC/ME devices were analyzed with a theoretical model where charge injection was assumed to occur via hopping with a distribution of potential energy barriers. The average hopping distance was estimated as 5.5 angstrom and only the device with the Al electrode had the current limited by the interface mechanism (charge injection). For ITO/HC/Cu and ITO/HC/Au devices the limiting factor for the charge transport was the bulk resistance of the samples...

‣ Charge-ordering transition in (TMTTF)2X explored via dilatometry

De Souza, Mariano; Pouget, Jean-Paul
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Charge-ordering phenomena have been highly topical over the past few years. A phase transition towards a charge-ordered state has been observed experimentally in several classes of materials. Among them, many studies have been devoted to the family of quasi-one-dimensional organic charge-transfer salts (TMTTF)2X, where (TMTTF) stands for tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene and X for a monovalent anion (X = PF6, AsF6 and SbF6). However, the relationship between the electron localization phenomena and the role of the lattice distortion in stabilizing the charge-ordering pattern is poorly documented in the literature. Here we present a brief overview of selected literature results, with emphasis placed on recent thermal expansion experiments probing the charge-ordering transition of these salts. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

‣ Indução e dissipação de cargas em dieletricos : evidencias do papel da atmosfera como reservatorio de cargas; Charge induction and dissipation in dielectrics : the atmosphere as a charge reservoir

Thiago Augusto de Lima Burgo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2009 Português
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Neste trabalho estudou-se o comportamento de potenciais induzidos em celulose pela aproximação de um corpo eletrificado e também a dissipação de cargas (positivas e negativas) em polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD) geradas por descarga corona. As medidas de determinação do potencial eletrostático foram feitas utilizando eletrodos de Kelvin acoplados a voltímetros eletrostáticos. Os resultados mostraram que a umidade relativa (UR) tem papel decisivo tanto sobre a indução e dissipação de cargas em celulose quanto sobre a dissipação de cargas em polietileno. Nos experimentos de dissipação de carga em PEBD (virgem e oxidado) os potenciais são mais rapidamente dissipados em umidade elevada. O polietileno sempre apresenta um potencial negativo no equilíbrio (–4,6 ±0,7V), independente do sinal do potencial medido após a eletrização inicial, positivo ou negativo. A atmosfera se mostrou decisiva tanto para a aquisição quanto para a dissipação de cargas nos materiais e os resultados foram interpretados de acordo com um modelo no qual a atmosfera atua como reservatório de cargas uma vez que o equilíbrio da água sob um potencial eletrostático V mostra excesso de concentração de íons H(H2O)n se V < 0 e excesso de concentração de OH(H2O)m se V > 0...

‣ Effects of electric field and charge distribution on nanoelectronic processes involving conducting polymers

Ramos, Marta M. D.; Correia, Helena M. G.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
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The injection of charge carriers in conducting polymer layers gives rise to local electric fields which should have serious implications on the charge transport through the polymer layer. The charge distribution and the related electric field inside the ensemble of polymer molecules, with different molecular arrangements at nanoscale, determine whether or not intra-molecular charge transport takes place and the preferential direction for charge hopping between neighbouring molecules. Consequently, these factors play a significant role in the competition between current flow, charge trapping and recombination in polymer-based electronic devices. By suitable Monte Carlo calculations, we simulated the continuous injection of electrons and holes into polymer layers of polydiacetylene with different microstructures and followed their transport through those polymer networks. Results of these simulations provided a detailed picture of charge and electric field distribution in the polymer layer and allowed us to assess the consequences for current transport and recombination efficiency as well as the distribution of recombination events within the polymer film. In the steady state we found an accumulation of electrons and holes near the collecting electrodes giving rise to an internal electric field which is greater than the external applied field close to the electrodes and lower than that one in the central region of the polymer layer. We also found that a strong variation of electric field inside the polymer layer leads to an increase of recombination events in regions inside the polymer layer where the values of the internal electric field are lower.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) ; Programa Operacional “Ciência ...

‣ Electric field induced charge transfer through single and double-stranded DNA polymer molecules

Ramos, Marta M. D.; Correia, Helena M. G.
Fonte: Royal Society of Chemistry Publicador: Royal Society of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The charge transfer through single-stranded and double-stranded DNA polymer molecules has been the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies concerning their applications in molecular electronics. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for their different electrical conductivity observed in the experiments are poorly understood. Here we use a self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics method to study the effect of an applied electric field along the molecular axis on charge transfer through single-stranded and double-stranded DNA polymer molecules with an injected electron or hole and assess the consequences for electronic applications. Charge transfer through both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA polymer molecules is predicted, regardless of the sign of the injected charge, the molecular structure and the base sequence. The amount of charge transfer through a double-stranded DNA polymer molecule is slightly lower than through the corresponding two isolated single-strands as a result of the lower charge transport through the purine-pyrimidine base-stacking as compared with through DNA nucleobase-stacking. These results suggest that each DNA polymer strand can act as a molecular wire with both the sugar-phosphate backbone and the bases playing an important role in charge transfer...

‣ Charge Fractionalization in Non-Chiral Luttinger Systems

Yacoby, Amir; Halperin, Bertrand; Le Hur, Karyn
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
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One-dimensional metals, such as quantum wires or carbon nanotubes, can carry charge in arbitrary units, smaller or larger than a single electron charge. However, according to Luttinger theory, which describes the low-energy excitations of such systems, when a single electron is injected by tunneling into the middle of such a wire, it will tend to break up into separate charge pulses, moving in opposite directions, which carry definite fractions f and (1-f) of the electron charge, determined by a parameter g that measures the strength of charge interactions in the wire. (The injected electron will also produce a spin excitation, which will travel at a different velocity than the charge excitations.) Observing charge fractionalization physics in an experiment is a challenge in those (nonchiral) low-dimensional systems which are adiabatically coupled to Fermi liquid leads. We theoretically discuss a first important step towards the observation of charge fractionalization in quantum wires based on momentum-resolved tunneling and multi-terminal geometries, and explain the recent experimental results of Steinberg et al. [H. Steinberg, G. Barak, A. Yacoby, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, B.I. Halperin, K. Le Hur, Nature Physics 4 (2008) 116].; Physics

‣ Point Charges Optimally Placed to Represent the Multipole Expansion of Charge Distributions

Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Baker, Charles; Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA) retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance the extent of the charge distribution–the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation...

‣ Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Lee, J.H.; Kuo, Shihhsien; Altman, Michael D.; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12188 bytes; application/pdf
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We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes the electrostatic free energy of binding. The new optimization couples boundary element method (BEM) and primal-dual interior point method (PDIPM); initial results suggest that the method scales much better than the previous methods. The quadratic objective function is the electrostatic free energy of binding where the Hessian matrix serves as an operator that maps the charge to the potential. The unknowns are the charge values at the charge points, and they are limited by equality and inequality constraints that model physical considerations, i.e. conservation of charge. In the previous approaches, finite-difference method is used to model the Hessian matrix, which requires significant computational effort to remove grid-based inaccuracies. In the novel approach, BEM is used instead, with precorrected FFT (pFFT) acceleration to compute the potential induced by the charges. This part will be explained in detail by Shihhsien Kuo in another talk. Even though the Hessian matrix can be calculated an order faster than the previous approaches...

‣ La survie implantaire suite à une réhabilitation par mise en charge immédiate d’une prothèse totale mandibulaire reliée à deux implants non jumelés : une étude pilote expérimentale

Audy, Nicholas
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Problématique : Les connaissances théoriques et pratiques au sujet de la mise en charge immédiate d’implants non jumelés chez les édentés sont limitées. Objectifs : Cette étude avait pour but de : (1) déterminer le taux de survie implantaire de 2 implants non jumelés supportant une prothèse totale mandibulaire suite à une mise en charge immédiate, (2) évaluer les changements des niveaux osseux et de stabilité implantaire survenus sur ces 2 implants durant une période de 4 mois et les comparer à un implant témoin, et (3) décrire les complications cliniques associées à ce mode de mise en charge. Méthodologie : Chez 18 individus édentés (âge moyen de 62±7 ans), cette étude de phase I avec un design pré/post a évalué les résultats cliniques suivant la mise en charge immédiate (<48 heures) de 2 implants non jumelés par une prothèse totale mandibulaire. À l’aide de radiographies périapicales, de sondages osseux et d’analyses de la fréquence en résonnance, les niveaux osseux péri-implantaires (en mm) et les niveaux de stabilité implantairte (en ISQ) de ces 2 implants insérés dans la région parasymphysaire ont été évalués à la chirurgie (T0) et au suivi de 4 mois (T1). Un implant non submergé et sans mise en charge inséré dans la région de la symphyse mandibulaire a été utilisé comme témoin. Les données ont été analysées avec des modèles mixtes linéaires...

‣ Charge Transport and Transfer at the Nanoscale Between Metals and Novel Conjugated Materials

Worne, Jeffrey
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
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Abstract Organic semiconductors (OSCs) and graphene are two classes of conjugated materials that hold promise to create flexible electronic displays, high speed transistors, and low-cost solar cells. Crucial to understanding the behavior of these materials is understanding the effects metallic contacts have on the local charge environment. Additionally, characterizing the charge carrier transport behavior within these materials sheds light on the physical mechanisms behind transport. The first part of this thesis examines the origin of the low-temperature, high electric field transport behavior of OSCs. Two chemically distinct OSCs are used, poly-3(hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 6,13- bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene. Several models explaining the low-temperature behavior are presented, with one using the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) insulator-to-metal transition model and one using a field-emission hopping model. While the TLL model is only valid for 1-dimensional systems, it is shown to work for both P3HT (1D) and TIPS-pentacene (2D), suggesting the TLL model is not an appropriate description of these systems. Instead, a cross-over from thermally-activated hopping to field-emission hopping is shown to explain the data well. The second part of this thesis focuses on the interaction between gold and platinum contacts and graphene using suspended graphene over sub-100 nanometer channels. Contacts to graphene can strongly dominate charge transport and mobility as well as significantly modify the charge environment local to the contacts. Platinum electrodes are discovered to be strong dopants to graphene at short length scales while gold electrodes do not have the same effect. By increasing the separation distance between the electrodes...

‣ Charge Density Waves and Electronic Nematicity in the Three Band Model of Cuprate Superconductors

Bulut, Sinan
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Cuprate superconductors exhibit very high critical temperatures, $T_c$, compared to those in the conventional superconductors. The doping at which $T_c$ is maximized is called optimal doping. Below this level, in the underdoped region, cuprate superconductors exhibit not only high $T_c$ superconductivity, but also the celebrated pseudogap phase, a theory of which is still not established. In the pseudogap region cuprates exhibit incommensurate charge orders and electronic nematicity, which are the focus of this thesis. Borrowed from the liquid crystal terminology, nematicity refers to the breaking of rotational symmetry in the electron degree of freedom where charge densities are re-arranged within the unit cell. The aim of this thesis is to establish the microscopic origin of charge orders in cuprates, and provide an explanation for some of the anomalous properties in the pseudogap region. Established by experiments, electronic nematicity originates from the inequivalency of the two oxygen orbitals in the cuprate unit-cell. Using this hint, the instability towards nematic charge orders was studied in the three-band model of cuprate superconductors, which explicitly takes into account the oxygen orbitals. Using the generalized random phase approximation...

‣ Implémentation de la répartition de charge et du mode TOT pour la simulation d’un détecteur Timepix à pixels

Dallaire, Frédérick
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Les détecteurs à pixels Medipix ont été développés par la collaboration Medipix et permettent de faire de l'imagerie en temps réel. Leur surface active de près de $2\cm^2$ est divisée en 65536~pixels de $55\times 55\um^2$ chacun. Seize de ces détecteurs, les Medipix2, sont installés dans l'expérience ATLAS au CERN afin de mesurer en temps réel les champs de radiation produits par les collisions de hadrons au LHC. Ils seront prochainement remplacés par des Timepix, la plus récente version de ces détecteurs, qui permettent de mesurer directement l'énergie déposée dans chaque pixel en mode \textit{time-over-threshold} (TOT) lors du passage d'une particule dans le semi-conducteur. En vue d'améliorer l'analyse des données recueillies avec ces détecteurs Timepix dans ATLAS, un projet de simulation Geant4 a été amorcé par John Id\'{a}rraga à l'Université de Montréal. Dans le cadre de l'expérience ATLAS, cette simulation pourra être utilisée conjointement avec Athena, le programme d'analyse d'ATLAS, et la simulation complète du détecteur ATLAS. Sous l'effet de leur propre répulsion, les porteurs de charge créés dans le semi-conducteur sont diffusés vers les pixels adjacents causant un dépôt d'énergie dans plusieurs pixels sous l'effet du partage de charges. Un modèle effectif de cette diffusion latérale a été développé pour reproduire ce phénomène sans résoudre d'équation différentielle de transport de charge. Ce modèle...

‣ Les attentes, la satisfaction et la qualité de vie des édentés suite à une réhabilitation par mise en charge immédiate d'une prothèse totale reliée à deux implants non jumelés : une étude pilote expérimentale

Menassa, Melanie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Problématique : La majorité des études publiées sur la réhabilitation par mise en charge immédiate de deux implants non jumelés avec une prothèse totale mandibulaire de recouvrement n’ont rapporté que des mesures cliniques objectives et très peu ont évalué les mesures centrées sur le patient, et ce, avec des erreurs de mesure. Aucune étude n’a évalué les attentes des patients vis-à-vis d'un tel protocole. Objectifs : Évaluer les attentes, le niveau de satisfaction ainsi que la qualité de vie reliée à la santé bucco-dentaire des édentés complets suite à un protocole de mise en charge immédiate. Méthodologie : Cet essai clinique de phase 1 utilise un design pré-post afin d’évaluer les mesures centrées sur le patient. Dix-huit individus, complètement édentés et âgés en moyenne de 62,39 ± 7,65 ans, ont reçu une prothèse totale mandibulaire de recouvrement sur deux implants non jumelés suite à un protocole de mise en charge immédiate, conjointement à une prothèse totale conventionnelle maxillaire. Un instrument adapté pour mesurer leurs attentes à l’aide d’échelles visuelles analogues, le questionnaire « McGill Denture Satisfaction Instrument » ainsi que le questionnaire OHIP-20 ont été remis aux patients avant de procéder aux traitements (T0)...

‣ Comparative study of Green's function matrix elements and charge transfers obtained from different partitioning schemes of molecular charge in hydrogen-bonded complexes

Parnaíba-da Silva,Antenor J.; Silva,João Bosco P. da; Gama,A. Arnóbio S. da; Ramos,Mozart N.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 Português
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RHF and MP2 ab initio molecular orbital calculations using the 4-31G**, 6-311G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets have revealed that the Green's function matrix element (G D,A) values show a good correlation with the amount of intermolecular transferred charges obtained from different charge partitioning schemes for the CNH…CNH, NCH…CNH, CNH…NCH and NCH…NCH hydrogen bonded complexes. This is evident specially when the hydrogen bond distance is progressively increased from the equilibrium position until 4.5 Å. However, G D,A values show a better linear correlation with deltaQ values using corrected Mülliken charges, which are obtained from the charge-charge flux-overlap (CCFO) model for infrared intensities. In this case, both G D,A and deltaQcorr form two practically superposed exponential curves. On the other hand, G D,A values show a smaller agreement with deltaQ values obtained from atomic charges derived from natural bonding orbitals. This is clearly verified when considering the first order exponential decay rate of G D,A versus deltaQ obtained from different charge partitioning schemes.

‣ Temperature Dependence of Charge Localization in High-Mobility, Solution-Crystallized Small Molecule Semiconductors Studied by Charge Modulation Spectroscopy; Temperature-dependence of charge localization in high-mobility, solution-crystallized small molecule semiconductors studied by charge modulation spectroscopy

Meneau, Aur?lie Y. B.; Olivier, Yoann; Backlund, Tomas; James, Mark; Breiby, Dag Werner; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Sirringhaus, Henning
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201502502; In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here we show based on combined field-effect transistor and CMS measurements as a function of temperature that in certain molecular semiconductors, such as solution-processible pentacene, charge carriers become trapped at low temperatures in environments in which the charges become highly localized on individual molecules, while in some other molecules the charge carrier wavefunction can retain a degree of delocalization similar to what is present at room temperature. Our experimental approach sheds new insight into the nature of shallow charge traps in these materials and allows us to identify molecular systems in which intrinsic transport properties could, in principle, be observed at low temperatures if other transport bottlenecks associated with grain boundaries or contacts could be removed.; We acknowledge material supply and financial support from Merck Chemicals Ltd through an industrial EPSRC CASE studentship. In addition...

‣ Interface and charge transport studies in organic solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunctions

Rujisamphan, Nopporn
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
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Shah, S. Ismat; Interfaces and charge transport in organic solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) were studied. State-of-the-art TEM sample preparation techniques, including in-situ lift-out, were used with a dual focused ion beam (FIB) system on a typical device (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al). Through bright field (BF) TEM micrographs a mixed layer between the Al electrode and the organic active layer (P3HT:PCBM) was clearly observed in both as-fabricated and annealed devices. The effect of Al contact resistance before and after annealing was studied using the vertical transmission line model (TLM). It was found that by annealing after Al evaporation, the contact resistivity decreased by 38%. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) clearly revealed a nanoscopic phase separation. From the EFTEM images, the average length and the diameter of P3HT fibrils were found to be approximately 70 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Combining the EFTEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the number and spacing of the ordered polymer chains in P3HT fibrils were calculated. There were about 18 repeating units of P3HT perpendicular to the fibril, about 184 layers of pi-pi* stacking along the fibril and about 9 layers of interchain stacking within the fibril. Accompanied by cross-section samples prepared by the FIB technique...

‣ Chaos embedded particle swarm optimization algorithm-based solar optimal Reflex™ frequency charge

Chen,Jui-Ho; Yau,Her-Terng; Lu,Jin-Han
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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The battery temperature rise and charge efficiency during the long-term charge in the sun are a very important topic. The traditional common constant current and constant voltage result in quick temperature rise and influence the charge efficiency indirectly. Therefore, the Reflex™ charge is adopted, the chemical reaction of electrolyte is buffered during discharge, so that the battery temperature rises slightly during charge. However, there is no optimum frequency for switching loss and charge efficiency during Reflex™ charge. Therefore, this paper proposes using chaos embedded particle swarm optimization algorithm (CPOS) to minimize the switching loss of battery in charge and discharge conditions. The battery module in Matlab/Simulink environment is used for solar charge, multiple charge modes are compared with traditional common methods. The simulation results show that the Reflex™ method has improved the battery temperature in Matlab/Simulink, and the State of Charge (SOC) is equivalent to other charge modes. It is proved that the method proposed in this paper has significant effect on switching loss and oscillation, and its charge efficiency is equivalent to traditional quick charge.