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‣ Cytomegalovirus in colorectal cancer and idiopathic ulcerative colitis; Citomegalovírus em câncer coloretal e colite idiopática ulcerativa

MARIGUELA, Viviane Casagrande; CHACHA, Silvana Gama Florêncio; CUNHA, Aldo de Albuquerque; TRONCON, Luiz Ernesto de Almeida; ZUCOLOTO, Sérgio; FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a genus in the family Herpesviridae that has been associated with gastrointestinal syndromes. In this work we looked for a possible association of CMV infection with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis (UC). Blood and enteric tissue samples of 14 patients with colorectal cancer and of 21 with UC were subjected to a nested-PCR that amplifies part of the gB gene of CMV and also to immunohistochemistry using a specific monoclonal antibody to IE 76kDa protein of CMV. CMV was detected by nested-PCR in the blood and/or the enteric tissue of nine (64.3%) colorectal cancer and 16 (76.2%) ulcerative colitis patients. In the immunohistochemistry it was observed that 12 (12/21, 57.1%) positive enteric tissue samples of patients with UC and none from patients with colorectal cancer (0/14) were positive to CMV. The positivity of CMV infections in the UC patient group (12/21, 57.1%) showed by both techniques, was significantly higher (p = 0.015) than that observed for colorectal cancer patients (2/14, 14.3%). These results suggest an association of ulcerative colitis with CMV infection of the enteric tissue.; Os Cytomegalovírus (CMV) são um gênero da família Herpesviridae, que pode estar associado a síndromes gastrointestinais. No presente trabalho buscamos uma possível associação da infecção por CMV com câncer coloretal e retocolite ulcerativa (RCU). Amostras de sangue e tecido entérico de 14 pacientes com câncer coloretal e 21 com RCU foram submetidas a uma nested-PCR que amplifica parte do gene gB do CMV e a uma imunohistoquímica utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal específico para proteína IE 76Kda de CMV. CMV foi detectado pela nested-PCR em sangue e/ou tecido entérico de 9 (64...

‣ A busca de evidências para os fatores de risco alimentares do câncer colorretal: revisão integrativa da literatura; The search for evidence for the dietary risk factors for colorectal cancer: an integrative literature review

Zandonai, Alexandra Paola
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2010 Português
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Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que teve como objetivos buscar e sintetizar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica relacionado aos fatores de risco alimentares para o câncer colorretal; categorizar os aspectos relacionados aos fatores de risco alimentares levantados e; selecionar as recomendações em educação em saúde especifica para promoção e prevenção para o câncer colorretal, aliada a uma alimentação saudável. Para a seleção dos estudos, foram consultadas as bases de dados LILACS, PUBMED, CINAHL e COCHRANE Library e a amostra constituiu-se de 26 estudos. Foram identificados 21 estudos (80,8%) indexados na base de dados PUBMED e 5 estudos (19,2%) na COCHRANE Library. Houve uma prevalência de 16 estudos (61,5%) com nível de evidência 2 e 10 estudos (38,5%) com nível de evidência 1. Após a análise dos aspectos abordados nestes artigos, reuniu-se em 4 categorias temáticas com a abordagem dos seguintes aspectos: 1- o consumo de carnes e os fatores de risco para câncer colorretal, composta por 6 estudos (23,1%); 2- ácido fólico, fibras, ?-tocoferol e ?-caroteno e os fatores de risco para câncer colorretal, com 6 estudos (23,1%); 3- os fatores de risco associados a suplementação pelo cálcio e vitamina D...

‣ Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

Erkasap,N.; Ozkurt,M.; Erkasap,S.; Yasar,F.; Uzuner,K.; Ihtiyar,E.; Uslu,S.; Kara,M.; Bolluk,O.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

‣ Polymorphisms of arylamine N-acetyltransferase2 and risk of lung and colorectal cancer

Mahasneh,Amjad; Jubaili,Amal; El Bateiha,Ahmed; Al-Ghazo,Mohammad; Matalka,Ismail; Malkawi,Mousa
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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The arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzymes detoxify a wide range of naturally occurring xenobiotics including carcinogens and drugs. Point mutations in the NAT2 gene result in the variant alleles M1 (NAT2 *5A), M2 (NAT2*6A), M3 (NAT2*7) and M4 (NAT2 *14A) from the wild-type WT (NAT2 *4) allele. The current study was aimed at screening genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 gene in 49 lung cancer patients, 54 colorectal cancer patients and 99 cancer-free controls, using PCR-RFLP. There were significant differences in allele frequencies between lung cancer patients and controls in the WT, M2 and M3 alleles (p < 0.05). However, only M2 and M3 allele frequencies were different between colorectal cancer patients and controls (p < 0.05). There was a marginal significant difference in the distribution of rapid and slow acetylator genotypes between lung cancer patients and controls (p = 0.06 and p = 0.05, respectively), but not between colorectal cancer patients and controls (p = 1.0 and p = 0.95, respectively). Risk of lung cancer development was found to be lower in slow acetylators [odds ratio (OR): 0.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.25, 1.02, p-value = 0.07]. No effect was observed in case of colorectal cancer. Our results showed that NAT2 genotypes and phenotypes might be involved in lung cancer but not colorectal cancer susceptibility in Jordan.

‣ Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer identification and surveillance of high-risk families

Silva,Roberta Vasconcelos e; Garicochea,Bernardo; Cotti,Guilherme; Maranho,Isabel Cristina; Cutait,Raul
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 Português
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Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is an autosomal dominant condition caused by highly penetrant gene mutations. It is characterized by increased susceptibility for a specific group of cancer, mainly colorectal cancer. The syndrome originates from the inheritance of mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. The most commonly affected genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer are hMLH1 and hMSH2. Their deficient expression renders the cell susceptible to the accumulation of many molecular defects, a condition which can be evaluated by the instability in sections of base repeats in the genoma known as microsatellite instability. The molecular detection of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is possible in most of the highly suspicious cases. Genetic tests for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer also allow characterization of the individual that bears the mutation within a family. The high cost and restricted availability of these tests hamper their use for every person presenting colorectal cancer. Due to this fact, some clinical criteria have been developed by a hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer international organization to select families with a high probability of carrying the mutation. Once families at risk are identified...

‣ Aspectos clínicos e patológicos de pacientes com tumores colorretais diagnosticados durante cirurgia abdominal de urgência; Clincal and pathological features of patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed during emergency abdominal surgery

SANTOS, Alex Caetano dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Context In 85% of the cases, colorectal cancer is diagnosed at an advanced stage during investigation of symptomatic patients. Currently, 10% to 33% of the cases may present emergency situations (obstruction or perforation), requiring immediate surgical treatment, and may result in higher mortality compared with elective surgical procedures. Objective Analyze clinical and pathological features of patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed during emergency abdominal surgery at the Hospital de Urgências de Goiânia. Methods We studied 107 patients operated on between January 2006 and June 2010 presenting with histologically confirmed colorectal malignancy. Results This series consisted of 58 women and 49 men with mean age of 59.81 ± 17.08 years. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain (97.2%), no bowel movements (81.3%), vomiting (76.6%), and anorexia (40.2%). Clinical preoperative diagnosis was divided into five groups: obstructive acute abdomen (n = 68), obstructive acute perforation (n = 21), obstructive acute inflammation (n = 13), abdominal sepsis (n = 3), and severe gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 2). Tumors were located in the rectosigmoid (51.4%), transverse colon (19.6%), ascending colon (12.1%), descending colon (11.2%)...

‣ Attitudes Towards and Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer and Screening using the Faecal Occult Blood Test within the Italian-Australian Community

Severino, G.; Wilson, C.; Turnbull, D.; Duncan, A.; Gregory, T.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Studies with minority ethnic communities worldwide reveal important differences in the content of beliefs about cancer and attitudes towards screening. Current initiatives in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening highlight the importance of identifying any illness-specific beliefs that might influence participation rates within the targeted age-range. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Italian-Australians aged between 50 and 78 years, living in Adelaide, South Australia. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed using framework analysis. Participants articulated specific beliefs about the nature of cancer, risk factors, prevention possibilities, and variety of potential barriers and benefits to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Although participants’ beliefs overlapped with conventional medical models of cancer, the results also demonstrated the presence of specific cultural perceptions that might influence FOBT participation. Our results suggest that models used to inform communication about cancer need to be sensitive to culture specific concerns. Within the context of the older Italian-Australian community, there is a suggestion that self and response efficacy may be serious barriers to screening behavior and that bi-lingual...

‣ A population-based study of metastatic colorectal cancer in individuals aged ≥ 80 years: findings from the South Australian Clinical Registry for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer; A population-based study of metastatic colorectal cancer in individuals aged >/- 80 years: findings from the South Australian Clinical Registry for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Kumar, R.; Jain, K.; Beeke, C.; Price, T.; Townsend, A.; Padbury, R.; Roder, D.; Young, G.; Richards, A.; Karapetis, C.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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BACKGROUND: Life expectancy is increasing, and more patients are presenting with cancer at an advanced age (≥80 years). Optimal management for this group of patients has not been well defined. METHODS: The South Australian Clinical Registry for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) collects data on all patients diagnosed since February 2006 in South Australia. The authors examined cancer characteristics, treatments administered, and outcomes for patients aged ≥80 years compared with patients aged <80 years. RESULTS: Data from 2314 patients were evaluable, and 29.2% of these patients were aged ≥80 years. The majority had moderately differentiated tumors. Poorly differentiated tumors were reported in fewer patients aged ≥80 years (20.1% vs 26.1%; P < .005). Overall, 28.1% of patients aged ≥80 years received chemotherapy, and 74.2% received single-agent fluoropyrimidines as first-line treatment. By comparison, 68.2% of patients aged <80 years received chemotherapy, 74.3% received combination chemotherapy, and 25.7% received single-agent fluoropyrimidine as first-line treatment. No treatment was received by 38.2% of patients aged ≥80 years compared with 11.4% of those aged <80 years. Participation in clinical trials was lower in patients aged ≥80 years (2% vs 13%). The median survival was worse for patients aged ≥80 years (8.2 months vs 19.2 months; P < .001)...

‣ Predictors of re-participation in faecal occult blood test-based screening for colorectal cancer

Cole, S.; Gregory, T.; Whibley, A.; Ward, P.; Turnbull, D.; Wilson, C.; Flight, I.; Esterman, A.; Young, G.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Background: There is little information on longitudinal patterns of participation in faecal occult blood test (FOBT) based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening or on demographic or behavioural factors associated with participation in re-screening. The lack of an agreed system for describing participatory behaviour over multiple rounds also hampers our ability to report, understand and make use of observed associations. Our aims were to develop a system for describing patterns of participatory behaviour in FOBT-based CRC screening programs and to identify factors associated with particular behavioural patterns. Methods: A descriptive framework was developed and applied to a data extract of screening invitation outcomes over two rounds of the NBCSP. The proportion of invitees in each behaviour category was determined and associations between behaviour patterns and demographic and program factors were identified using multivariate analyses. Results: We considered Re-Participants, Dropouts, Late Entrants and Never Participants to be the most appropriate labels for the four possible observed participatory categories after two invitation rounds. The screening participation rate of the South Australian cohort of the NBCSP remained stable over two rounds at 51%...

‣ Colorectal cancer treatment and survival : the experience of major public hospitals in South Australia over three decades

Roder, D.; Karapetis, C.S.; Wattchow, D.; Moore, J.; Singhal, N.; Joshi, R.; Keefe, D.; Fusco, K.; Powell, K.; Eckert, M.; Price, T.J.
Fonte: National Cancer Center Publicador: National Cancer Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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BACKGROUND: Registry data from four major public hospitals indicate trends in clinical care and survival from colorectal cancer over three decades, from 1980 to 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kaplan-Meier product- limit estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate disease-specific survival and multiple logistic regression analyses to explore first-round treatment trends. RESULTS: Five-year survivals increased from 48% for 1980-1986 to 63% for 2005-2010 diagnoses. Survival increases applied to each ACPS stage (Australian Clinico-Pathological Stage), and particularly stage C (an increase from 38% to 68%). Risk of death from colorectal cancer halved (hazards ratio: 0.50 (0.45, 0.56)) over the study period after adjusting for age, sex, stage, differentiation, primary sub-site, health administrative region, and measures of socioeconomic status and geographic remoteness. Decreases in stage were not observed. Survivals did not vary by sex or place of residence, suggesting reasonable equity in service access and outcomes. Of staged cases, 91% were treated surgically with lower surgical rates for older ages and more advanced stage. Proportions of surgical cases having adjuvant therapy during primary courses of treatment increased for all stages and were highest for stage C (an increase from 5% in 1980-1986 to 63% for 2005-2010). Radiotherapy was more common for rectal than colonic cases. Proportions of rectal cases receiving radiotherapy increased...

‣ Absence of PMS2 mutations in colon-CFR participants whose colorectal cancers demonstrate unexplained loss of MLH1 expression

Clendenning, M.; Macrae, F.; Walsh, M.; Walters, R.J.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Gunawardena, S.R.; Potter, J.D.; Haile, R.W.; Gallinger, S.; Colorectal Cancer Family Registry; Hopper, J.L.; Jenkins, M.A.; Rosty, C.; Young, J.P.; Buchanan, D.D.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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M Clendenning, FA Macrae, MD Walsh, RJ Walters, SN Thibodeau, SR Gunawardena, JD Potter, RW Haile, S Gallinger, Colorectal Cancer Family Registry, JL Hopper, MA Jenkins, C Rosty, JP Young, and DD Buchanan; Letter to the Editor

‣ Relacionamento entre câncer colorretal e indicadores socioeconômicos no município de São Paulo: uso de modelos de regressão espacial; Relationship between colorectal cancer and socioeconomic indicators in São Paulo: use of spatial regression models.

Medeiros, Márcio José de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2015 Português
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Introdução: O câncer de localização colorretal é o terceiro tipo de câncer mais comumente diagnosticado no mundo. As taxas de incidências do câncer colorretal não são homogêneas, apresentando diferenças entre os países. Não há estudos brasileiros que investiguem a variação geográfica da incidência de câncer colorretal conjuntamente com indicadores socioeconômicos. Esta avaliação pode revelar diferenças locais importantes na ocorrência da doença. Objetivos: Descrever as taxas de incidência e de mortalidade do câncer colorretal no Município de São Paulo, segundo sexo e faixa etária, no período de 1997 a 2009 e realizar análise da distribuição espacial segundo distrito dos casos de câncer colorretal diagnosticados em residentes no Município de São Paulo entre 1997 e 2009. Material e Métodos: Foram analisados os novos casos de câncer colorretal diagnosticados em residentes no Município de São Paulo de 1997 a 2009. Estes dados foram fornecidos pelo Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de São Paulo (RCBP-SP). A análise dos dados foi realizada em duas etapas: na primeira, com cárater exploratório/descritivo, os dados analíticos foram utilizados para descrever a incidência e mortalidade por câncer colorretal no período pesquisado. Na segunda etapa...

‣ Molecular alterations associated with liver metastases development in colorectal cancer patients

Bruin, S.; He, Y.; Mikolajewska-Hanclich, I.; Liefers, G.; Klijn, C.; Vincent, A.; Verwaal, V.; de Groot, K.; Morreau, H.; van Velthuysen, M.L.; Tollenaar, R.; van't Veer, L.
Fonte: Cancer Research UK Publicador: Cancer Research UK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Background: Understanding the molecular biology of colorectal cancer (CRC) provides opportunities for effective personalised patient management. We evaluated whether chromosomal aberrations, mutations in the PI(3)K signalling pathway and the CpG-island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in primary colorectal tumours can predict liver metastases. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material from primary colorectal tumours of three different groups were investigated: patients with CRC without metastases (M0, n=39), patients who were treated with hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy for CRC metastases confined to the peritoneum (PM, n=46) and those who had isolated hepatic perfusion for CRC metastases confined to the liver (LM, n=48). Results: All samples were analysed for DNA copy number changes, PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF mutations, CIMP and microsatellite instability. The primary CRCs of the LM group had significantly higher frequency of amplified chromosome 20q (P=0.003), significantly fewer mutations in the PI(3)K signalling pathway (P=0.003) and fewer CIMP high tumours (P=0.05). There was a strong inverse correlation between 20q and the PI(3)K pathway mutations. Conclusion: The development of CRC liver metastases is associated with amplification of chromosome 20q and not driven by mutations in the PI(3)K signalling pathway.; S C Bruin...

‣ Patients' experiences of referral for colorectal cancer

Pascoe, S.; Veitch, C.; Crossland, L.; Beilby, J.; Spigelman, A.; Stubbs, J.; Harris, M.; Colorectal Cancer Referral Pathways Team
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Background: Outcomes for colorectal cancer patients vary significantly. Compared to other countries, Australia has a good record with patient outcomes, yet there is little information available on the referral pathway. This paper explores the views of Australian patients and their experiences of referral for colorectal cancer treatment following diagnosis; the aim was to improve our understanding of the referral pathway and guide the development of future interventions. Methods: A purposive sampling strategy was used, recruiting 29 patients representing urban and rural areas from 3 Australian states who participated in 4 focus groups. Seven patients provided individual interviews to supplement the data. Recordings were transcribed verbatim, data was coded with NVivo software and analysed thematically before deductive analysis. Results: Four aspects of the referral process were identified by patients, namely detection/diagnosis, referral for initial treatment/specialist care, the roles of the GP/specialist, and the patient’s perceived involvement in the process. The referral process was characterised by a lack of patient involvement, with few examples of shared decision-making and few examples of limited choice. However, patients did not always feel they had the knowledge to make informed decisions. Information exchange was highly valued by patients when it occurred...

‣ Mouse models of colorectal cancer as preclinical models

McIntyre, Rebecca E.; Buczacki, Simon J. A.; Arends, Mark J.; Adams, David J.
Fonte: Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge Publicador: Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201500032; In this review, we discuss the application of mouse models to the identification and pre-clinical validation of novel therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer, and to the search for early disease biomarkers. Large-scale genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of colorectal carcinomas has led to the identification of many candidate genes whose direct contribution to tumourigenesis is yet to be defined; we discuss the utility of cross-species comparative ?omics-based approaches to this problem. We highlight recent progress in modelling late-stage disease using mice, and discuss ways in which mouse models could better recapitulate the complexity of human cancers to tackle the problem of therapeutic resistance and recurrence after surgical resection.; REM, SJAB, MJA and DJA are funded by Cancer Research UK.

‣ Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer: a systematic review

Usher-Smith, Juliet A.; Walter, Fiona M.; Emery, Jon D.; Win, Aung K.; Griffin, Simon J.
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from American Association for Cancer Research via http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0274; Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Europe and the United States. Survival is strongly related to stage at diagnosis and population-based screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. Stratifying the population by risk offers the potential of improving the efficiency of screening. In this systematic review we searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for primary research studies reporting or validating models to predict future risk of primary CRC for asymptomatic individuals. 12,808 papers were identified from the literature search and nine through citation searching. 52 risk models were included. Where reported (n=37), half the models had acceptable-to-good discrimination (c-statistic>0.7) in the derivation sample. Calibration was less commonly assessed (n=21), but overall acceptable. In external validation studies, 10 models showed acceptable discrimination (c-statistic 0.71-0.78). These include two with only three variables (age, gender and BMI; age, gender and family history of CRC). A small number of prediction models developed from case-control studies of genetic biomarkers also show some promise but require further external validation using population-based samples. Further research should focus on the feasibility and impact of incorporating such models into stratified screening programmes.; J Usher-Smith is funded by a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Lectureship and F Walter by an NIHR Clinician Scientist award. J Emery is funded by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Practitioner Fellowship. A Wong has an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS...

‣ Câncer colo-retal hereditário não polipose - Diagnóstico e surgimento de famílias de alto risco; Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer identification and surveillance of high-risk families

Silva, Roberta Vasconcelos e; Garicochea, Bernardo; Cotti, Guilherme; Maranho, Isabel Cristina; Cutait, Raul
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2005 Português
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O câncer colo-retal hereditário não polipose é uma síndrome genética caracterizada por uma susceptilidade aumentada para certos tipos específicos de câncer, especialmente o câncer colo-retal. Ao nível molecular, a síndrome caracteriza-se pela herança autossômica dominante de mutações em genes envolvidos em um mecanismo de reparo do DNA dirigido para defeitos em trocas, ganhos ou perdas de um número de pequeno de bases, chamado de sistema de reparo de erros de pareamento. Os genes mais comumente afetados em câncer colo-retal hereditário não polipose são hMLH1 e hMSH2, e sua inativação destina a célula portadora à acumulação de mutações, uma condição conhecida como fenótipo de erro de replicação. Estas mutações múltiplas serão transmitidas e amplificadas em células-filhas e sua identificação pode ser feita por meio da identificação de distúrbios em seqüências repetidas de DNA chamadas de microssatélites. Células portadoras de defeitos deste tipo em seus microssatélites apresentam um fenótipo denominado de instabilidade de microssatélites (também denominado fenótipo MSI). Por meio da detecção destes defeitos genéticos é possível, presentemente, a realização de um diagnóstico preciso de câncer colo-retal hereditário não polipose...

‣ Citomegalovírus em câncer coloretal e colite idiopática ulcerativa; Cytomegalovirus in colorectal cancer and idiopathic ulcerative colitis

Mariguela, Viviane Casagrande; Chacha, Silvana Gama Florêncio; Cunha, Aldo de Albuquerque; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto de Almeida; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2008 Português
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Os Cytomegalovírus (CMV) são um gênero da família Herpesviridae, que pode estar associado a síndromes gastrointestinais. No presente trabalho buscamos uma possível associação da infecção por CMV com câncer coloretal e retocolite ulcerativa (RCU). Amostras de sangue e tecido entérico de 14 pacientes com câncer coloretal e 21 com RCU foram submetidas a uma nested-PCR que amplifica parte do gene gB do CMV e a uma imunohistoquímica utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal específico para proteína IE 76Kda de CMV. CMV foi detectado pela nested-PCR em sangue e/ou tecido entérico de 9 (64,3%) dos pacientes com câncer coloretal e 16 (76,2%) dos pacientes com RCU. Na imunohistoquímica foram observadas 12 (57,1%) amostras positivas para CMV nos pacientes com RCU e nos pacientes com câncer coloretal o CMV não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. A positividade das infecções no grupo de pacientes com RCU (12/21, 57.1%) foi significantemente mais alta (p = 0,015) que aquela observada nos pacientes com câncer coloretal (2/14, 14.3%). Estes resultados sugerem uma associação da presença de CMV no tecido entérico com RCU.; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a genus in the family Herpesviridae that has been associated with gastrointestinal syndromes. In this work we looked for a possible association of CMV infection with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis (UC). Blood and enteric tissue samples of 14 patients with colorectal cancer and of 21 with UC were subjected to a nested-PCR that amplifies part of the gB gene of CMV and also to immunohistochemistry using a specific monoclonal antibody to IE 76kDa protein of CMV. CMV was detected by nested-PCR in the blood and/or the enteric tissue of nine (64.3%) colorectal cancer and 16 (76.2%) ulcerative colitis patients. In the immunohistochemistry it was observed that 12 (12/21...

‣ Nutritional risks and colorectal cancer in a Portuguese population

Ravasco,P.; Monteiro-Grillo,I.; Marqués Vidal,P.; Camilo,M.ª E.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2005 Português
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Background: Food and nutrition as major causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still debatable. Aim of the Study: This cross-sectional study in a Portuguese population aimed to characterize and identify "high-risk" diets/life-styles and explore their associations with colorectal cancer. Methods: In 70 colorectal cancer patients and 70 sex, age-matched subjects without cancer history, we evaluated: diet history and detailed nutrient intake (DIET-PLAN5 2002, UK), alcohol (amount, type, years), smoking (number packages/year, years), physical activity, co-morbidities and body mass index. Age-adjusted Relative Risks were calculated, Proportional Hazards models adjusted the analysis for multiple risk factors. Results: Smoking was a risk factor (1.90). Increased colorectal cancer risk regarding the lowest vs the highest intake quartile emerged for: vitamin B12 (3.41), cholesterol (3.15), total fat (2.87), saturated fat (1.98), animal protein (1.95), energy (1.85), alcohol (1.70), iron (1.49), refined carbohydrates (1.39). Reduced colorectal cancer risk for the highest vs the lowest intake quartile was found for: n-3 fatty acids (0.10), insoluble fiber/folate (0.15), flavonoids/vitamin E (0.25), isoflavones/ß-carotene (0.30), selenium (0.36)...

‣ Colorectal cancer: lifestyle and dietary factors

Corrêa Lima,M. P.; Gomes-da-Silva,M. H. G.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2005 Português
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67.551377%
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the most common tumor in the developed countries, and the number of new cases annualy is aproximately equal for men and women. Several environmental factors can interact in all steps of carcinogenesis. Lately the balance between genetic predisposition and these factors, including nutritional components and lifestyle behaviors, determines individual susceptibility to develop colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to revise the references about lifestyle include diet, physical exercise, tobacco smoking and use of alcohol, and the risk of colorectal cancer in databases published during 1994-2004. Dietary factors: According to the reports high intake of red meat, and particularly of processed meat and positive energetic balance (high intake of total fat and carbohydrate) was associated with a moderate but significant increase in colorectal cancer risk. Convincing preventive factors include increase consumption of a wide variety of fruit and vegetable, particularly, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, a deep-yellow on tones, and fibre. Lifestyle: Physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. There is a probable synergic effect among physical inactivity, high energy intake and obesity and incidence of colorectal cancer. A growing body of evidence supports that avoidance overweight and the use of tobacco and alcohol is recommended to prevent colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Current data suggest that lifestyle modification including proper diet such as the ones rich in vegetable and poor in red meat and fat...