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‣ Modified Immunogenicity of a Mucosally Administered Antigen

Gregory, Richard L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 Português
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Streptococcus mutans is present in the saliva of most individuals and is modified by salivary components bound to the cells. These saliva-bound S. mutans are swallowed, exposed to high levels of acidity in the stomach, and presented to the common mucosal immune system. Much effort has been directed to identifying the specific S. mutans antigens that the mucosal immune responses are directed against. However, little is known about the host-altered antigenic determinants that the mucosal immune system recognizes. The immunogenicity of gastrically intubated untreated S. mutans cells, cells coated with whole human saliva, cells treated with HCl (pH 2.0), and saliva-coated and acid-treated cells in mice was investigated. Saliva and serum samples were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies, respectively, against the untreated or treated S. mutans cells. In general, the levels of salivary IgA and serum IgG antibodies to the antigen against which the mice were immunized were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, human saliva and serum samples from 12 subjects were assayed for naturally occurring antibody against the untreated or treated S. mutans cells. In every case, significantly higher reactivity was directed against the saliva-coated and acid-treated cells followed by the saliva-coated S. mutans. These results provide evidence for the altered immunogenicity of swallowed S. mutans in humans by coating native S. mutans antigens with salivary components and/or denaturing surface S. mutans antigens in the acidic environment of the stomach...

‣ Inflammation and Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enteric and Nonenteric Mucosae

Igietseme, Joseph U.; Portis, John L.; Perry, Linda L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Immunization(s) fostering the induction of genital mucosa-targeted immune effectors is the goal of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases. However, it is uncertain whether vaccine administration should be based on the current assumptions about the common mucosal immune system. We investigated the relationship between mucosal sites of infection, infection-induced inflammation, and immune-mediated bacterial clearance in mice using the epitheliotropic pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial infection of the conjunctival, pulmonary, or genital mucosae stimulated significant changes in tissue architecture with dramatic up-regulation of the vascular addressin, VCAM, a vigorous mixed-cell inflammatory response with an influx of α4β1+ T cells, and clearance of bacteria within 30 days. Conversely, intestinal mucosa infection was physiologically inapparent, with no change in expression of the local MAdCAM addressin, no VCAM induction, no histologically detectable inflammation, and no tissue pathology. Microbial clearance was complete within 60 days in the small intestine but bacterial titers remained at high levels for at least 8 months in the large intestine. These findings are compatible with the notion that VCAM plays a functional role in recruiting cells to inflammatory foci...

‣ Generation of Female Genital Tract Antibody Responses by Local or Central (Common) Mucosal Immunization

Wu, Hong-Yin; Abdu, Samira; Stinson, Dana; Russell, Michael W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 Português
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Genital antibody responses were compared in female mice immunized intravaginally (i.vag.) or intranasally (i.n.) with a bacterial protein antigen (AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans) coupled to the B subunit of cholera toxin. Serum and salivary antibodies were also evaluated as measures of disseminated mucosal and systemic responses. Although i.vag. immunization induced local vaginal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses, these were not disseminated to a remote secretion, the saliva, and only modest levels of serum antibodies were generated. In contrast, i.n. immunization was substantially more effective at inducing IgA and IgG antibody responses in the genital tract and in the circulation, as well as at inducing IgA antibodies in the saliva. Moreover, mucosal and systemic antibodies induced by i.n. immunization persisted for at least 12 months. Analysis of the molecular form of genital IgA indicated that the majority of both total IgA and specific IgA antibody was polymeric, and likely derived from the common mucosal immune system.

‣ Respiratory Mucosal Immunization with Reovirus Serotype 1/L Stimulates Virus-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses, Including Double-Positive (CD4+/CD8+) T Cells

Bhargava Periwal, S.; Cebra, John J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.70479%
Respiratory virus infections are a serious health challenge. A number of models that examine the nature of the respiratory immune response to particular pathogens exist. However, many pathogens that stimulate specific immunity in the lung are frequently not effective immunogens at other mucosal sites. A pathogen that is an effective respiratory as well as gastrointestinal immunogen would allow studies of the interaction between the mucosal sites. Reovirus (respiratory enteric orphan virus) serotype 1 is known to be an effective gut mucosal immunogen and provides a potential model for the relationship between the respiratory and the gut mucosal immune systems. In this study, we demonstrate that intratracheal immunization with reovirus 1/Lang (1/L) in C3H mice resulted in high titers of virus in the respiratory tract-associated lymphoid tissue (RALT). High levels of reovirus-specific immunoglobulin A were determined in the RALT fragment cultures. The major responding components of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue were the CD8+ T lymphocytes. Cells from draining lymph nodes also exhibited lysis of reovirus-infected target cells after an in vitro culture. The present study also describes the distribution of transiently present CD4+/CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells in the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of RALT. CD4+/CD8+ DP lymphocytes were able to proliferate in response to stimulation with viral antigen in culture. Furthermore...

‣ Differences in Immune Responses Induced by Oral and Rectal Immunizations with Salmonella typhi Ty21a: Evidence for Compartmentalization within the Common Mucosal Immune System in Humans

Kantele, A.; Häkkinen, M.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Lu, A.; Savilahti, E.; Alvarez, R. D.; Michalek, S.; Mestecky, J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 Português
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89.14741%
Based on the concept of the common mucosal immune system, immunization at various inductive sites can induce an immune response at other, remote mucosal surfaces. The immune responses elicited through rectal and oral routes of antigen delivery were compared with respect to (i) measurement of antibody responses in serum and various external secretions of the vaccinees and (ii) characterization of the nature and homing potentials of circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASC). Specific ASC appeared in the circulation in 4 of 5 volunteers after oral and 9 of 11 volunteers after rectal immunization with Salmonella typhi Ty21a. The kinetics, magnitude, and immunoglobulin isotype distribution of the ASC responses were similar in the two groups. In both groups, almost all ASC (99 or 95% after oral or rectal immunization, respectively) expressed α4β7, the gut homing receptor (HR), whereas l-selectin, the peripheral lymph node HR, was expressed only on 22 or 38% of ASC, respectively. Oral immunization elicited a more pronounced immune response in saliva and vaginal secretion, while rectal immunization was more potent in inducing a response in nasal secretion, rectum, and tears. No major differences were found in the abilities of the two immunization routes to induce a response in serum or intestinal secretion. Thus...

‣ Antibody-producing cells in peripheral blood and salivary glands after oral cholera vaccination of humans.

Czerkinsky, C; Svennerholm, A M; Quiding, M; Jonsson, R; Holmgren, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1991 Português
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We examined whether immunization with a newly developed oral cholera vaccine would elicit gut-derived antibody-producing cells in the blood and in distant mucosal tissues, such as the minor salivary glands, in 30 adult Swedish volunteers. The results of this study demonstrated that this vaccine indeed induced production of specific antibody-producing cells against the cholera toxin B subunit in both peripheral blood and salivary glands. The response in blood, which after primary and booster immunizations comprised both immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody-forming cells, was highly transient and preceded the response in salivary glands; the latter response was restricted to the IgA isotype. The results provide further evidence of the existence of a common mucosal immune system in humans. Furthermore, these findings support previous observations that in animals, the cholera toxin B subunit may be a useful carrier protein for preparing enteric vaccines against pathogens encountered at intestinal and extraintestinal mucosal sites.

‣ Evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin A against Shigella lipopolysaccharides.

Hayani, K C; Guerrero, M L; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Gomez, H F; Cleary, T G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1991 Português
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78.52633%
Although the common mucosal immune system has generally been considered to have only short-term memory, recent data suggest that long-term memory exists for Shigella virulence plasmid antigens. Because such antigens might cross-react with environmental antigens, we investigated milk for the persistence of antibodies to the specific Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) against Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei LPS in milk samples were developed; 15 random milk samples tested on different days correlated from one day to the next (P = 0.0001). Of 18 Mexican mothers, 18 (100%) had one or more milk samples positive for anti-S. flexneri LPS, 14 (78%) had one or more milk samples positive for anti-S. sonnei LPS, and 14 (78%) had one or more milk samples positive for both. Of 27 Houston mothers, 16 (59%) had one or more milk samples positive for anti-S. flexneri LPS, 7 (26%) had one or more milk samples positive for anti-S. sonnei LPS, and 5 (19%) had one or more milk samples positive for both. Mexican mothers were significantly more likely than Houston mothers to have at least one sample with a positive titer for anti-S. flexneri LPS (P less than 0.02) and at least one sample with a positive titer for anti-S. sonnei LPS (P less than 0.002). Although the Houston women had a lower rate of titer positivity for both Shigella species...

‣ Antibody-mediated Protection and the Mucosal Immune System of the Genital Tract: Relevance to Vaccine Design

Mestecky, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Novak, Jan; Alexander, Rashada C.; Moldoveanu, Zina
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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48.5383%
Mucosal tissues of the genital tracts and the distal intestinal tract are portals of entry for infectious agents of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Although the genital and intestinal tracts share a common embryologic origin and remain in anatomical proximity, these two sites display remarkably different immunologic features, including the levels, isotypes and molecular forms of immunoglobulins, and magnitudes and qualities of humoral and cellular immune responses. Thus, viral and bacterial infections of the genital tract or intravaginal immunizations induce, in the absence of mucosal adjuvants, minimal immune responses. Consequently, to induce relevant immune responses in the genital tract, alternative immunization routes have been explored, including systemic, intranasal, oral, or rectal immunization and their combinations. In limited studies performed in animals, systemic immunization with a subsequent mucosal (intranasal) immunization proved to be effective in the induction of humoral immune responses in genital tract secretions. The approaches have been explored to a limited extent in humans.

‣ Probiotics in hepatology

Lata, Jan; Jurankova, Jana; Kopacova, Marcela; Vitek, Petr
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.27364%
The paper provides a basic review of intestinal microflora and its importance in liver diseases. The intestinal microflora has many important functions, above all to maintain the microbial barrier against established as well as potential pathogens. Furthermore, it influences the motility and perfusion of the intestinal wall, stimulates the intestinal immune system and therefore also the so-called common mucosal immune system, reducing bacterial translocation and producing vitamins. Immune homeostasis at mucosal level results from a controlled response to intestinal luminal antigens. In liver cirrhosis, there are many changes in its function, mostly an increase in bacterial overgrowth and translocation. In this review, probiotics and their indications in hepatology are generally discussed. According to recent knowledge, these preparations are indicated in clinical practice only for cases of hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics are able to decrease the permeability of the intestinal wall, and decrease bacterial translocation and endotoxemia in animal models as well as in clinical studies, which is extremely important in the prevention of complications of liver cirrhosis and infection after liver transplantation. Probiotics could limit oxidative and inflammatory liver damage and...

‣ Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity

Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed.

‣ Inside the Mucosal Immune System

McGhee, Jerry R.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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68.27364%
An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI) and upper respiratory (UR) tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This mucosal immune system (MIS) in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine...

‣ A Focused Salivary Gland Infection with attenuated MCMV: An Animal Model with Prevention of Pathology Associated with Systemic MCMV Infection1, 2

Pilgrim, Mark J.; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E.; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.470225%
While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Further, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells...

‣ Unbiased Proteomics Analysis Demonstrates Significant Variability in Mucosal Immune Factor Expression Depending on the Site and Method of Collection

Birse, Kenzie M.; Burgener, Adam; Westmacott, Garrett R.; McCorrister, Stuart; Novak, Richard M.; Ball, T. Blake
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013 Português
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Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61) with 55% of proteins common to both (213). Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10−24) and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10−22) while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10−4) and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10−3) were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05) between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21)...

‣ The Microbiome and Asthma

Huang, Yvonne J.; Boushey, Homer A.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 Português
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That the subglottic airways are not sterile, as was once believed, but are populated by a distinct “bronchial microbiome,” is now accepted. Also accepted is the concept that asthma is associated with differences in the composition of this microbiome. What is not clear is whether the differences in microbial community composition themselves mediate pathologic changes in the airways or whether they reflect differences in systemic immune function driven by differences in the development of the gastrointestinal microbiome in early life, when the immune system is most malleable. Recognition of the probable existence of a “common mucosal immune system” allowed synthesis of these apparently opposing ideas into a single conceptual model. Gastrointestinal microbiome–driven differences in systemic immune function predispose to sensitization to allergens deposited on mucosal surfaces, whereas possibly similar, but not identical, differences in immune function predispose to less effective responses to microbial infection of the airways, resulting in persistence of the inflammation underlying the structural and functional abnormalities of asthma. In this model, allergic sensitization and asthma are thus seen as commonly overlapping but not necessarily coincident consequences of abnormalities in microbial colonization...

‣ Modulation of Respiratory TLR3-Anti-Viral Response by Probiotic Microorganisms: Lessons Learned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505

Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2014 Português
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Host immune response is implicated in both protective and immunopathological mechanisms during RSV infection. Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 in innate immune cells by RSV can induce airway inflammation, protective immune response, and pulmonary immunopathology. A clear understanding of RSV–host interaction is important for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. Several studies have centered on whether probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to stimulate the immune system (immunobiotics) might sufficiently stimulate the common mucosal immune system to improve defenses in the respiratory tract. In this regard, it was demonstrated that some orally administered immunobiotics do have the ability to stimulate respiratory immunity and increase resistance to viral infections. Moreover, during the last decade scientists have significantly advanced in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics in the respiratory tract. This review examines the most recent advances dealing with the use of immunobiotic bacteria to improve resistance against viral respiratory infections. More specifically...

‣ Mucosal immunology down under: Special interest group in mucosal immunology workshop, Australasian Society for Immunology, Sydney, Australia, 2 December 2007

Cripps, A.; Sutton, P.; Beagley, K.; Robertson, S.; Dunkely, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group (SIG-MI) of the Australasian Society of Immunology was formed 14 years ago and has run regular symposia and workshops in conjunction with the Australasian Society of Immunology since that time. In December 2007 the Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group held a 1-day satellite workshop in conjunction with the annual Australasian Society of Immunology scientific meeting in Sydney to celebrate the decade since hosting the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology (9-ICMI) in 1997, which was also held in Sydney. The meeting that was attended by 65 delegates focussed on 4 session themes: reproductive immunology, respiratory immunology, mucosal immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal vaccines.; Allan W Cripps, Philip Sutton, Ken Beagley, Sarah Robertson and Margaret Dunkley

‣ Neutrophil transepithelial migration: role of toll-like receptors in mucosal inflammation

Reaves,Titus A; Chin,Alex C; Parkos,Charles A
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2005 Português
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The symptomatic phases of many inflammatory diseases are characterized by migration of large numbers of neutrophils (PMN) across a polarized epithelium and accumulation within a lumen. For example, acute PMN influx is common in diseases of the gastrointestinal system (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, bacterial enterocolitis, gastritis), hepatobiliary system (cholangitis, acute cholecystitis), respiratory tract (bronchial pneumonia, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis), and urinary tract (pyelonephritis, cystitis). Despite these observations, the molecular basis of leukocyte interactions with epithelial cells is incompletely understood. In vitro models of PMN transepithelial migration typically use N-formylated bacterial peptides such as fMLP in isolation to drive human PMNs across epithelial monolayers. However, other microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are major constituents of the intestinal lumen and have potent effects on the immune system. In the absence of LPS, we have shown that transepithelial migration requires sequential adhesive interactions between the PMN beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 and JAM protein family members. Other epithelial ligands appear to be abundantly represented as fucosylated proteoglycans. Further studies indicate that the rate of PMN migration across mucosal surfaces can be regulated by the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein CD47 and microbial-derived factors...

‣ Presence of secretory IgA antibodies to an enteric bacterial pathogen in human milk and saliva.

Nathavitharana, K. A.; Catty, D.; Raykundalia, C.; McNeish, A. S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 Português
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The concept of a common mucosal immune system in man was tested by examining the concurrent presence of specific-secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies in human milk and saliva from three groups of subjects: 64 Sri Lankan women living in Sri Lanka; 20 immigrant Asian women living in Birmingham (median duration of residence in the United Kingdom five years); and 75 Caucasian women living in Birmingham (controls). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonisation factor/1 (CFA/1) specific SIgA antibodies in milk and saliva. ETEC CFA/1 specific SIgA antibody activity was detectable in milk (37.5% and 25%) and saliva (42.1% and 35%) of Sri Lankan and immigrant Asian women, respectively, but not in any of the Caucasian controls. Eighty five point two per cent of subjects who were positive had specific antibodies detectable in both milk and saliva; 5% of all Sri Lankan women and 10% of all immigrant Asian women had detectable antibody only in saliva. These observations lend further strong support to the idea that a common mucosal immune system exists in man. The continuing presence of specific SIgA antibodies in Asian immigrants to previously encountered antigens suggests that there may be an 'immunological memory' in the human secretory immune system.

‣ IgA antibody-producing cells in peripheral blood after antigen ingestion: evidence for a common mucosal immune system in humans.

Czerkinsky, C; Prince, S J; Michalek, S M; Jackson, S; Russell, M W; Moldoveanu, Z; McGhee, J R; Mestecky, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1987 Português
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The finding that ingestion of antigens results in the selection induction of IgA antibodies in external secretions suggests that antigen sensitizes Peyer's patch lymphoid cells, which migrate to mucosal sites and generate local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibody responses. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in humans has been scanty because of the difficulty in demonstrating migratory behavior of Peyer's patch cells. In the present study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human volunteers who had ingested capsules containing killed Streptococcus mutans were assayed for spontaneous antibody-producing cells. Four of five volunteers exhibited circulating IgA-producing cells within 7 days and reached maximum responses by days 10-12. One IgA-deficient subject exhibited IgM responses with identical kinetics. Pokeweed-mitogen-stimulated PBMC produced anti-S. mutans antibodies predominantly of the IgA isotype. Significant S-IgA anti-S. mutans antibodies were detected in saliva and tears by day 14, and the antibodies reached maximum titers by 3 weeks. No changes in serum anti-S. mutans antibodies were noted. The IgA-deficient subject produced salivary secretory IgM antibodies. These results suggest that, after antigen ingestion...

‣ Duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT) of minor salivary glands and mucosal immunity.

Nair, P N; Schroeder, H E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1986 Português
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58.30343%
Minor salivary glands (MSG) play a substantial role in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)-mediated immunity of the oral cavity. There are two possibilities for the induction of this immunity: (i) an explicitly local antigenic stimulus, or (ii) a remote stimulus as part of the so-called 'common mucosal immune system'. This communication is an attempt to consolidate available evidence in support of both possibilities and to address the former in detail. Although there is strong circumstantial evidence supporting the feasibility of MSG functioning as a part of the common mucosal immune system, direct experimental evidence is yet to emerge. On the other hand, there is increasing structural and physiological evidence in support of MSG serving as a local immunological organ. The purely local response is attributed to the presence of MSG duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT), which is comparable to gut- or bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT or BALT) in origin, tissue organization and function. DALT is accessible to oral antigens by retrograde passage through MSG ducts. Repeated topical antigenic challenging via the oral mucosa may result in the appearance of interacinar plasma cells carrying specific homologous antibodies in MSG. Gut or enteric priming of the same antigen...