DNA sequence analysis of the bt2-7503 mutant allele of the maize brittle-2 gene revealed a point mutation in the 5′ terminal sequence of intron 3 changing GT to AT. This lesion completely abolishes use of this splice site, activates two cryptic splice sites, and alters the splicing pattern from extant splice sites. One activated donor site, located nine nt 5′ to the normal splice donor site, begins with the dinucleotide GC. While non-consensus, this sequence still permits both trans-esterification reactions of pre-mRNA splicing. A second cryptic site located 23 nt 5′ to the normal splice site and beginning with GA, undergoes the first trans-esterification reaction leading to lariat formation, but lacks the ability to participate in the second reaction. Accumulation of this splicing intermediate and use of an innovative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique (J. Vogel, R.H. Wolfgang, T. Borner  Nucleic Acids Res 25: 2030–2031) led to the identification of 3′ intron sequences needed for lariat formation. In most splicing reactions, neither cryptic site is recognized. Most mature transcripts include intron 3, while the second most frequent class lacks exon 3. Traditionally, the former class of transcripts is taken as evidence for the intron definition of splicing...
We isolated a revertant virus after prolonged culturing of a replication-impaired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutant of which the Rev open reading frame was inactivated by mutation of the AUG translation initiation codon. Sequencing of the tat-rev region of this revertant virus identified a second-site mutation in tat that restored virus replication in the mutant background. This mutation activated a cryptic 5′ splice site (ss) that, when used in conjunction with the regular HIV 3′ ss #5, fuses the tat and rev reading frames to encode a novel T-Rev fusion protein that rescues Rev function. We also demonstrate an alternative route to indirectly activate this cryptic 5′ ss by mutational inactivation of an adjacent exon splicing silencer element.
Missense and nonsense mutations in the glucokinase gene have recently been shown to result in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a subtype of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with early age of onset. Glucokinase catalyzes the formation of glucose-6-phosphate and is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and integration of hepatic intermediary metabolism. Nucleotide sequence analysis of exon 4 and its flanking intronic regions of the glucokinase gene, in four hyperglycemic individuals of a MODY family, revealed a deletion of 15 base pairs, which removed the t of the gt in the donor splice site of intron 4, and the following 14 base pairs. This deletion resulted in two aberrant transcripts, which were analyzed by reverse transcription of RNA from lymphoblastoid cells obtained from a diabetic patient. In one of the abnormal transcripts, exon 5 is missing, while in the other, the activation of a cryptic splice site leads to the removal of the last eight codons of exon 4. This intronic deletion in a donor splice site seems to cause a more severe form of glucose intolerance, compared with point mutations described in glucokinase. This might be due to a more pronounced effect on insulin secretion.
Atweh, G F; Anagnou, N P; Shearin, J; Forget, B G; Kaufman, R E
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/02/1985Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
Beta-globin gene mutations which alter normal globin RNA splicing have confirmed the necessity of invariant nucleotides GT at donor splice sites. Functional consequences of point mutations in the invariant AG acceptor splice site have not been determined. We have isolated and characterized a beta-globin gene from a Black patient with beta-thalassemia intermedia which has an A-G transition at the usual intervening sequence 2 (IVS2) acceptor splice site. Functional analysis of transcripts produced by this mutant gene in a transient expression vector indicates that the mutation inactivates the normal acceptor splice site and results in some utilization of a cryptic splice site near position 580 of IVS2. This mutation would be expected to produce a beta-globin gene which results in no normal beta-globin mRNA.
Auxiliary splicing signals in introns play an important role in splice site selection, but these elements are poorly understood. We show that a subset of serine/arginine (SR)-rich proteins activate a cryptic 3′ splice site in a sense Alu repeat located in intron 4 of the human LST1 gene. Utilization of this cryptic splice site is controlled by juxtaposed Alu-derived splicing silencers and enhancers between closely linked short tandem repeats TNFd and TNFe. Systematic mutagenesis of these elements showed that AG dinucleotides that were not preceded by purine residues were critical for repressing exon inclusion of a chimeric splicing reporter. Since the splice acceptor-like sequences are present in excess in exonic splicing silencers, these signals may contribute to inhibition of a large number of pseudosites in primate genomes.
In this work we report the identification of a strong SF2/ASF binding site within exon 7 of the human fibrinogen Bβ-chain gene (FGB). Its disruption in the wild-type context has no effect on exon recognition. However, when the mutation IVS7 + 1G>T—initially described in a patient suffering from congenital afibrinogenemia—is present, this SF2/ASF binding site is critical for cryptic 5′ss (splice site) definition. These findings, besides confirming and extending previous results regarding the effect of SF2/ASF on cryptic splice site activation, identify for the first time an enhancer sequence in the FGB gene specific for cryptic splice site usage. Taken together, they suggest the existence of a splicing-regulatory network that is normally silent in the FGB natural splicing environment but which can nonetheless influence splicing decisions when local contexts allow. On a more general note, our conclusions have implications for the evolution of alternative splicing processes and for the development of methods to control aberrant splicing in the context of disease-causing mutations.
Many alleles of human disease genes have mutations within splicing consensus sequences that activate cryptic splice sites. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the unc-73(e936) allele has a G-to-U mutation at the first base of the intron downstream of exon 15, which results in an uncoordinated phenotype. This mutation triggers cryptic splicing at the −1 and +23 positions and retains some residual splicing at the mutated wild-type (wt) position. We previously demonstrated that a mutation in sup-39, a U1 snRNA gene, suppresses e936 by increasing splicing at the wt splice site. We report here the results of a suppressor screen in which we identify three proteins that function in cryptic splice site choice. Loss-of-function mutations in the nonessential splicing factor smu-2 suppress e936 uncoordination through changes in splicing. SMU-2 binds SMU-1, and smu-1(RNAi) also leads to suppression of e936. A dominant mutation in the conserved C-terminal domain of the C. elegans homolog of the human tri-snRNP 27K protein, which we have named SNRP-27, suppresses e936 uncoordination through changes in splicing. We propose that SMU-2, SMU-1, and SNRP-27 contribute to the fidelity of splice site choice after the initial identification of 5′ splice sites by U1 snRNP.
The removal of introns from eukaryotic RNA transcripts requires the activities of five multi-component ribonucleoprotein complexes and numerous associated proteins. The lack of mutations affecting splicing factors essential for animal survival has limited the study of the in vivo regulation of splicing. From a screen for suppressors of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-93(e1500) rubberband Unc phenotype, we identified mutations in genes that encode the C. elegans orthologs of two splicing factors, the U2AF large subunit (UAF-1) and SF1/BBP (SFA-1). The uaf-1(n4588) mutation resulted in temperature-sensitive lethality and caused the unc-93 RNA transcript to be spliced using a cryptic 3′ splice site generated by the unc-93(e1500) missense mutation. The sfa-1(n4562) mutation did not cause the utilization of this cryptic 3′ splice site. We isolated four uaf-1(n4588) intragenic suppressors that restored the viability of uaf-1 mutants at 25°C. These suppressors differentially affected the recognition of the cryptic 3′ splice site and implicated a small region of UAF-1 between the U2AF small subunit-interaction domain and the first RNA recognition motif in affecting the choice of 3′ splice site. We constructed a reporter for unc-93 splicing and using site-directed mutagenesis found that the position of the cryptic splice site affects its recognition. We also identified nucleotides of the endogenous 3′ splice site important for recognition by wild-type UAF-1. Our genetic and molecular analyses suggested that the phenotypic suppression of the unc-93(e1500) Unc phenotype by uaf-1(n4588) and sfa-1(n4562) was likely caused by altered splicing of an unknown gene. Our observations provide in vivo evidence that UAF-1 can act in regulating 3′ splice-site choice and establish a system that can be used to investigate the in vivo regulation of RNA splicing in C. elegans.
Mutations that affect splicing of precursor messenger RNAs play a major role in the development of hereditary diseases. Most splicing mutations have been found to eliminate GT or AG dinucleotides that define the 5′ and 3′ ends of introns, leading to exon skipping or cryptic splice-site activation. Although accurate description of the mis-spliced transcripts is critical for predicting phenotypic consequences of these alterations, their exact nature in affected individuals cannot often be determined experimentally. Using a comprehensive collection of exons that sustained cryptic splice-site activation or were skipped as a result of splice-site mutations, we have developed a multivariate logistic discrimination procedure that distinguishes the two aberrant splicing outcomes from DNA sequences. The new algorithm was validated using an independent sample of exons and implemented as a free online utility termed CRYP-SKIP (http://www.dbass.org.uk/cryp-skip/). The web application takes up one or more mutated alleles, each consisting of one exon and flanking intronic sequences, and provides a list of important predictor variables and their values, the overall probability of activating cryptic splice vs exon skipping, and the location and intrinsic strength of predicted cryptic splice sites in the input sequence. These results will facilitate phenotypic prediction of splicing mutations and provide further insights into splicing enhancer and silencer elements and their relative importance for splice-site selection in vivo.
Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). Cryptic splice site activation in hERG has recently been identified as a novel pathogenic mechanism of LQT2. In this report, we characterize a hERG splice site mutation, 2592+1G>A, which occurs at the 5′ splice site of intron 10. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses using hERG minigenes transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells and HL-1 cardiomyocytes revealed that the 2592+1G>A mutation disrupted normal splicing and caused multiple splicing defects: the activation of cryptic splice sites within exon 10 and intron 10 and complete intron 10 retention. We performed functional and biochemical analyses of the major splice product, hERGΔ24, in which 24 amino acids within the cyclic nucleotide binding domain of the hERG channel COOH-terminus is deleted. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that the splice mutant did not generate hERG current. Western blot and immunostaining studies showed that mutant channels did not traffic to the cell surface. Coexpression of wild-type hERG and hERGΔ24 resulted in significant dominant-negative suppression of hERG current via the intracellular retention of the wild-type channels. Our results demonstrate that 2592+1G>A causes multiple splicing defects...
Changes at the invariable donor splice site + 1 guanine, relatively frequent in human genetic disease, are predicted to abrogate correct splicing, and thus are classified as null mutations. However, their ability to direct residual expression, which might have pathophysiological implications in several diseases, has been poorly investigated. As a model to address this issue, we studied the IVS6 + 1G > T mutation found in patients with severe deficiency of the protease triggering coagulation, factor VII (FVII), whose absence is considered lethal. In expression studies, the IVS6 + 1G > T induced exon 6 skipping and frame-shift, and prevented synthesis of correct FVII transcripts detectable by radioactive/fluorescent labelling or real-time RT-PCR. Intriguingly, the mutation induced the activation of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 6 and production of an in-frame 30 bp deleted transcript (8 ± 2%). Expression of this cDNA variant, lacking 10 residues in the activation domain, resulted in secretion of trace amounts (0.2 ± 0.04%) of protein with appreciable specific activity (48 ± 16% of wt-FVII). Altogether these data indicate that the IVS6 + 1G > T mutation is compatible with the synthesis of functional FVII molecules (~ 0.01% of normal...
A heterozygous deletion of a single base (A4704) from exon 37 of the fibrillin-1 gene was defined in a patient with Marfan syndrome and subsequently in his previously undiagnosed father. The deletion created a cryptic 5' splice site in exon 37 which was utilised in preference to the normal 5' splice site during pre-mRNA processing in skin fibroblasts cultured from the proband. The mutant mRNA showed a 48-bp deletion from the 3' end of exon 37 which was predicted to restore the reading frame in the mutant mRNA and result in the deletion of a 16-amino-acid sequence from a central eight-cysteine repeat motif of the fibrillin-1 molecule. Interestingly, the cryptic 5' splice site in exon 37 and the normal 5' splice site had equally strong consensuses for splice-site selection. The preferential utilisation of the cryptic site is discussed in relation to current theories on the mechanisms involved in pre-mRNA splicing. Analysis by reverse-transcription PCR indicated that, in the patients skin fibroblasts, the steady-state level of the mis-spliced mutant mRNA was close to that from the normal allele. In addition, evidence from immunoblotting and pulse-chase biosynthetic labelling indicated that close to normal amounts of fibrillin-1 were being synthesised and secreted by the cells. However...
To define elements critical for 5' splice selection in dicot plant nuclei, wild-type and mutant transcripts containing the first intron of the pea rbcS3A gene were expressed in vivo by using an autonomously replicating plant expression vector. Mutations within the normal 5' splice site (+1) of this intron demonstrate that 5' splice sites at the normal exon-intron boundary having only limited agreement with a 5' splice site consensus sequence can be spliced quite effectively in dicot nuclei. Inactivation of the normal 5' splice site occurs only by point mutations of the G at position +1 of the intron (+1G) or +2U or by multiple mutations at other positions and results in the activation of three cryptic 5' splice sites in the adjacent exon and intron. cis competition of cryptic sites having consensus 5' splice site sequences with the normal 5' splice site demonstrates that cryptic splice sites in the exon, but not the intron, can compete to some extent with the normal site. Replacement of the sequences between the cryptic and normal 5' splice sites with heterologous exon or intron sequences demonstrates that the 5' boundary of this plant intron is defined by its position relative to the AU transition point between exon and intron. These results suggest that potential 5' splice sites upstream of the AU transition point are accessible for recognition by the plant pre-mRNA splicing machinery and that those downstream in the AU-rich intron are masked from recognition.
In the course of analyzing 5' splice site mutations in the second intron of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, we identified a cryptic 5' junction containing a nonconsensus nucleotide at position +2. An even more unusual feature of this cryptic 5' junction was its pattern of activation. By analyzing the profile of splicing products for an extensive series of cdc2 mutants in the presence and absence of compensatory U1 alleles, we have obtained evidence that the natural 5' splice site participates in activation of the cryptic 5' splice site, and that it does so via base pairing to U1 snRNA. Furthermore, the results of follow-up experiments strongly suggest that base pairing between U1 snRNA and the cryptic 5' junction itself plays a dominant role in its activation. Most remarkably, a mutant U1 can activate the cryptic 5' splice site even in the presence of a wild-type sequence at the natural 5' junction, providing unambiguous evidence that this snRNA redirects splicing via base pairing. Although previous work has demonstrated that U5 and U6 snRNAs can activate cryptic 5' splice sites through base pairing interactions, this is the first example in which U1 snRNA has been implicated in the final selection of a cryptic 5' junction.
The 5' splice site of a pre-mRNA is recognized by U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNP) through base pairing with the 5' end of U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Single-base substitutions within a 9-nucleotide 5'-splice-site sequence can abolish or attenuate use of that site and, in higher eukaryotes, can also activate nearby "cryptic" 5' splice sites. Here we show that the effects of single-base substitutions within a 5' splice site can be completely or partially suppressed by cis mutations that improve the overall complementarity of the site to U1 snRNA. We further show that in the presence of the normal 5' splice site, a cryptic 5' splice site can be activated by increasing its complementarity to U1 snRNA. U1 snRNP binding experiments confirm that cryptic 5' splice sites are activated when their affinity for U1 snRNP approaches that of the authentic 5' splice site. Based upon these results, we propose a spliceosome competition model for 5'-splice-site selection and cryptic 5'-splice-site activation. We discuss our results with regard to the factors involved in 5'-splice-site recognition.
A heterozygous de novo G to A point mutation in intron 8 at the +5 position of the splice donor site of the gene for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen, COL1A1, was defined in a patient with type IV osteogenesis imperfecta. The splice donor site mutation resulted not only in the skipping of the upstream exon 8 but also unexpectedly had the secondary effect of activating a cryptic splice site in the next upstream intron, intron 7, leading to re-definition of the 3' limit of exon 7. These pre-mRNA splicing aberrations cause the deletion of exon 8 sequences from the mature mRNA and the inclusion of 96 bp of intron 7 sequence. Since the mis-splicing of the mutant allele product resulted in the maintenance of the correct codon reading frame, the resultant pro alpha 1(I) chain contained a short non-collagenous 32-amino-acid sequence insertion within the repetitive Gly-Xaa-Yaa collagen sequence motif. At the protein level, the mutant alpha 1(I) chain was revealed by digestion with pepsin, which cleaved the mutant procollagen within the protease-sensitive non-collagenous insertion, producing a truncated alpha 1(I). This protease sensitivity demonstrated the structural distortion to the helical structure caused by the insertion. In long-term culture with ascorbic acid...
The fourth exon of the mouse polymeric immuno-globulin receptor (pIgR) is 654 nt long and, despite being surrounded by large introns, is constitutively spliced into the mRNA. Deletion of an 84 nt sequence from this exon strongly activated both cryptic 5' and 3' splice sites surrounding a 78 nt cryptic intron. The 84 nt deletion is just upstream of the cryptic 3' splice site; the cryptic 3' splice site was likely activated because the deletion created a better 3' splice site. However, the cryptic 5' splice site was also required to activate the cryptic splice reaction; point mutations in either of the cryptic splice sites that decreased their match to the consensus splice site sequence inactivated the cryptic splice reaction. The activation and inactivation of these cryptic splice sites as a pair suggests that they are being co-recognized by the splicing machinery. Interestingly, the large fourth exon of the pIgR gene encodes two immunoglobulin-like extracellular protein domains; the cryptic 3' splice site coincides with the junction between these protein domains. The cryptic 5' splice site is located between protein subdomains where an intron is found in another gene of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
The effect of heat shock on the packaging and splicing of nuclear CAD pre-mRNA, a transcript expressed constitutively from a non heat-inducible promoter, was studied in vivo in Syrian hamster cells. While mild heat shock did not affect significantly the packaging of CAD RNA in 200S InRNP particles, it caused perturbation to splicing. First, the heat shock inhibited splicing of CAD pre-mRNA. Second, it affected 5' splice site selection by activating cleavage at a cryptic 5' splice site; yet ligation of the cryptic exon to the downstream proximal exon was not observed. Base complementarities of the cryptic site with U1, U5, or U6 snRNAs are comparable, or even better, than those with the neighboring normal site. Hence, the exclusion of the cryptic site under normal growth conditions cannot be attributed to weaker base pairing with these snRNAs. On the other hand, these results imply the involvement of a heat labile factor in the selection of the 5' cleavage site. The exclusion of the cryptic site at 37 degrees C and the aborted splicing at this site after heat shock may also be explained by a proposed nuclear checking mechanism that detects in-frame stop codons upstream of the 5' splice site, and aborts splicing at such sites to prevent the production of a defective message.
AT8--1-12--5-1, an Abelson virus-transformed immature B-cell line, produced truncated mu-chains. Sequencing analysis of the mu-expressed allele revealed that the variable region was an out-of-frame VH7183-DSP2-JH3 complex. Two cDNA clones (5-1 cDNA1 and 5-1 cDNA2) derived from the transcripts of the mu-expressed allele were cloned and sequenced. Sequencing analysis of 5-1 cDNA1 revealed that the VH7183-DSP2-JH3 sequence jointed to the CH1 exon at 136 bp, 3' from the 5' end of the CH1 exon, resulting in the change of the reading frame from out-of-frame to in-frame. On the other hand, sequencing analysis of 5-1 cDNA2, which appeared to have derived from intron-containing premature mRNA, revealed that the J-C intron sequence joined to the CH1 exon at 110 bp 3' from the 5' end of the CH1 exon, indicating the deletion of 109 bp including the 3' splice site of the CH1 exon. These results demonstrate that the deletion of the authentic 3' splice site of the CH1 exon induced activation of the cryptic splice site within the CH1 exon. This was followed by splicing of the variable region to the CH1 exon at the cryptic splice site at 136 bp 3' from the 5' end of the CH1 exon, resulting in the change of the reading frame from out-of-frame to in-frame...
Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sup-39 gene cause allele-specific suppression of the uncoordination defect of unc-73(e936). e936 is a point mutation that changes the canonical G at the 5' end of intron 16 to a U. This mutation activates three splice donors, two of which define introns beginning with the canonical GU. Use of these two cryptic splice sites causes loss of reading frame; interestingly these messages are not substrates for nonsense-mediated decay. The third splice donor, used in 10% of steady-state e936 messages, is the mutated splice donor at the wild-type position, which defines an intron beginning with UU. In the presence of a sup-39 mutation, these same three splice donors are used, but the ratio of messages produced by splicing at these sites changes. The percentage of unc-73(e936) messages containing the wild-type splice junction is increased to 33% with a corresponding increase in the level of UNC-73 protein. This sup-39-induced change was also observed when the e936 mutant intron region was inserted into a heterologous splicing reporter construct transfected into worms. Experiments with splicing reporter constructs showed that the degree of 5' splice site match to the splicing consensus sequence can strongly influence cryptic splice site choice. We propose that mutant SUP-39 is a new type of informational suppressor that alters the use of weak splice donors.