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‣ Management of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Latin America A Consensus Position Paper From Pan-American League of Associations of Rheumatology and Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Artritis Reumatoide

MASSARDO, Loreto; SUAREZ-ALMAZOR, Maria E.; CARDIEL, Mario H.; NAVA, Arnulfo; LEVY, Roger A.; LAURINDO, Ieda; SORIANO, Enrique R.; ACEVEDO-VAZQUEZ, Eduardo; MILLAN, Alberto; PINEDA-VILLASENOR, Carlos; GALARZA-MALDONADO, Claudio; CABALLERO-URIBE, Carlo V.;
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: A consensus meeting of representatives of 18 Latin-American and Caribbean countries gathered in Renaca, Chile, for 2 days to identify problems and provide recommendations for the care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin America, a region where poverty and other health priorities make the efforts to provide effective and high quality care difficult. This report includes recommendations for health professionals, patients, and health authorities in Latin America, with an emphasis oil education and therapeutic issues. Methods: Fifty-one rheumatologists (list available only online on the JCR website) from 18 Latin-American and Caribbean countries with a special interest in RA participated in the consensus meeting. Participants were experts identified and appointed by the National Societies of Rheumatology affiliated with the Pan-American League of Associations for Rheumatology (PANLAR) and by the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Artritis Reumatoide (GLADAR)-an independent group of Latin American rheumatologist researchers were also invited to the meeting. Eight topics were identified as priorities: patient, community and allied health professional education, health policy and decision making, programs for early detection and appropriate treatment of RA...

‣ Educação para a saúde e a atividade física na promoção da qualidade de vida de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids; Health education and physical activity in promoting quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS

Paes Neto, Pedro Pinheiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2011 Português
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A aids entrou na terceira década e, cada vez mais, encontra-se presente em ambos os gêneros, em todas as faixas etárias, etnias e camadas sociais. O uso das terapias antirretrovirais de alta potência (HAART) permitiu que a aids se tornasse uma doença crônica, aumentando a longevidade e a qualidade de vida das pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. O novo cenário da doença não foi acompanhado da criação de novas técnicas de atendimento nos serviços especializados de saúde, que favoreçam as estratégias individuais de enfrentamento da doença, bem como, os efeitos colaterais do uso prolongado da HAART, que incluem a síndrome da lipodistrofia (SL), a depressão, a ansiedade e o preconceito. Objetivo: pesquisar pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, que sofrem os efeitos colaterais do uso da HAART e que buscam o sentido da vida. Propomos, então, desenvolver programa socioeducativo e terapêutico de treinamento físico específico para este grupo de pessoas, investigando a aplicabilidade e benefícios da utilização desta técnica educativa para a promoção da saúde e da qualidade de vida. Metodologia: pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, mediatizada pela pesquisa-ação. Trabalhamos com sete pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, com uso de HAART e com SL...

‣ Simultaneity of the anthropometric markers of adiposity and chronic diseases in women

Silva de Paulo, T. Reis; Ribeiro Dos Santos, V.; Conterato Gomes, I.; Destro Christofaro, D. G.; Fernandes, R. A.; Forte Freitas, I.; Sindra Virtuoso, J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 261-268
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Aim. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the accumulation of different anthropometric indicators and the prevalence of some chronic diseases in women over 40 years of age. Methods. The sample was comprised of 562 women between 40 and 95 years of age (64.5 ± 11.4) attended by the research projects were carried out in two cities in southeastern Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were taken: weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and the values of BMI and WHR were later calculated. The referenced morbidity questionnaire was also applied, based on the Standard Health Questionnaire (SHQ), which analyzes the presence of degenerative chronic diseases in the adult population. For the statistical treatment, the chi-square and binary logistic regression tests were performed, with significance set at 5%. Results. The relationship between three changes in the anthropometric indicators and the greater incidence of diseases continued significant for hypertension (OR=3.77 [95% CI: 2.14-6.65], =P=0.001), and for endocrine and metabolic diseases (OR=2.59 [95%: 1:47 to 4:32], =P=0.001), regardless of the effects of age and physical activities. Conclusion. The simultaneity of body fat indicators is more strongly associated with the prevalence of some chronic diseases (hypertension...

‣ Influence of the resistance training on heart rate variability, functional capacity and muscle strength in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ricci-Vitor, A. L.; Bonfim, R.; Fosco, L. C.; Bertolini, G. N.; Ramos, E. M. C.; Ramos, D.; Pastre, C. M.; Godoy, M.; Vanderlei, L. C. M.
Fonte: Edizioni Minerva Medica Publicador: Edizioni Minerva Medica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 793-801
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Background. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with the strength and resistance decreasing in addition to the dysfunction on autonomic nervous system (ANS). The aerobic training isolated or in association with the resistance training showed evidence of beneficial effects on an autonomic modulation of COPD; however, there are no studies addressing the effect of isolated resistance training.Aims. This study aims at investigating the influence of resistance training on an autonomic modulation through heart rate variability (HRV), functional capacity and muscle strength in individuals with COPD.Design. Clinical series study.Setting. Outpatients.Population. The study involved 13 individuals with COPD.Methods. The experimental protocol was composed by an initial and final evaluation that consisted in autonomic evaluations (HRV), cardiopulmonary functional capacity evaluation (6-minute walk test) and strength evaluation (dynamometry) in addition by the resistance training performed by 24 sessions lasted 60 minutes each one and on a frequency of three times a week. The intensity was determined initially with 60% of one maximum repetition and was progressively increased in each five sessions until 80%.Results. The HRV temporal and spectral indexes analysis demonstrates improvement of autonomic modulation...

‣ Increased type I collagen degradation correlates with disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis.

Hakala, M; Risteli, L; Manelius, J; Nieminen, P; Risteli, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 Português
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OBJECTIVES--To assess the extent and clinical significance of type I collagen degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Serum samples from 90 consecutive patients with RA from a cross-sectional population based study and 90 age- and sex-matched controls were analysed with the new assay of cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). RESULTS--Patients with RA had significantly higher concentrations of ICTP than the controls. ICTP correlated strongly with measures of impairment in RA, such as the erosive state of joint disease (ES) (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) and Keitel function test (KFT) (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), and more weakly with various disease activity markers. When erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ES or KFT were used as indicators of disease severity among the patients with disease duration over five years, ICTP distinguished the more serious RA from milder cases. CONCLUSIONS--Elevated serum concentrations of ICTP are common in RA and are associated with signs of aggressive disease.

‣ Identifying Predictors of Activity Based Anorexia Susceptibility in Diverse Genetic Rodent Populations

Pjetri, Eneda; de Haas, Ria; de Jong, Simone; Gelegen, Cigdem; Oppelaar, Hugo; Verhagen, Linda A. W.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Adan, Roger A.; Olivier, Berend; Kas, Martien J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2012 Português
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Animal studies are very useful in detection of early disease indicators and in unravelling the pathophysiological processes underlying core psychiatric disorder phenotypes. Early indicators are critical for preventive and efficient treatment of progressive psychiatric disorders like anorexia nervosa. Comparable to physical hyperactivity observed in anorexia nervosa patients, in the activity-based anorexia rodent model, mice and rats express paradoxical high voluntary wheel running activity levels when food restricted. Eleven inbred mouse strains and outbred Wistar WU rats were exposed to the activity-based anorexia model in search of identifying susceptibility predictors. Body weight, food intake and wheel running activity levels of each individual mouse and rat were measured. Mouse strains and rats with high wheel running activity levels during food restriction exhibited accelerated body weight loss. Linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed that baseline wheel running activity levels preceding the scheduled food restriction phase strongly predicted activity-based anorexia susceptibility (mice: Beta  =  −0.0158 (±0.003 SE), P<0.0001; rats: Beta  =  −0.0242 (±0.004 SE), P<0.0001) compared to other baseline parameters. These results suggest that physical activity levels play an important role in activity-based anorexia susceptibility in different rodent species with genetically diverse background. These findings support previous retrospective studies on physical activity levels in anorexia nervosa patients and indicate that pre-morbid physical activity levels could reflect an early indicator for disease severity.

‣ Immunological indicators of coeliac disease activity are not altered by long-term oats challenge

Cooper, S. E. J.; Kennedy, N. P.; Mohamed, B. M.; Abuzakouk, M.; Dunne, J.; Byrne, G.; McDonald, G.; Davies, A.; Edwards, C.; Kelly, J.; Feighery, C. F.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Coeliac disease is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. The disease exhibits many features of an autoimmune disorder. These include the production of highly specific anti-endomysial autoantibodies directed against the enzyme tissue transglutaminase. It is well accepted that wheat-, barley- and rye-based foods should be excluded in the gluten-free diet. Although several studies report that oats ingestion is safe in this diet, the potential toxicity of oats remains controversial. In the current study, 46 coeliac patients ingested oats for 1 year and were investigated for a potential immunogenic or toxic effect. Stringent clinical monitoring of these patients was performed and none experienced adverse effects, despite ingestion of a mean of 286 g of oats each week. Routine histological analysis of intestinal biopsies showed improvement or no change in 95% of the samples examined. Furthermore, tissue transglutaminase expression in biopsy samples, determined quantitatively using the IN Cell Analyzer, was unchanged. Employing immunohistochemistry, oats ingestion was not associated with changes in intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers or with enterocyte proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 staining. Finally...

‣ Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States

Rha, Brian; Burrer, Sherry; Park, Soyoun; Trivedi, Tarak; Parashar, Umesh D.; Lopman, Benjamin A.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
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Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, BioSense visits mapped by chief complaints of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007–2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828–0.926) than for nausea/vomiting (R = 0.729–0.866) across multiple age groups. Diarrhea ED visit proportions exhibited winter seasonality attributable to norovirus; rotavirus contributed substantially for children <5 years of age. Diarrhea ED visit data estimated the onset, peak, and end of norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates and could be reliable, timely indicators of norovirus activity.

‣ Quality Improvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Melmed, Gil Y.; Siegel, Corey A.
Fonte: Millennium Medical Publishing Publicador: Millennium Medical Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 Português
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Chronic illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) present a unique opportunity to define and improve the quality of care. Processes of care can be complex, and outcomes of care may vary across different healthcare delivery settings. Patients with IBD are managed over long periods of time and often by the same physician within a single care delivery system. Both patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have variable courses of disease progression that require changes in therapy over time. These factors necessitate multiple areas of potential assessment and improvement of processes and outcomes of care. A current initiative is the development of quality measures. The American Gastroenterological Association has developed accountability measures for the Physician Quality Reporting System, and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America has developed a set of top 10 recommended processes and outcomes of measurement for high-quality care of patients with IBD. In addition, the pediatric ImproveCareNow collaborative network has collected improvement data from dozens of pediatric centers over the past 5 years and has demonstrated improvement in overall disease activity in their cohort through iterative quality improvement processes. Future directions for quality indicators for adults with IBD will involve implementation of quality-measure reporting...

‣ Oral Fluid-Based Biomarkers in Periodontal Disease – Part 2. Gingival Crevicular Fluid

AlRowis, Raed; AlMoharib, Hani S; AlMubarak, Abdulrahman; Bhaskardoss, Jagankumar; Preethanath, R S; Anil, Sukumaran
Fonte: Dentmedpub Research and Printing Co Publicador: Dentmedpub Research and Printing Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Periodontal diagnosis and treatment plan are based on the assessment of probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, suppuration, furcation involvement, mobility, and radiographic findings. However, these clinical parameters are not sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify disease activity in individual sites or to predict future attachment loss. Hence, attention is focused on the development of diagnostic tools that could screen and differentiate the active inflamed sites and predict future tissue destruction. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), has gained great interest on possible diagnostic value in periodontal disease. It contains a large number of proteins and peptides derived from inflamed host tissues. The analysis of the GCF components can reflect the disease status of individual sites and thus, identify potential biomarkers of periodontitis. A literature search was carried out to find out all the available tests that indicate periodontal disease markers in GCF. All major databases were searched to compile the information on published reports between 1999 and 2014. The list of GCF-biomarkers available to date is compiled and presented in a table format. Based on the available literature on GCF biomarkers...

‣ Influência das comorbidades na capacidade funcional de pacientes com artrite reumatoide; The influence of comorbidities in the physical function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Marques, Wanessa Vieira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) present higher prevalence of comorbidities. Such comorbidities are associated with different outcomes in RA patients, such as mortality risk, increase in disability, impact on RA specific treatment and higher medical costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of comorbidities on the functional capacity and mobility of the affected individuals, and to identify, among the comorbidity indicators, the most appropriate to determine association between comorbidities and physical function on these patients. In a cross-sectional study we included 60 patients with RA fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR, 1987) over a period of 11 months, both male and female between 43 and 80 years old. Comorbidities were assessed by means of three indicators: (i) total number of comorbidities (NCom) reported by the patients and listed on their medical records; (ii) the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI); and (iii) the functional comorbidity index (FCI). The activity of disease was evaluated by the Disease Activity Score, based on 28 joints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate value (DAS28/ESR). The participants’ functional capacity was measured using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)...

‣ Prebiotic and Synbiotic Fructooligosaccharide administration Fails to Reduce the Severity of Experimental colitis in rats

Geier, M.; Butler, R.; Giffard, P.; Howarth, G.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Opposing effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, have been reported in experimental colitis. We compared the effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, alone and in synbiotic combination with Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, on the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Rats consumed an 18 percent casein-based diet or diet supplemented with 6 percent fructooligosaccharide or maltodextrin for 14 days. The synbiotic group was gavaged 1 ml of L. fermentum BR11 (1 x 10(9) cfu/ml) twice daily. From Days 7 to 14, colitis was induced via 3 percent dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water. Disease activity was assessed daily, and at killing, gastrointestinal organs were measured, weighed, and examined by quantitative histology, proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium resulted in an increased colitic disease activity, and an increased colon and cecum weight compared with normal controls. Colon and cecum weights were further increased in dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide (colon: 19 percent; cecum: 48 percent) and dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide/L. fermentum BR11-treated rats (16 and 62 percent) compared with dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle-treatment. Dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide-treated rats displayed an 81 percent increase in colonic myeloperoxidase activity compared with dextran sulfate sodium-treated controls. Histologic damage severity scores increased in dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle...

‣ Physical activity, inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontitis

Sanders, A.; Slade, G.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Bartold, P.
Fonte: Blackwell Munksgaard Publicador: Blackwell Munksgaard
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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AIMS: To examine the associations of physical activity with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), C-reactive protein (CRP) and periodontitis and to investigate whether any relationship between physical activity and inflammatory mediators differs between periodontitis cases and non-cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this population-based case control study of Australians aged 18+ years, dentists conducted oral epidemiologic examinations identifying cases with moderate or severe periodontitis and periodontally healthy controls. Gingival crevicular fluid samples collected during examinations were analysed for inflammatory biomarkers. Subject-completed questionnaires assessed leisure-time physical activity. Exposure odds ratios (ORs) were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for periodontitis risk indicators. RESULTS: Of 751 subjects (359 cases, 392 controls), those meeting a prescribed threshold for leisure-time physical activity had lower adjusted odds of elevated IL-1beta: OR=0.69, (95% CI=0.50-0.94) and detectable CRP: OR=0.70 (0.50-0.98) than less active adults. Physical activity was not associated with periodontitis: OR=1.14 (0.80-1.62). Periodontitis modified the association between levels of physical activity and detectable CRP. Increasing quartiles of physically activity were associated with decreasing probability of detectable CRP...

‣ World Development Indicators 2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: World Development Indicators; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The 1998 edition of world development indicators initiated a series of annual reports on progress toward the International development goals. In the foreword then, World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn recognized that 'by reporting regularly and systematically on progress toward the targets the international community has set for itself, the author will focus attention on the task ahead and make those responsible for advancing the development agenda accountable for results.' The same vision inspired world leaders to commit themselves to the millennium development goals. On this, the 10th anniversary of the millennium declaration, world development indicators 2010 focuses on progress toward the millennium development goals and the challenges of meeting them.

‣ Capitalizing on the Demographic Transition : Tackling Noncommunicable Diseases in South Asia

Engelgau, Michael Maurice; El-Saharty, Sameh; Kudesia, Preeti; Rajan, Vikram; Rosenhouse, Sandra; Okamoto, Kyoko
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This book looks primarily at Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) and tobacco use because they account for a disproportionate amount of the Non Communicable Disease (NCD) burden the focus is strategic rather than comprehensive. It considers both country and regional level approaches for tackling NCDs, as many of the issues and challenges of mounting an effective response are common to most South Asian countries. The prevention and control of NCDs constitute a development issue that low-income countries in South Asia are already facing. Both country and regional-level strategies are important because many of the issues and challenges of mounting an effective response to NCDs are common to most South Asian countries, even though their disease burden profiles vary. Hence, the rationale for this book is that strategic decisions for prevention and treatment of NCDs can effectively address the future burden of disease, promote healthy aging, and increase the potential benefit from the demographic transition, thus contributing to economic development. This book's goal is to encourage countries to develop...

‣ Indicators of Family Care for Development for Use in Multicountry Surveys

Kariger, Patricia; Frongillo, Edward A.; Engle, Patrice; Britto, Pia M. Rebello; Sywulka, Sara M.; Menon, Purnima
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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Indicators of family care for development are essential for ascertaining whether families are providing their children with an environment that leads to positive developmental outcomes. This project aimed to develop indicators from a set of items, measuring family care practices and resources important for caregiving, for use in epidemiologic surveys in developing countries. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) design was used for item selection and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to examine the validity of candidate items in several country samples. Qualitative methods included the use of global expert panels to identify and evaluate the performance of each candidate item as well as in-country focus groups to test the content validity of the items. The quantitative methods included analyses of item-response distributions, using bivariate techniques. The selected items measured two family care practices (support for learning/stimulating environment and limit-setting techniques) and caregiving resources (adequacy of the alternate caregiver when the mother worked). Six play-activity items, indicative of support for learning/stimulating environment, were included in the core module of UNICEF's Multiple Cluster Indictor Survey 3. The other items were included in optional modules. This project provided...

‣ Olsalazine is not superior to placebo in maintaining remission of inactive Crohn's colitis and ileocolitis: a double blind, parallel, randomised, multicentre study

Mahmud, N; Kamm, M; Dupas, J; Jewell, D; O'Morain, C; Weir, D; Kelleher, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The benefit of 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease is controversial. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic properties of olsalazine in comparison with placebo for maintenance of remission in quiescent Crohn's colitis and/or ileocolitis.
METHODS—In this randomised, double blind, parallel group study of olsalazine versus placebo, 328 patients with quiescent Crohn's colitis and/or ileocolitis were recruited. Treatment consisted of olsalazine 2.0 g daily or placebo for 52 weeks. The primary end point of efficacy was relapse, as defined by the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and by clinical relapse. Laboratory and clinical disease activity indicators were also measured. Safety analysis consisted of documentation of adverse events and laboratory values.
RESULTS—No differences in the frequency of termination due to relapse or time to termination due to relapse were noted between the two treatment groups (olsalazine 48.5% v placebo 45%) for either colitis or ileocolitis. The failure rate, defined as not completing the study, was significantly higher in olsalazine treated patients compared with placebo treated patients for the overall population (colitis and/or ileocolitis: olsalazine 65.4% v 53.9%; p=0.038). Similar failure rates were seen for patients with colitis. A significantly higher percentage of olsalazine treated patients experienced adverse gastrointestinal events. Drug attributed adverse events were reported more frequently in the olsalazine treated group with gastrointestinal symptoms being causally related to olsalazine treatment (olsalazine 40.7% v placebo 26.9%; p=0.010). Back pain was reported significantly more often by the placebo treated group. However...

‣ Technical note: Validation of an automatic recording system to assess behavioural activity level in sheep (Ovis aries).

McLennan, Krista M.; Skillings, Elizabeth A.; Rebelo, Carlos J. B.; Corke, Murray J.; Moreira, Maria A. Pires; Morton, A. Jennifer; Constantino-Casas, Fernando
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921448815001455.; The welfare of an individual can be assessed by monitoring behavioural changes, such as inactivity, that may indicate injury or disease. In this study we validated the Actiwatch Mini? activity monitor (AM) for automatic recording of behavioural activity levels of nine Texel ewes. The AM devices were attached to collars placed around the necks of the ewes. AM recordings were taken at 25 second intervals for 21 consecutive days and in addition, direct behavioural observations made on days 9?13. AM recordings were compared with direct behavioural observations to investigate whether different levels of behaviour activity could be distinguished by the AM. Six different behaviours were matched to the activity scores recorded by the AM which were low activity (lying ruminating, lying), medium activity (standing, standing ruminating, and grazing) and high activity behaviours (walking). There were differences in the activity scores for all three scores. However, higher levels of accuracy in distinguishing between activity levels were achieved when combining high and medium activity level behaviours. This method of capturing data provides a practical tool in studies assessing the impact of disease or injury. For example...

‣ Genomic Signatures of Disease and Environmental Exposure in the Peripheral Blood

LaBreche, Heather Garren
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011 Português
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My thesis research has centered on the concept of the peripheral blood cell (PBC) as an indicator of disease and environmental exposure. The PBC is not only easily accessible and constantly replenished, but it provides a snapshot of an individual's health. Doctors have long utilized PBCs as indicators of health based on count, morphology or the expression of particular cell surface markers. Using these methods, PBCs can serve as indicators of infection, inflammation or certain types of hematological malignancies. Now PBCs can be characterized as a function of their gene expression profiles in response to disease and toxicant exposure. Advances in cDNA microarray technology have made it possible to analyze global gene expression in small volumes of whole blood, or even in a sorted population of blood cells. The resulting gene expression data can serve as a molecular phenotype, or signature, of disease or toxicant exposure. These signatures serve a twofold purpose. First, they act as biological markers (biomarkers) that can indicate the presence of disease or aid monitoring the response to treatment. Second, they provide insight into the underlying biological mechanisms that are at work, by revealing genes, networks and pathways that are affected by the disease or toxin. This paradigm has been applied in a number of contexts...

‣ INFORNUT® Process: improves accessibility to diagnosis and nutritional support for the malnourished hospitalized patient; impact on management indicators; two-year assessment

Villalobos Gámez,Juan Luis; González Pérez,Cristina; García-Almeida,José Manuel; Martínez Reina,Alfonso; Río Mata,José del; Márquez Fernández,Efrén; Rioja Vázquez,Rosalía; Barranco Pérez,Joaquín; Enguix Armada,Alfredo; Rodríguez García,Lu
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Introduction: The high prevalence of disease-related hospital malnutrition justifies the need for screening tools and early detection in patients at risk for malnutrition, followed by an assessment targeted towards diagnosis and treatment. At the same time there is clear undercoding of malnutrition diagnoses and the procedures to correct it. Objectives: To describe the INFORNUT program/ process and its development as an information system. To quantify performance in its different phases. To cite other tools used as a coding source. To calculate the coding rates for malnutrition diagnoses and related procedures. To show the relationship to Mean Stay, Mortality Rate and Urgent Readmission; as well as to quantify its impact on the hospital Complexity Index and its effect on the justification of Hospitalization Costs. Material and methods: The INFORNUT® process is based on an automated screening program of systematic detection and early identification of malnourished patients on hospital admission, as well as their assessment, diagnoses, documentation and reporting. Of total readmissions with stays longer than three days incurred in 2008 and 2010, we recorded patients who underwent analytical screening with an alert for a medium or high risk of malnutrition...