Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids exert antiinflammatory effects on patients with ulcerative colitis. However, a comparative study in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis receiving only sulfasalazine or omega-3 fatty acids has not been performed. We sought to detect changes in the inflammatory disease activity with the use of either fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or sulfasalazine in patients with ulcerative colitis. Ten patients (five male, five female; mean age = 48 +/- 12 y) with mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis were investigated in a randomized cross-over design. They received either sulfasalazine (2 g/d) or omega-3 fatty acids (5.4 g/d) for 2 mo. Disease activity was assessed by clinical and laboratory indicators, sigmoidoscopy, histology, and whole-body protein turnover (with N-15-glycine). Treatment with w-3 fatty acids resulted in greater disease activity as detected by a significant increase in platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and total fecal nitrogen excretion. No major changes in protein synthesis and breakdown were observed during either treatment. In conclusion, treatment with sulfasalazine is superior to treatment with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis. Nutrition 2000;16:87-901 (C) Elsevier B.V. 2000.
To allow public health officials to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data, Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance was released by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists in 1999. This publication provided standard definitions for 73 indicators developed by epidemiologists and chronic disease program directors at the state and federal levels. The indicators were selected because of their importance to public health and the availability of state-level data. This report describes the latest revisions to the chronic disease indicators published in 2004. The revised set of 92 indicators includes 24 for cancer; 15 for cardiovascular disease; 11 for diabetes; 7 for alcohol; 5 each for nutrition and tobacco; 3 each for oral health, physical activity, and renal disease; and 2 each for asthma, osteoporosis, and immunizations. The remaining 10 indicators cover such overarching conditions as poverty, education, and life expectancy. Although multiple states have used the indicators, wider adoption depends on increased epidemiology capacity at the state level and improved access to surveillance data.
OBJECTIVE—To estimate in a cross sectional analysis the degree of colinearity among the disease activity measures more commonly used in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). METHODS—This study assessed in a single clinical evaluation three subjective variables, three measures of functional capacity, eight articular indices, and two laboratory indicators of systemic inflammation in 55 consecutive children with JCA. The relation between the clinical measures of JCA activity was determined by Pearson correlation coefficients. An r value of 0.7 or greater was considered evidence of colinearity. RESULTS—Among the subjective variables, parent global assessment of overall well being and parent assessment of pain were correlated with each other; the physician assessment of disease activity did not show evidence of colinearity with any other variable. The functional status measures were correlated with each other, but not with the indices of articular inflammation. There was a high degree of colinearity among the articular variables, with the number of active joints and the overall severity score being correlated with each other as well as with all the single articular indices. The laboratory variables were correlated with each other...
Hyperferritinemia occurs in Gaucher disease but its clinical spectrum or its association with systemic iron overload and HFE mutations is not known. In 114 patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, we determined serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and HFE genotype. The results were correlated with the extent of hepatosplenomegaly, overall Gaucher disease severity score index, and response to enzyme replacement therapy. In a subset of patients with radiological and/or laboratory evidence of systemic iron overload, liver biopsy was performed. There was a mean 3.7-fold elevation of serum ferritin over the upper limit of normal (ULN). Prior splenectomy was associated with most severe hyperferritinemia compared to patients with intact spleen (6.53 × ULN vs. 2.69 × ULN, P=0.003). HFE genotyping revealed two patients homozygous for H63D mutation and 30% of patients heterozygote carriers of H63D mutation; no patients harbored C282Y mutation; there was no correlation of ferritin with HFE genotype. Ferritin level correlated with liver volume (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.254, p=0.035) and it was negatively correlated with hemoglobin (r = −0.315, p=0.004); there was no relationship with other indicators of Gaucher disease activity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) resulted in amelioration of hyperferritinemia: 707±898 ng/ml vs. 301±310 ng/ml (p=0.001)...
Circulating biomarkers are important surrogates for monitoring disease activity in type I Gaucher disease (GD1). We and others have reported low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in GD1. We assessed HDL cholesterol as a biomarker of GD1, with respect to its correlation with indicators of disease severity and its response to imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). In 278 consecutively evaluated GD1 patients, we correlated HDL cholesterol, chitotriosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with indicators of disease severity. Additionally, we measured the response of these biomarkers to ERT. HDL cholesterol was negatively correlated with spleen volume, liver volume, and GD severity score index; the magnitude of this association of disease severity with HDL cholesterol was similar to that for ACE and for chitotriosidase. Within individual patients monitored over many years, there was a strikingly strong correlation of HDL with liver and spleen volumes; there was a similarly strong correlation of chitotriosidase and ACE with disease severity in individual patients monitored serially over many years (chitotriosidase r=0.96 to 0.98, ACE r =0.88 to 0.94, and HDL r=−0.84 to −0.94, p<0.001). ERT for 3 years resulted in a striking increase of HDL while serum levels of chitotriosidase and ACE decreased. Our results reveal markedly low HDL cholesterol in untreated GD1...
The co-existence of high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among Canadians and high prevalence of systematic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) raise the question on relationship between the two situations. Objective: To determine vitamin D status in known cases of common SARDs and compare to those with non-autoimmune diseases; further, to evaluate the impact of vitamin D on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases. Methods: In a retrospective case-control study design, we evaluated 116 patients in a community clinic classified in two groups, Control group: patients with non-rheumatic disease (n = 56), and Case group: those with rheumatic diseases (n = 60). We compared plasma vitamin D status (25(OH)D), indicators of disease activity and other potential confounders. Further, we determined factors associated with disease activity in RA cases. Results: The plasma 25(OH)D was significantly lower in Case group (64.8 ± 29.8) compared to Control group (86.8 ± 37.7). High number of SARDs outpatients 56%) had considerably low plasma 25(OH)D concentration. RA cases with low plasma 25(OH)D had over five times higher risk of disease activity (OR = 5.15 95% CI 1.16, 22.9; p = 0.031). Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D status in SARDs cases...
Traditional clinical measurements such as probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss; plaque index and radiographs used for periodontal diagnosis are often of limited usefulness as they are indicators of previous periodontal disease rather than present disease activity. A literature search was carried out to find out all the available tests that indicate periodontal disease markers in saliva. All major databases were searched to compile the information on published reports between 1999 and 2014. The list of biomarkers available to date is compiled and presented in a table format. Each biomarker is discussed separately based on the available evidence. Based on the evidence, it can be concluded that several sensitive salivary indicators of periodontitis are available to detect the presence, severity and response to treatment. Further studies are warranted to analyze the sensitivity and reliability of these indicators that might help in developing non-invasive tests that could help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease.
The developing world has made remarkable
progress. The number of people living in extreme poverty on
less than $1 a day has fallen by about 400 million in the
last 25 years. Many more children, particularly girls, are
completing primary school. Illiteracy rates have fallen by
half in 30 years. And life expectancy is nearly 15 years
longer, on average, than it was 40 years ago. The demand for
statistics to measure progress and demonstrate the
effectiveness of development programs has stimulated growing
interest in the production and dissemination of statistics.
And not just in the traditional domains of debt,
demographics, and national accounts, but in new areas such
as biodiversity, information, communications, technology,
and measures of government and business performance. In
response World Development Indicators (WDI) has continued to
grow and change. In 1999 members of the statistical
community, recognizing that the production of sound
statistics for measuring progress is a global
responsibility, established the Partnership in Statistics
for Development in the twenty-first century (PARIS21) to
strengthen statistical capacity at all levels. In 2000 the
United Nations millennium summit called on all countries to
work toward a quantified...
Release of the final report of the International Comparison Program (ICP) and publication of new estimates of purchasing power parities (PPPs) in World Development Indicators 2008 are an important statistical milestone. The estimates offer a consistent and comprehensive set of data on the cost of living in developed and developing countries, the first since 1997, when the results of the previous ICP data collection were published in World Development Indicators. The 2005 data cover 146 countries and territories, 29 more than the last round in 1993, and many for the first time. Collecting data on thousands of products sold through a multitude of outlets, the 2005 ICP is the largest international statistical program ever undertaken. New methods were used to describe the products being priced, record the data, and analyze the results. Countries in Africa took the opportunity to review their national accounts and adopt new standards and methods. In all regions regional coordinators worked closely with national statistical offices to collect and validate the data. The result is a genuine global effort, with an extensive capacity building component. More work will follow from the ICP. First is the revision of the international ($1 a day) poverty line and estimation of the corresponding poverty rates...
Four years have passed since the
Millennium Development Goals sharpened the focus on
measuring the results of development-not the number of
projects undertaken or the dollars spent, but the
improvements in people's lives. The emphasis on
quantitative targets and the requirement for monitoring
progress on country poverty reduction strategies have
increased the demand for statistics. And that showed us how
deficient the statistical systems are in many parts of the
developing world. Good statistics are not just a technical
issue- they are a development issue, requiring concerted
action by the entire global community. As Trevor Manuel,
South Africa's minister of finance, has put it,
"If you can't measure it, you can't manage
it." That is why data, statistics, and indicators are
at the heart of the results agenda. Governments need them.
Politicians need them. Managers of development programs need
them. And citizens need them-to hold governments accountable
for their actions and their and their results. World
World development indicators 2011, the
15th edition in its current format, aims to provide
relevant, high-quality, internationally comparable
statistics about development and the quality of
people's lives around the globe. Fifteen years ago,
World development indicators was overhauled and redesigned,
organizing the data to present an integrated view of
development, with the goal of putting these data in the
hands of policymakers, development specialists, students,
and the public in a way that makes the data easy to use.
Although there have been small changes, the format has stood
the test of time, and this edition employs the same sections
as the first one: world view, people, environment, economy,
states and markets, and global links. This edition focuses
on the impact of the decision to make data freely available
under an open license and with better online tools. To help
those who wish to use and reuse the data in these new ways,
the section introductions discuss key issues in measuring
the economic and social phenomena described in the tables
and charts and introduce new sources of data. The choice of
indicators and text content was shaped through close
consultation with and substantial contributions from staff
in the World Bank's four thematic networks sustainable
World Development Indicators (WDI) 2009
arrives at a moment of great uncertainty for the global
economy. The crisis that began more than a year ago in the
U.S. housing market spread to the global financial system
and is now taking its toll on real output and incomes. As a
consequence, an additional 50 million people will be left in
extreme poverty. And if the crisis deepens and widens or is
prolonged, other development indicators, school enrollments,
women's employment, child mortality, will be affected,
jeopardizing progress toward the millennium development
goals. Statistics help us understand the events that
triggered the crisis and measure its impact. Along with this
year's 91 data tables, each section of the WDI 2009 has
an introduction that shows statistics in action, describing
the history of the current crisis, its effect on developing
economies, and the challenges they face. Official
statistical agencies need to take a long range view of their
public role, to think broadly about data needs and build
strategic partnerships with academia and the private sector.
The presence of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus, particularly those of the IgG subclass, have long been associated with disease onset and activity. Here we explored the prevalence of autoreactive IgE in SLE and its relevance to disease in French (n = 79) and United States (US) (n = 117) cohorts with a mean age of 41.5±12.7 and 43.6±15.3 years and disease duration of 13.5±8.5 and 16.6±11.9 years, respectively. Our findings show that approximately 65% of all SLE subjects studied produced IgE antibodies to the seven autoantigens tested. This positivity was increased to almost 83% when only those subjects with active disease were considered. SLE subjects who were positive for anti-dsDNA, -Sm, and -SSB/La -specific IgE showed a highly significant association in the levels of these antibodies with disease activity similar to that of the corresponding IgG's. A strong association of IgE autoantibodies with active nephritis was also found in the combined cohort analysis. A test of the predictive value of autoreactive IgE’s and IgGs for disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≥4) revealed that the best predictors were dsDNA-specific IgE and IgG, and that the age of an SLE subject influenced this predictive model. The finding argue that the overall levels of IgE autoantibodies...
The production of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease was investigated. T cell subset analysis and differential white blood cell counts were also performed. Thirty five patients with ulcerative colitis, 14 with Crohn's disease, and 15 age matched healthy volunteers were studied. No differences were observed in T cell subsets and OKT4/OKT8 ratios in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease compared with controls. Interleukin 1 beta production was significantly increased in active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, compared with values in controls, but returned to control levels in the inactive stages. In addition, in active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, there were significant correlations between the interleukin 1 beta production and the ulcerative colitis activity index or Crohn's disease activity index. Interleukin 2 production was also significantly increased in the active ulcerative colitis and significantly correlated to the activity index, but there was no change in Crohn's disease patients compared with controls. Gamma interferon production in patients was the same as that in controls. This study suggests that the interleukin 1 beta and 2 values in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes of active untreated inflammatory bowel disease are indicators of the disease states of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease...
It has previously been shown that microalbuminuria is a useful disease activity marker for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Microalbuminuria correlates strongly with the markers of clinical and laboratory disease activity such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to discover if microalbuminuria accurately reflects the intestinal inflammation by correlating it with intestinal inflammation using a standard histopathological grading system in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. Forty two patients with IBD who had undergone endoscopic examination of the entire colon for the assessment of severity and extent of the disease (Crohn's colitis (n = 21), ulcerative colitis (n = 21)) were recruited to the study. Patients with small bowel Crohn's disease were not studied. Twenty four patients had left sided colonic disease and 18 patients had extensive colonic disease. Each patient's colonic biopsy specimens were scored blindly by a histopathologist and a composite score was compiled on the basis of the severity of changes in the enterocytes and crypts and the cellularity of the lamina propria. A clinical disease activity was obtained using the simple index of Harvey and Bradshaw. Microalbuminuria was measured in all patients by an immunoturbiditimetric method. ESR and CRP were also measured...
The Crohn's disease activity index, a similar index devised for patients with ulcerative colitis, and other commonly used laboratory indicators of disease activity have been studied in 50 patients with colonic inflammatory bowel disease undergoing routine colonoscopic assessment and compared with the histological extent and activity of disease. There was only poor correlation between the colonoscopic or histological findings and the indices of disease activity studied, showing that these are not reliable measures of disease activity or extent at the tissue level.
AIM: Behçet's disease (BD) is an inflammatory vasculitis with immunologic, endothelial and neutrophil alterations. Adenosine deaminase (AD) is a marker of T-cell activation and is related to the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils with the production of NO(*), O(2)(*-), H(2)O(2) and OH(*). We reported increased tumour necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and NO(*) in active BD. As there is a relation between cytokines, T cells and oxidative stress in inflammatory diseases, this study further evaluated: (1) plasma AD activity and its correlation with acute phase reactants; (2) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator for lipid peroxidation; and (3) antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase in patients with BD. The effect of disease activity and correlations between the measured parameters were explored. METHODS: A total of 35 active (n=17) or inactive (n=18) patients with BD (16 men, 19 women) satisfying International Study Group criteria, and 20 age-matched and sex-matched controls (nine men, 11 women) were included in this cross-sectional case-control study. AD and TBARS were measured in plasma...
Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Currently there are no accepted measures of cGVHD activity to aid in clinical management and disease staging. We analyzed clinical markers of inflammation in the sera of patients with established cGVHD and correlated those with definitions of disease activity. 189 adults with cGVHD (33% moderate and 66% severe according to NIH global scoring) were consecutively enrolled onto a cross-sectional prospective cGVHD natural history study. At the time of evaluation, 80% were receiving systemic immunosuppression and failed a median of 4 prior systemic therapies (PST) for their cGVHD. Lower albumin (p<0.0001), higher CRP (C-reactive protein; p=0.043), higher platelets (p=0.030) and higher number of PST (p<0.0001) were associated with active disease defined as clinician's intention to intensify or alter systemic therapy due to the lack of response. Higher platelet count (p=0.021) and higher number of PST (p<0.0001) were associated with more severe diseased defined by NIH global score. This study identified common laboratory indicators of inflammation that can serve as markers of cGVHD activity and severity.
Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes; Universidade de Pernambuco. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Fís
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. BrasilPublicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; "Avaliado por Pares",; Randomized and controlled intervention; Avaliado por Pares; Randomized and controlled interventionFormato: application/pdf; application/pdf
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p13High schools represent a favorable environment for the development of interventions to increase physical activity because they reach a large number of teenagers. The goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity among high school students (through the ‘Saude na Boa’ project) through assessing the stages of behavior change and the practices of muscle-strengthening exercise and active commuting. The present study comprised a randomized and controlled intervention conducted in Recife and Florianopolis, Brazil, during 2006. Dependent variables included active commuting (cutoff values: ≥1 and ≥5 days per week), the practice of muscle-strengthening exercises (cutoff values: ≥1 day per week and the recommended level of physical activity), and behavioral changes regarding physical activity. Of the 2,155 students included in the baseline data, 989 were evaluated in the post-intervention period (45.9%). In comparison with the control group, the intervention group significantly increased the practice of active commuting to school on ≥ 1 day per week (80.5% vs. 86.8%, p<0.001) and ≥ 5 days per week (64.3% vs. 71.9%, p<0.001)...
Sousa, Thiago Ferreira de; Federal University of Santa Catarina. Graduate Program in Physical Education. Center for Research on Physical Activity and Health Florianópolis, SC. Brazil.; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; Federal University of Santa Catarina. Graduat
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. BrasilPublicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; "Avaliado por Pares",; Descriptive; Avaliado por Pares; intervenção randomizada e controladaFormato: application/pdf; application/pdf
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p46Although studies have shown that the school setting is favorable for preventing obesity, relatively few studies have examined weight-gain prevention in youths. To assess the effectiveness of a nine-month intervention to reduce total and central obesity in youths attending night secondary school in two Brazilian state capitals (Florianópolis and Recife). This was a randomized controlled intervention study conducted from March to December 2006. The indicators of obesity assessed were the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and McNemar’s tests. A total of 2,155 participants were assessed at baseline, and 989 participants were assessed after the end of the intervention. In the intervention group, the frequency of total obesity, as assessed by the BMI (baseline: 3.8%; after intervention: 4.3%), and of central obesity, as assessed by the WHtR (baseline: 9.5%; after intervention: 10.4%), stabilized after nine months. However, the frequency of central obesity, as assessed by the WC, increased in the intention-to-treat analysis (baseline: 5.4%; after intervention: 7.9%). In the control group...